Chief Ministers in Malaysia

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In Malaysia, the Menteri Besar (Jawi:منتري بسر; literally "First Minister") is the head of government of each of nine states in Malaysia with hereditary rulers. For four states without a monarch, the title Chief Minister (Ketua Menteri) is used. The title 'Menteri Besar' is usually untranslated in the English media in Malaysia,[1] but is typically translated as 'Chief Minister' by foreign media.[2] According to protocol, all Menteris Besar and Chief Ministers are styled Yang Amat Berhormat (abbreviated YAB), which means "The Most Honourable".

The nine hereditary rulers of the Malay states and the appointed governors of the other four states serve as constitutional and ceremonial heads of their states, while the state executive authority rests with the Menteris Besar and Chief Ministers. Following elections to the state legislative assembly, the Ruler or Governor usually invites the party (or coalition) with a majority of seats to form the state government. The Ruler or Governor appoints and swears in the Menteris Besar or Chief Ministers, whose executive council (or Cabinet in Sabah and Sarawak) are collectively responsible to the assembly. Based on the Westminster system, given that he retains the confidence of the assembly, the Menteri's Besar or Chief Minister's term can last for the length of the assembly's life—a maximum of five years. There are no limits to the number of terms that the Menteri Besar or Chief Minister can serve.

Background[edit]

In most states within Malaysia, the office was created by the British colonial government in 1948, in tandem with the creation of the Federation of Malaya. However, Johor was the first state to create the Menteri Besar position, subject to Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri Johor (Johor State Constitution) enforced by Sultan Abu Bakar. This had made Johor the first Malay state to adopt a system of constitutional monarchy. After Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957, the office bearer is appointed among the state legislative assembly members by the Sultans. The Menteri Besar and Chief Minister usually comes from the party (or coalition) which commands a majority in the state assembly.

Relations between the First Ministers, Chief Ministers and other levels of government[edit]

For many decades, the First Ministers (Menteri Besar) and Chief Ministers (Ketua Menteri) met with each other and the Prime Minister at Mesyuarat Menteri-Menteri Besar dan Ketua Menteri.[3]

Selection process[edit]

Eligibility[edit]

By comparison, the thirteen state constitutions (Undang-undang Tubuh Negeri or Perlembagaan Negeri) have some similarities and also some differences in setting the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the Menteri Besar (or Chief Minister).

A Menteri Besar or Ketua Menteri must be a Malaysian citizen, of at least 21 years of age and a member of state legislative assembly who commands the confidence of the majority of the members of the assembly. Upon appointment, he shall not hold any office of profit and engage in any trade, business or profession that will cause conflict of interest.

For nine states in Malaysia with hereditary rulers, the Menteri Besar must be an ethnic Malay male who professes the religion of Islam and must not a Malaysian citizen by naturalization or by registration. Only through royal consent the office of Menteri Besar can be held by an individual who does not meet these criteria.

For four states in Malaysia with governors (namely Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak), the office of Ketua Menteri is open to any Malaysian citizen regardless of their religion, ethnicity and gender. However, citizens by naturalization or by registration are still prohibited by state laws.

Election[edit]

The Menteri Besar (or Chief Minister) is elected through a majority in the state legislative assembly. This is procedurally established by the vote of confidence in the legislative assembly, as suggested by the Ruler (or Governor) of the state who is the appointing authority.

Oath[edit]

Since, according to the constitution, the Menteri Besar is appointed by the Ruler (or, in case of the Chief Minister, the Governor), the swearing in is done before the Ruler (or Governor) of the state.

Remuneration[edit]

Remuneration of the Menteri Besar (or Chief Minister) as well as other members of the Executive Council (or Cabinet) and members of the Legislative Assembly are to be decided by the respective state legislatures. Hence this varies from state to state.

Current Menteris Besar and Chief Ministers[edit]

Title Name[4] Party[a] Term
Menteri Besar of Johor Dato' Osman Sapian PH (PPBM) 12 May 2018
210 days
Menteri Besar of Kedah Dato' Seri Mukhriz Mahathir PH (PPBM) 11 May 2018
211 days
Menteri Besar of Kelantan Ustaz Dato' Bentara Kanan Ahmad Yaakob PAS 6 May 2013
5 years, 216 days
Chief Minister of Malacca Tuan Adly Zahari PH (AMANAH) 11 May 2018
211 days
Menteri Besar of Negeri Sembilan Tuan Aminuddin Harun PH (PKR) 12 May 2018
210 days
Menteri Besar of Pahang Dato' Sri Wan Rosdy BN (UMNO) 15 May 2018
207 days
Chief Minister of Penang Tuan Chow Kon Yeow PH (DAP) 14 May 2018
208 days
Menteri Besar of Perak Dato' Seri Ahmad Faizal Azumu PH (PPBM) 12 May 2018
210 days
Menteri Besar of Perlis Dato' Seri Azlan Man BN (IND) 7 May 2013
5 years, 215 days
Chief Minister of Sabah Datuk Seri Panglima Shafie Apdal WARISAN 12 May 2018
210 days
Chief Minister of Sarawak Datuk Patinggi Abang Abdul Rahman Zohari GPS (PBB) 13 January 2017
1 year, 329 days
Menteri Besar of Selangor Tuan Amirudin Shari PH (PKR) 19 June 2018
172 days
Menteri Besar of Terengganu Professor Dr Ahmad Samsuri Mokhtar PAS 10 May 2018
212 days
  1. ^ This column names only the chief minister's party. The state government he heads may be a complex coalition of several parties and independents; those are not listed here.

Timeline[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The following are examples of the use of Menteri Besar in
    • State media: "Badrul Hisham To Be Referred to Rights Committee After Sarawak Election: MB". Bernama. 12 April 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
    • Newspapers: Lim, Louisa (9 April 2011). "That Effing Show: New twist to comedy". The Star (Malaysia). Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
    • Internet news: Spykerman, Neville (8 July 2010). "Khalid remains Selangor Pakatan chief, says Anwar". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
    Distinction between Menteri Besar and Chief Minister in the same article:
  2. ^ Examples of the use of Chief Minister in place of Menteri Besar by non-local media:
  3. ^ Cabinet, Constitution and Inter-Government Relation Division
  4. ^ List of Menteris Besar and Chief Ministers of the states of Malaysia