List of Chief Ministers of Kerala

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Chief Minister of Kerala
Photo of Pinarayi Vijayan
Incumbent
Pinarayi Vijayan

since 25 May 2016
Residence Cliff House, Nanathancode, Thiruvananthapuram[1]
Appointer Governor of Kerala
Inaugural holder E. M. S. Namboodiripad
Formation 5 April 1957
Photograph of Cliff House, a two-storey bungalow with a garden in the foreground
A 15,000 sq. ft building on 4.5 acres of land, Cliff House is the official residence of the Chief Minister of Kerala.

The Chief Minister of Kerala is the chief executive of the south Indian state of Kerala. In accordance with the Constitution of India, the governor is a state's de jure head, but de facto executive authority rests with the chief minister. Following elections to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the state's governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the government. The governor appoints the chief minister, whose council of ministers are collectively responsible to the assembly. Given that he has the confidence of the assembly, the chief minister's term is for five years and is subject to no term limits.[2]

The origins of Kerala lie in the princely states of Travancore and Cochin. Following India's independence from the British Raj in 1947, these states' monarchs instituted a measure of representative government, headed by a Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers. On 1 July 1949 Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin state. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganisation Act redrew India's map along linguistic lines, and the present-day state of Kerala was born, consisting solely of Malayalam-speaking districts. Since then, 12 people have served as the Chief Minister of Kerala. The first was E. M. S. Namboodiripad of the Communist Party of India, whose tenure was cut short by the imposition of President's rule. Kerala has come under President's rule for four years over seven terms, the last of them in 1982. Since then the office has alternated between leaders of the Indian National Congress and of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). The latter party's Pinarayi Vijayan is the incumbent chief minister; his Left Democratic Front government has been in office since 25 May 2016.

Colour key for parties[edit]

Precursors[edit]

Prime Ministers of Travancore[edit]

No. Name Term[3][4]
(tenure length)
Assembly
(election)
Party
1 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai 24 March – 17 October 1948
(210 days)
Representative Body (1948–49) Indian National Congress
2 Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai 22 October 1948 – 1 July 1949
(253 days)

Prime Ministers of Cochin[edit]

No. Name Term[3]
(tenure length)
Assembly
(election)
Party
1 Panampilly Govinda Menon 14 August – 22 October 1947
(51 days)
Sixth Council (1945–48) None
2 T. K. Nair 27 October 1947 – 20 September 1948
(334 days)
3 E. Ikkanda Warrier 20 September 1948 – 30 June 1949
(283 days)
Legislative Assembly (1948–49)

Chief Ministers of Travancore-Cochin[edit]

After India's independence in 1947, Travancore and Cochin were merged to form Travancore-Cochin on 1 July 1949. On 1 January 1950, Travancore-Cochin was recognised as a state.

No. Name Term[3]
(tenure length)
Assembly
(election)
Party[a]
1 Parur T. K. Narayana Pillai 1 July 1949 – 1 March 1951
(1 year, 243 days)
First Assembly (1949–51) Indian National Congress
2 C. Kesavan 3 March 1951 – 12 March 1952
(1 year, 11 days)
3 A. J. John 12 March 1952 – 16 March 1954
(2 years, 4 days)
Second Assembly (1952–53)
(1951 election)
4 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai 16 March 1954 – 10 February 1955
(331 days)
Third Assembly (1954–56)
(1954 election)
Praja Socialist Party
5 Panampilly Govinda Menon 10 February 1955 – 23 March 1956
(1 year, 42 days)
Indian National Congress
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
23 March – 31 October 1956
(222 days)
Dissolved N/A

Chief Ministers of Kerala[edit]

The Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Reorganisation Act inaugurated the new Kerala state, incorporating Malabar District, Travancore-Cochin (excluding 4 southern Taluks which were merged with Tamil Nadu), and the taluk of Kasaragod, South Kanara. A new Legislative Assembly was also created, for which elections were held in 1957.

No.[c] Name[6]
Constituency
Ministry
Term[7][8]
(tenure length)
Assembly[9]
(election)
Party[a]
(alliance)
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 1 November 1956 – 5 April 1957
(155 days)
Dissolved N/A
1 E. M. S. Namboodiripad
MLA for Nileshwaram
1st EMS ministry
E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg 5 April 1957 – 31 July 1959
(2 years, 117 days)
First Assembly (1957–59)
(1957 election)
Communist Party of India
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 31 July 1959 – 22 February 1960
(206 days)
Dissolved N/A
2 Pattom A. Thanu Pillai
MLA for Trivandrum II
Thanupillai ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 2 - Pattam Thanupillai.jpg 22 February 1960 – 26 September 1962
(2 years, 216 days)
Second Assembly (1960–64)
(1960 election)
Praja Socialist Party
3 R. Sankar
MLA for Cannanore I
Sankar ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 3 - R Shankar.jpg 26 September 1962 – 10 September 1964
(1 year, 350 days)
Indian National Congress
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 10 September 1964 – 25 March 1965
(2 years, 177 days)
Dissolved N/A
25 March 1965 – 6 March 1967
(2 years, 177 days)
Dissolved
(1965 election)[d]
(1) E. M. S. Namboodiripad
MLA for Pattambi
2nd EMS ministry
E. M. S. Namboodiripad.jpg 6 March 1967 – 1 November 1969
(2 years, 240 days; total 4 years, 357 days)
Third Assembly (1967–70)
(1967 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Saptakakshi Munnani)
4 C. Achutha Menon
MLA for Kottarakkara
1st Menon ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 4 - C. Achuthamenon.jpg 1 November 1969 – 1 August 1970
(273 days)
Communist Party of India
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 4 August – 3 October 1970
(60 days)
Dissolved N/A
(4) C. Achutha Menon
MLA for Kodakara
2nd Menon ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 4 - C. Achuthamenon.jpg 4 October 1970 – 25 March 1977
(6 years, 172 days; total 7 years, 80 days)
Fourth Assembly (1970–77)
(1970 election)
Communist Party of India
(United Front)
5 K. Karunakaran
MLA for Mala
1st Karunakaran ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 5 - K. Karunakaran.jpg 25 March – 25 April 1977
(31 days)
Fifth Assembly (1977–79)
(1977 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Front)
6 A. K. Antony
MLA for Kazhakkuttom
1st Antony ministry
A. K. Antony.jpg 27 April 1977 – 27 October 1978
(1 year, 183 days)
7 P. K. Vasudevan Nair
MLA for Alleppey
Nair ministry
P.K. Vasudevan Nair.jpg 29 October 1978 – 7 October 1979
(343 days)
Communist Party of India
(United Front)
8 C. H. Mohammed Koya
MLA for Malappuram
Koya ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 8 - C.H. Muhammad Koya.jpg 12 October – 1 December 1979
(50 days)
Indian Union Muslim League
(United Front)
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 5 December 1979 – 25 January 1980
(51 days)
Dissolved N/A
9 E. K. Nayanar
MLA for Malampuzha
1st Nayanar ministry
Ek nayanar.jpeg 25 January 1980 – 20 October 1981
(1 year, 268 days)
Sixth Assembly (1980–82)
(1980 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 21 October – 28 December 1981
(68 days)
N/A
(5) K. Karunakaran
MLA for Mala
2nd Karunakaran ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 5 - K. Karunakaran.jpg 28 December 1981 – 17 March 1982
(79 days)
Indian National Congress (I)
(United Democratic Front)
Vacant[b]
(President's rule)
Emblem of India.svg 17 March – 23 May 1982
(67 days; total 4 years, 54 days)
Dissolved N/A
(5) K. Karunakaran
MLA for Mala
3rd Karunakaran ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 5 - K. Karunakaran.jpg 24 May 1982 – 25 March 1987
(4 years, 305 days)
Seventh Assembly (1982–87)
(1982 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
(9) E. K. Nayanar
MLA for Trikaripur
2nd Nayanar ministry
Ek nayanar.jpeg 26 March 1987 – 17 June 1991
(4 years, 83 days)
Eighth Assembly (1987–91)
(1987 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
(5) K. Karunakaran
MLA for Mala
4th Karunakaran ministry
Chief Minister of Kerala 5 - K. Karunakaran.jpg 24 June 1991 – 16 March 1995
(3 years, 265 days; total 8 years, 315 days)
Ninth Assembly (1991–95)
(1991 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
(6) A. K. Antony
MLA for Thirurangadi
2nd Antony ministry
A. K. Antony.jpg 22 March 1995 – 9 May 1996
(1 year, 48 days)
(9) E. K. Nayanar
MLA for Thalassery
3rd Nayanar ministry
Ek nayanar.jpeg 20 May 1996 – 13 May 2001
(5 years, 24 days; total 11 years, 10 days)
Tenth Assembly (1996–2001)
(1996 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
(6) A. K. Antony
MLA for Cherthala
3rd Antony ministry
A. K. Antony.jpg 17 May 2001 – 29 August 2004
(3 years, 75 days; total 5 years, 306 days)
Eleventh Assembly (2001–06)
(2001 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
10 Oommen Chandy
MLA for Puthuppally
1st Chandy ministry
Oommen Chandy, Chief Minister of Kerala (cropped).jpg 31 August 2004 – 12 May 2006
(1 year, 254 days)
11 V. S. Achuthanandan
MLA for Malampuzha
Achuthanandan ministry
V. S. Achuthanandan.JPG 18 May 2006 – 14 May 2011
(4 years, 361 days)
Twelfth Assembly (2006–11)
(2006 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)
(10) Oommen Chandy
MLA for Puthuppally
2nd Chandy ministry
Oommen Chandy, Chief Minister of Kerala (cropped).jpg 18 May 2011 – 20 May 2016
(5 years, 2 days; total 6 years, 256 days)
Thirteenth Assembly (2011–16)
(2011 election)
Indian National Congress
(United Democratic Front)
12 Pinarayi Vijayan
MLA for Dharmadam
Vijayan ministry
Pinarayi Vijayan (cropped).jpg 25 May 2016 – present
(2 years, 121 days)
Fourteenth Assembly (2016–21)
(2016 election)
Communist Party of India (Marxist)
(Left Democratic Front)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b This column only names the chief minister's party. The state government he headed may have been a complex coalition of several parties and independents; these are not listed here.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h When President's rule is in force in a state, its council of ministers stands dissolved. The office of chief minister thus lies vacant. At times, the legislative assembly also stands dissolved.[5]
  3. ^ A number in parenthesis indicates that the incumbent has previously held office.
  4. ^ As the 1965 election did not deliver a clear mandate in favour of any party or coalition, no assembly was convened, and President's rule was re-imposed.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Official web site of the Government of Kerala, Page on the Chief Minister Archived 14 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ Durga Das Basu. Introduction to the Constitution of India. 1960. 20th Edition, 2011 Reprint. pp. 241, 245. LexisNexis Butterworths Wadhwa Nagpur. ISBN 978-81-8038-559-9. Note: although the text talks about Indian state governments in general, it applies for the specific case of Kerala as well.
  3. ^ a b c Responsible Governments (1947–56). Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  4. ^ History of Kerala Legislature. Government of Kerala. Archived on 6 October 2014.
  5. ^ Amberish K. Diwanji. "A dummy's guide to President's rule". Rediff.com. 15 March 2005.
  6. ^ Chief Ministers, Ministers and Leaders of Opposition in Kerala. Secretariat of the Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 28 August 2018.
  7. ^ Chief Ministers of Kerala since 1957. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  8. ^ President's rule in Kerala. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.
  9. ^ Duration of Each Assembly. Kerala Legislature. Retrieved on 22 April 2014.

External links[edit]