Chicken parmigiana

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A chicken parmigiana photographed at the Coldstream Brewery, served with chips and salad.

Chicken parmigiana, or chicken parmesan (Italian Pollo alla parmigiana) (also referred to colloquially in the United States as 'chicken parm' and in Australia as a parmi[1] or parma[2]) is a popular Italian-American dish.[3][4] It consists of a breaded chicken breast topped with tomato sauce and mozzarella, parmesan or provolone cheese. A slice of ham or bacon is sometimes added,[5] but not all chefs are in agreement with the addition of pork.[6] It is based on a combination of the Italian melanzane alla Parmigiana, a dish using breaded eggplant slices instead of chicken, along with costelette Parmigiana.[4]

Chicken parmigiana is included as the base of a number of different meals, including sandwiches[7] and pies,[8][9] and the meal is used as the subject of eating contests at some restaurants.[10]

Popularity[edit]

North America[edit]

Chicken parmesan in a pan

In the United States and Canada, chicken parmigiana is often served as an entree, and sometimes with a side of or on top of pasta. Many restaurants also offer chicken parm sandwiches, putting chicken parmigiana between two slices of bread.[11] A recipe for chicken parmigiana was published in The New York Times in 1962.[12] The New York Public Library has in their collection a menu from New York City Italian restaurant that has been in the same location since 1906 which shows that chicken parmigiana was being offered in 1958.[13] In the same collection at the New York Public Library, there is a menu from a restaurant on board an ocean liner of the Italian Line that crossed the North Atlantic between North America and Europe and had offered Petti Di Pollo Alla Parmigiana in 1956.[14] There is a recipe that was published in the 1953 issue of the New York Herald Tribune that used frozen fried chicken patties or fillets along with other pre-processed foods to make a version of the dish at home.[15]

Australia[edit]

The dish is regularly served as a main meal throughout Australia, where it is considered a staple of pub food.[16][17][18][19] Chicken parmigiana is typically served in Australia with a side of chips and salad, although there is some dispute as to whether the chips should be served under or next to the chicken.[20] Its popularity has led to a specialized chicken parmigiana restaurant opening in Melbourne,[20] and chicken parmigiana is the subject of reviews on dedicated websites which compare the dish as purchased from various pubs within a region.[2][20][21][22]

Similar dishes[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Main article: Parmo

Parmo is a dish originating in Middlesbrough, England. It typically consists of fried breaded chicken topped with a white béchamel sauce and cheese. Parmo originated as escalope Parmesan, a derivative of chicken parmigiana.[23]

Argentina[edit]

Main article: Milanesa

In Argentina, a variation of milanesa a la napolitana is made with chicken instead of the usual beef, similar to chicken parmagiana.[24] It is sometimes topped with ham, bacon, or a fried egg and is usually served with french fries.[25][26][27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peucker, Christie (2 January 2011). "They're the parmi police Duo in quest for Adelaide's best". Sunday Mail. Adelaide. p. 20. 
  2. ^ a b Levin, Darren (7 August 2004). "Keeping abreast of the Parma best". The Age. Melbourne, Victoria. p. A2.2. 
  3. ^ Ruggeri, Amanda (February 8, 2011). "Can't Find a Favorite Italian Dish in Rome? Here's Why.". Revealed Rome (blog). Retrieved November 2, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b Kaminski, Margot (October 12, 2006). "Fake Accent". Chowhound. Retrieved November 1, 2015. 
  5. ^ "Debate over a pub favourite". Daily Liberal and Macquarie Advocate. Dubbo, New South Wales. 13 October 2012. p. 10. 
  6. ^ Cowie, Tom & Bibby, Grace (11 September 2013). "To ham or not to ham when ordering a chicken parma". The Courier. Ballarat, Victoria. 
  7. ^ "Subway Buys Role on 'Will & Grace'". Wall Street Journal. New York. 30 September 2005. p. B4. (subscription required (help)).  Alternate Link via ProQuest.
  8. ^ "Parma pies on menu for Patties". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 18 February 2012. p. 31. WHAT do you get if you take the humble meat pie and the Italian chicken parmigiana and mash them together?  Link via EBSCO
  9. ^ Gannon, Genevieve (February 17, 2012). "Patties pins hopes on "parma" pie". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  10. ^ Penberthy, David (7 September 2012). "Parmageddon: War on culinary theatrics". The Advertiser. Adelaide. p. 13. 
  11. ^ "America's Best Chicken Parm Sandwiches". The Huffington Post. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  12. ^ New Menus Are Offered Home Cook," (6 September 1962). New York Times p.33, in "Chicken Parm", The Food Timeline, retrieved 12 November 2015.
  13. ^ "Menu from Mamma Leone's". Mamma Leone's. 1958. Retrieved March 7, 2016 – via New York Public Library. 
  14. ^ "Menu from Ristorante Giannino". Ristorante Giannino. Italia Società di Navigazione. August 23, 1956. Dieter Zander Collection – via New York Public Library. 
  15. ^ Cannon, Poppy (February 4, 1953). "Advances in Frozen Foods Are Taking Load Off Stoves: New Louis L. Libby Line of Precooked Items Shows How Home Chefs Can Cut Labors". New York Herald Tribune. p. 12. Chicken Parmigiano–Generally this method is reserved for a breaded cutlet of veal, but it's amazing how good and unusual a dish you achieve by arranging heated quick-frozen southern fried chicken on the serving dish. Top each piece with a thin slice of cheese. The Italians would use Mozzarella; Muenster is good too, and so is mild American. Place under a broiler or in the oven till the cheese melts and then our around a tomato sauce made by heating Hunt's tomato sauce with one clove garlic finely crushed, one-half bay leaf, one teaspoon olive oil, one-fourth to one-half teaspoon basil, oregano or marjoram. Simmer eight to ten minutes.  Link via ProQuest.
  16. ^ Watson, Callie (14 August 2010). "Changing tastes mean humble schnitzel now... More than just pub grub". The Advertiser. Adelaide. p. 43. 
  17. ^ Turner, Shaun (7 April 2015). "Parmi-geddon: the five best (and worst) parmigianas in Perth". Sydney Morning Herald. 
  18. ^ Horne, Tania (14 August 2013). "Chicken Parmi... Best in Tassie Challenge!". Think Tasmania. 
  19. ^ Bochenski, Natalie (16 April 2015). "Brisbane man Stephen Humphreys' quest to find the city's best Parmigiana". Brisbane Times. 
  20. ^ a b c Cincotta, Liz (22 May 2007). "Good parma". The Age. Melbourne, Victoria. p. 14. 
  21. ^ Fair, Alex (18 July 2012). "A group of Launceston friends are using their love of the good old chicken parmigianas to help boost the city's restaurant industry". The Examiner. Launceston, Tasmania. p. 7. 
  22. ^ Sinclair, Corey (6 May 2015). "Territory patriots review chicken parmigianas with hilarious results". Northern Territory News. 
  23. ^ "Teesside's fast food sensation". BBC Inside Out North East. 6 November 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  24. ^ "Milanesas de pollo a la napolitana light". Fox Life (in Spanish). 
  25. ^ Pisarro, Marcelo (2012-05-11). "Milanesa napolitana". Clarín (Argentine newspaper) (in Spanish). Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
  26. ^ "Milanesa a la napolitana". El Reporte (in Spanish). Montevideo, Uruguay. 2013-04-25. 
  27. ^ "El origen de la milanesa". ABC Color (in Spanish). Asunción, Paraguay. 2013-04-13.