Chief Medical Officer (United Kingdom)
The Chief Medical Officer (CMO) is the most senior advisor on health matters in a government. There are four CMOs in the United Kingdom who are appointed to advise their respective governments: Her Majesty's Government, the Northern Ireland Executive, the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government. Each CMO is assisted by one or more Deputy Chief Medical Officers.
In England, the CMO is a member of the board of the National Health Service (NHS), a civil servant in the Department of Health, and head of the medical civil service. The Republic of Ireland has a similar officer.
The Chief Medical Officer is a qualified medical doctor whose speciality is usually in public health, and whose work focuses on the health of communities rather than health of individuals. In the UK, the CMO is one of six chief professional officers who advise the government in their respective health and social care disciplines.
The equivalent US term is Surgeon General. The term Surgeon General is also a used in the British Armed Forces for the head of medical services. In non-government organisations, such as policing, chief medical officer may refer to a senior medical post in the organisation. When appointed outside government the chief medical officer will often decide on physical and mental fitness to serve issues, and the role may not be in public health.
Chief Medical Officers for Her Majesty's Government
The historic post was created in Victorian times to help to prevent cholera epidemics. In 1969 the post of Chief Medical Officer for Wales was created, and prior to this both England and Wales were covered by the post of Chief Medical Officer of England and Wales.
- Sir John Simon 1855–1876
- Dr Edward Cator Seaton 1876–1879
- Sir George Buchanan 1879–1892
- Sir Richard Thorne Thorne 1892–1899
- Sir William Henry Power 1900–1908
- Sir Arthur Newsholme 1908–1919
- Sir George Newman 1919–1935
- Sir Arthur MacNalty 1935–1940, also, an acclaimed and still relevant Historian
- Sir Wilson Jameson 1940–1950
- Sir John Charles 1950–1960
- Sir George Godber 1960–1973
- Sir Henry Yellowlees 1973–1984
- Sir Donald Acheson 1984–1991
- Sir Kenneth Calman 1991–1998
- Sir Liam Donaldson 1998–31 May 2010
- Professor Dame Sally Davies from 1 June 2010
Chief Medical Officers for Scotland
Through various reorganisations, the CMOs for Scotland has been the chief medical officer in the Local Government Board for Scotland, Scottish Board of Health, Department of Health for Scotland, the Scottish Home and Health Department, the Scottish Executive Health Department and now the Scottish Government:
- JB McLintock (1894–1898)
- JB Russell (1898–1904)
- Sir Leslie Mackenzie (1904–1929)
- JP Kinloch (1929–1932)
- JL Brownlie (1932–1937)
- JM Mackintosh (1937–1941)
- Sir Andrew Davidson (1941–1954)
- Sir Kenneth Cowan (1954–1964)
- Sir John Brotherston (1964–1977)
- Sir John Reid (1977–1985)
- Dr Iain Macdonald 1985–1989
- Prof Sir Kenneth Calman 1989–1991
- Dr Robert Kendell 1991–1996
- Prof Sir David Carter 1996–2000
- Dr Ernest Macalpine ("Mac") Armstrong 2000–2005
- Prof Sir Harry Burns 2005–2014
- Dr Aileen Keel 2014- 2015 (acting)
- Dr Catherine Calderwood 2015-
Chief Medical Officers for Wales
- Dr Richard Bevan 1969–1977
- Prof Gareth Crompton 1978–1989
- Dame Deirdre Hine 1990–1997
- Dr Ruth Hall 1997–2006
- Dr Tony Jewell 18 April 2006–2012
- Dr Ruth Hussey 2012–present
Chief Medical Officers for Northern Ireland
- Dr Bob Weir
- Dr James McKenna
- Dr Henrietta Campbell 1995–2006
- Dr Michael McBride 2006–present
- Medical Officer for Health
- Chief Medical Officer, Republic of Ireland
- Chief Public Health Officer of Canada
- Surgeon General of the United States
- "Chief Medical Officer (CMO)". Scottish Government. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Chief professional officers". Department of Health (UK). Retrieved 4 December 2007.
- "Chief Medical Officer: biography". Department of Health, United Kingdom. 2007. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
- Warren, Michael D. "A Chronology of State Medicine, Public Health, Welfare and Related Services in Britain 1066–1999" (PDF). Royal College of Physicians of England. pp. 302–304. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "The Senior Team". Department of Health. 12 March 2010.
- "Professor Dame Sally C Davies". Department of Health. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Sir Harry Burns". The Scottish Government, Health & Community Care. 23 Jan 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Health and social care: Chief Medical Officer". Welsh Government. Retrieved 2 July 2014.