Chief Rabbi is a title given in several countries to the recognised religious leader of that country's Jewish community, or to a rabbinic leader appointed by the local secular authorities. Since 1911, through a capitulation by Rabbi Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel, Israel has had two chief rabbis, one Ashkenazi and one Sephardi.
Cities with large Jewish communities may also have their own chief rabbis; this is especially the case in Israel but has also been past practice in major Jewish centers in Europe prior to the Holocaust. North American cities rarely have chief rabbis. One exception however is Montreal, with two—one for the Ashkenazi community, the other for the Sephardi.
Jewish law provides no support for the post of a "chief rabbi" since every rabbi has equal authority in principle. The position arose in Europe in the Middle Ages from governing authorities largely for secular administrative reasons such as collecting taxes and registering vital statistics, and for providing an intermediary between the government and the Jewish community, for example in the establishment of the Crown rabbi in several kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula, the rab de la corte in Kingdom of Castile or the arrabi mor in Kingdom of Portugal, likely influenced by the expectations of their Catholic, Orthodox, and Anglican governments and neighbors. Similarly, in the 19th century there was a Crown rabbi of the Russian Empire.
- 1 Chief Rabbis by country/region
- 1.1 Albania
- 1.2 Argentina
- 1.3 Austria
- 1.4 British Empire and Commonwealth
- 1.5 Bulgaria
- 1.6 Cuba
- 1.7 Croatia
- 1.8 Cyprus
- 1.9 Czech Republic
- 1.10 Denmark
- 1.11 Egypt
- 1.12 Estonia
- 1.13 France
- 1.14 Guatemala
- 1.15 Hong Kong
- 1.16 Hungary
- 1.17 Iran
- 1.18 Ireland
- 1.19 Israel
- 1.20 Japan
- 1.21 Lebanon
- 1.22 Mexico
- 1.23 Macedonia
- 1.24 Morocco
- 1.25 Nepal
- 1.26 Norway
- 1.27 Panama
- 1.28 Poland
- 1.29 Romania
- 1.30 Russia
- 1.31 Serbia
- 1.32 Singapore
- 1.33 Slovakia
- 1.34 South Africa
- 1.35 Spain
- 1.36 Syria
- 1.37 Thailand
- 1.38 Transylvania (before 1918)
- 1.39 Tunisia
- 1.40 Turkey
- 1.41 Uganda
- 1.42 Ukraine
- 1.43 United States
- 1.44 Uruguay
- 1.45 Venezuela
- 2 Chief rabbis by city
- 2.1 Amsterdam, Netherlands
- 2.2 Antwerp, Belgium
- 2.3 Baltimore, United States
- 2.4 Berlin, Germany
- 2.5 Birobidzhan, Russia
- 2.6 Budapest, Hungary
- 2.7 Caracas, Venezuela
- 2.8 Chicago, United States
- 2.9 Frankfurt, Germany
- 2.10 Gateshead, United Kingdom
- 2.11 The Hague, Netherlands
- 2.12 Haifa, Israel
- 2.13 Hebron, West Bank
- 2.14 Hoboken, United States
- 2.15 Jerusalem, Israel
- 2.16 Leiden, Netherlands
- 2.17 Milan, Italy
- 2.18 Modi'in Illit, West Bank
- 2.19 Montreal, Quebec, Canada
- 2.20 Moscow, Russia
- 2.21 Munich, Germany
- 2.22 Netherlands – Inter-Provincial Chief rabbinate
- 2.23 New York City, United States
- 2.24 Nové Zámky, Slovakia
- 2.25 Paris, France
- 2.26 Rome, Italy
- 2.27 Rotterdam, Netherlands
- 2.28 Sofia, Bulgaria
- 2.29 St. Louis, Missouri
- 2.30 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
- 2.31 Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel
- 2.32 Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 2.33 Vienna, Austria
- 2.34 Warsaw, Poland
- 2.35 Würzburg, Germany
- 2.36 Zagreb, Croatia
- 3 References
- 4 External links
Chief Rabbis by country/region
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- Jitzchok ben Mosche from Wien, "Or Sorua" (lived from ca. 1200 to 1270)
- Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller, "Tosfos Jomtov" (lived from 1578–1654)
- Scheftel Horowitz (lived from 1561–1619)
- Gerschon "Uliph" Aschkenasi (lived from ca. 1612–1693)
- Samson Wertheimer (lived from 1658–1724)
- Mosche Chanoch Berliner (lived from 1727–1793)
- Isaak Noah Mannheimer (1824–1865)
- Lazar Horowitz (1828–1868), chief rabbi of Vienna
- Adolf Jellinek (1865–1893)
- Moritz Güdemann (1894–1918)
- Zwi Perez Chajes (1918–1927)
- David Feuchtwang (1933–1936)
- Israel Taglicht (1936), provisional chief rabbi
- Insp. I. Öhler (1946), preacher at the Stadttempel
- Akiva Eisenberg (1948–1983)
- Paul Chaim Eisenberg (1983–2015)
- Arie Folger (2015–present)
British Empire and Commonwealth
Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis
- Judah Loeb ben Abraham Ephraim Asher Anshel (1696–1700)
- Aaron the Scribe of Dublin (1700–1704)
- Aaron Hart (1704–1756)
- Hart Lyon (1758–1764)
- David Tevele Schiff (1765–1791)
- Solomon Hirschell (1802–1842)
- Nathan Marcus Adler (1845–1891)
- Hermann Adler (1891–1911)
- Joseph Herman Hertz (1913–1946)
- Sir Israel Brodie (1948–1965)
- Lord Jakobovits (1966–1991)
- Lord Sacks (1991–2013)
- Ephraim Mirvis (2013–present)
- Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas (1664–1665)
- Yehoshua Da Silva (1670–1679)
- Jacob Abendana (1681–1684)
- Solomon Ayllon (1689–1700)
- David Nieto (1701–1728)
- Isaac Nieto (1732–1740)
- Moshe Gomes de Mesquita (1744–1751)
- Moshe Cohen d'Azevedo (1761–1784)
- Raphael Meldola (1806–1828)
- Benjamin Artom (1866–1879)
- Moses Gaster (1887–1918)
- Shem Tob Gaguine (1920–1953) (officially the "Ecclesiastical Chief of the Spanish & Portuguese Jews' Congregation," not the Haham)
- Solomon Gaon (1949–1995)
- Abraham Levy (1995–2012) (officially the Communal Rabbi and Spiritual Head of the Spanish & Portuguese Jews' Congregation, not the Haham)
- Joseph Dweck (2013–) (elected Senior Rabbi of The S&P Sephardi Community, not the Haham)
- Gabriel Almosnino (1880–1885)
- Presiado Bakish (1885–1889)
- Shimon Dankowitz (1889–1891)
- Moshe Tadjer (1891–1893)
- Moritz Grünwald (1893–1895)
- Presiado Bakish (1895–1898)
- Moshe Tadjer (1898–1900)
- Mordecai Ehrenpreis (1900–1914)
- M. Hezkeya Shabetay Davidov (1914–1918)
- David Pifano (1920–1925)
- No Chief Rabbi (1925–1945)
- Asher Hannanel (1945–1949)
- Aharon Zerbib (2012-2015)
- Meyer Rosenbaum (Son of Rabbi Isamar of Nadvorna, Elected 1948: left Cuba in 1956, a little more than two years before Fidel Castro came to power in the Revolution)
- Raphael Yair Elnadav (1956–1959)
- Shmuel Szteinhendler current Chief Rabbi of Cuba and regional director for Masorti Judaism in Latin America.
- Kotel Da-Don (1998–2006) from 2006 Rabbi of the Bet Israel community Zagreb
- Luciano Moše Prelević (2006–)
- Abraham Salomon (1687–1700)
- Israel Ber (1700–1728)
- Marcus David (1729–1739)
- Hirsch Samuel Levy (1741–1775)
- Gedalia Levin (1778–1793)
- Abraham Gedalia (1793–1827)
- Abraham Wolff (1828–1891)
- David Simonsen (1892–1902, 1919–1920)
- Tobias Lewenstein (1903–1910)
- Max (Moses) Friediger (1920–1947)
- Marcus Melchior (1947–1969)
- Bent Melchior (1970–1996)
- Bent Lexner (1996–2014)
- Jair Melchior (2014–present[update])
- Refael Aharon Ben Shimon (1891–1921)
- Masoud Haim Ben Shimon (1921–1925)
- Chaim Nahum (1925–1960)
- Haim Moussa Douek (1960–1972)
- David Sintzheim (1808–1812)
- Abraham Vita de Cologna (1808–1826)
- Emmanuel Deutz (1810–1842)
- Marchand Ennery (1846–1852)
- Salomon Ulmann (1853–1865)
- Lazare Isidor (1866–1888)
- Zadoc Kahn (1889–1905)
- Alfred Lévy (1907–1919)
- Israël Lévi (1920–1939)
- Isaïe Schwartz (1939–1952)
- Jacob Kaplan (1955–1980)
- René Samuel Sirat (1981–1987)
- Joseph Sitruk (1987–2008)
- Gilles Bernheim (2009–2013) (elected 22 June 2008, resigned 11 April 2013)
- Haim Korsia (2014–)
- Note that this list is out of order.
- Meir Eisenstadt known as the Panim Me'iros (1708–), rabbi of Eisenstadt and author of "Panim Me'irot"
- Alexander ben Menahem
- Phinehas Auerbach
- Jacob Eliezer Braunschweig
- Hirsch Semnitz
- Simon Jolles (1717–?)
- Samson Wertheimer (1693?–1724) (also Eisenstadt and Moravia)
- Issachar Berush Eskeles (1725–1753)
- Joseph Hirsch Weiss—grandfather of Stephen Samuel Wise
- Samuel Kohn
- Simon Hevesi (father of Ferenc Hevesi)
- Ferenc Hevesi
- Moshe Kunitzer a pioneer of the Haskalah movement in Hungary (1828–1837)
- Koppel Reich
- Ignatz Lichtenstein (1857–1892) converted to Christianity and still held his position as rabbi.
- Chaim Yehuda Deutsch
- József Schweitzer
- Robert (Avrohom Yehudoh) Deutsch
- Yedidia Shofet (1922–1980)
- Uriel Davidi (1980–1994)
- Yosef Hamadani Cohen (1994–2007)
- Mashallah Golestani-Nejad (2007–present)
- Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog (1921–1937)
- Immanuel Jakobovits (1949–1958)
- Isaac Cohen (1959–1979)
- David Rosen (1979–1984)
- Ephraim Mirvis (1985–1992)
- Shimon Yehudah Harris (1993–1994)
- Gavin Broder (1996–2000)
- Yaakov Pearlman (2001–2008)
- Zalman Lent (acting Chief Rabbi, 2008–present)
The appointment of a new Chief Rabbi of Ireland has been put on hold since 2008.
The position of chief rabbi of the Land of Israel has existed for hundreds of years. During the mandatory period, the British recognized the chief Rabbis of the Ashkenazi and Sephardi communities, just as they recognized the Mufti of Jerusalem. The offices continued after statehood was achieved. Haredi Jewish groups (such as Edah HaChareidis) do not recognize the authority of the Chief Rabbinate. They usually have their own rabbis who do not have any connection to the state rabbinate.
Under current Israeli law, the post of Chief Rabbi exists in only four cities (Jerusalem, Tel Aviv, Haifa, and Beersheba). In other cities there may be one main rabbi to whom the other rabbis of that city defer, but that post is not officially the "Chief Rabbi".
Many of Israel's chief rabbis were previously chief rabbis of Israeli cities.
- Shlomo Goren (1948–1968)
- Mordechai Piron (1968–1977)
- Gad Navon (1977–2000)
- Israel Weiss (2000–2006)
- Avichai Rontzki (2006–2010)
- Rafi Peretz (2010–2016)
- Eyal Karim (2016-)
- Moïse Yedid-Levy (1799–1829)
- Ralph Alfandari
- Youssef el Mann
- Aharoun Yedid-Levy
- Zaki Cohen (1875)
- Menaché Ezra Sutton
- Jacob Bukai
- Haïm Dana
- Moïse Yedid-Levy
- Nassim Afandi Danon (1908–1909)
- Jacob Tarrab (1910–1921)
- Salomon Tagger (1921–1923)
- Shabtai Bahbout (1924–1950)
- Benzion Lichtman (1932–1959)
- Jacob Attiyeh (1949–1966)
- Yakoub Chreim (1960–1978)
- Shlomo Tawil (1998–Present)
- Avi Kozma
- Chezki Lifshitz (2000–present)
- Zion Levy (1951–2008) Sephardic Chief Rabbi
- Moses Fishel (1541–1542)
- Ber Percowicz (1945–1961)
- Uszer Zibes (1961–1966)
- Zew Wawa Morejno (1966–1973)
- Pinchas Menachem Joskowicz (1988–1999)
- Michael Schudrich (2004–present[update])
Poland: Armed Forces
- Chaim Elizjer Frankl (?–1933)
- Major Baruch Steinberg (1933–circa 12 April 1940) murdered by NKVD in the Katyn massacre
- Yaakov Yitzhak Neimerov (d. 1940)
- Alexandru Safran (1940–1948)
- Moses Rosen (1948–1994)
- Menachem Hacohen (1997–2011)
- Rabbi Mordechai Abergel/Rabbi Jean Pierre Fettmann
- Joseph H. Hertz (1898–1911) (unofficial)
- Judah Loeb Landau (1915–1942)
- Louis Rabinowitz (1945–1961)
- Bernard M. Casper (1963–1987)
- Cyril Harris (1988–2004)
- Warren Goldstein (2005–present[update])
- Baruj Garzon (1968–1978), the first Chief Rabbi in Spain since the expulsion in 1492
- Yehuda Benasuli z"l (1978–1997)
- Rabbi Moshe Bendahan (1997–present[update])
Rabbi Yom Tov Yedid (1960-1985), moved to The United States in 1985 and died July 27, 2016 in the United States
Transylvania (before 1918)
- Joseph Reis Auerbach (d. 1750)
- Shalom Selig ben Saul Cohen (1754–1757)
- Johanan ben Isaac (1758–1760)
- Benjamin Ze'eb Wolf of Cracow (1764–1777)
- Moses ben Samuel Levi Margaliot (1778–1817)
- Menahem ben Joshua Mendel (1818–23)
- Ezekiel Paneth (1823–1843)
- Abraham Friedmann (d. 1879), the last chief rabbi of Transylvania
- Chaim Madar (1984–2004)
- Eli Capsali (1452–1454)
- Moses Capsali (1454–1497)
- Elijah Mizrachi (1497–1526)
- Mordechai Komitano (1526–1542)
- Tam ben Yahya (1542–1543)
- Eli Rozanes ha - Levi (1543)
- Eli ben Hayim (1543–1602)
- Yehiel Bashan (1602–1625)
- Joseph Mitrani (1625–1639)
- Yomtov Benyaes (1639–1642)
- Yomtov Hananiah Benyakar (1642–1677)
- Chaim Kamhi (1677–1715)
- Judah Benrey (1715–1717)
- Samuel Levi (1717–1720)
- Abraham Rozanes (1720–1745)
- Solomon Hayim Alfandari (1745–1762)
- Meir Ishaki (1762–1780)
- Eli Palombo (1780–1800)
- Chaim Jacob Benyakar (1800–1835)
- Abraham Levi Pasha (1835–1839)
- Samuel Hayim (1839–1841)
- Moiz Fresko (1841–1854)
- Yacob Avigdor (1854–1870)
- Yakir Geron (1870–1872)
- Moses Levi (1872–1909)
- Chaim Nahum Effendi (1909–1920)
- Shabbetai Levi (1920–1922)
- Isaac Ariel (1922–1926)
- Haim Bejerano (1926–1931)
- Haim Isaac Saki (1931–1940)
- Rafael David Saban (1940–1960)
- David Asseo (1961–2002)
- Ishak Haleva (2003–present[update])
- Yaakov Dov Bleich (1990–present[update])—original post-communism chief rabbi, still widely recognized Chief Rabbi of Ukraine and Kiev
- Alex Dukhovny—The Progressive Chief Rabbi of Kiev and Ukraine
- Azriel Chaikin (2003–present[update])—Chabad affiliated; not recognized as Ukraine Chief Rabbi, but heads the Ukrainian Chabad
- Moshe Reuven Azman—rabbi from Chabad, though elected mostly by secular Jewish leaders and not by any rabbinical authority (2005–present[update])
A chief rabbinate never truly developed within the United States for a number of different reasons. While Jews first settled in the United States in 1654 in New York City, rabbis did not appear in the United States until the mid-nineteenth century. This lack of rabbis, coupled with the lack of official colonial or state recognition of a particular sect of Judaism as official effectively led to a form of congregationalism amongst American Jews. This did not stop others from trying to create a unified American Judaism, and in fact, some chief rabbis developed in some American cities despite lacking universal recognition amongst the Jewish communities within the cities (for examples see below). However, Jonathan Sarna argues that those two precedents, as well as the desire of many Jewish immigrants to the US to break from an Orthodox past, effectively prevented any effective Chief Rabbi in America.
- Jaime Spector (1931-1937)
- Aaron Milevsky (1937-1943)
- Aaron Laschover (1943-1967)
- Nechemia Berman (1970–1993)
- Eliahu Birenbaum (1994–1999)
- Yosef Bitton (1999–2002)
- Mordejai Maarabi (2002–2009)
- Shai Froindlich (2009–2010)
- Isaac Fadda (2011-2012)
- Ben-Tzion Spitz (2013–present)
Chief rabbis by city
- Chaim Kreiswirth (1953–2001)
Baltimore, United States
- Abraham N. Schwartz (d. 1934)
- Joseph H. Feldman (retired 1972, d. 1992)
- Mordechai Scheiner (2002–present)
- Yonasan Steif (pre-World War II)
Chicago, United States
- Yaakov Dovid Wilovsky—known as the Ridbaz, served as chief rabbi of the Russian-American congregations in the city 1903–1905.
Gateshead, United Kingdom
The Hague, Netherlands
- Saul Isaac Halevi (1748–1785)
- Dov Yehuda Schochet (1946–1952)
Hebron, West Bank
Hoboken, United States
- Chaim Hirschensohn (1904–1935). His post included Hoboken, Jersey City, Union Hill and the Environs.
- Note: The Edah HaChareidis is unaffiliated with the State of Israel. It is a separate, independent religious community with its own Chief Rabbis, who are viewed, in the Haredi world, as being the Chief Rabbis of Jerusalem.
- Yosef Chaim Sonnenfeld (c.1920–1932)
- Yosef Tzvi Dushinsky (1932–1948)
- Zelig Reuven Bengis (1948–1953)
- Joel Teitelbaum of Satmar (1953–1979)
- Yitzchok Yaakov Weiss (1979–1989)
- Moshe Aryeh Freund (1989–1996)
- Yisrael Moshe Dushinsky (1996–2002)
- Yitzchok Tuvia Weiss (2002–present[update])
- Avraham David Shaumann
- Elia Kopciovsky (195?–1980)
- Giuseppe Laras (1980–2005)
- Alfonso Arbib (2005–present[update])
Modi'in Illit, West Bank
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Present Av Beis Din Montreal Rav Binyomin Weiss, head of the city's Vaad Hair.
- Yakov Maze (prior to 1924–1933)
- Shmaryahu Yehudah Leib Medalia (1933–1938)
- Shmuel Leib Medalia (1943)
- Shmuel Leib Levin (1943–1944)
- Shlomo Shleifer (1944–1957)
- Yehuda Leib Levin (1957–1971)
- Adolf Shayevich (1983, officially since 1993–present[update])
- Pinchas Goldschmidt (1987–present)
- Yitshak Ehrenberg (1989–1997)
- Pinchos Biberfeld, moved back to Germany from where he had emigrated to Israel over 50 years earlier. (1980–1999)
- Steven Langnas, first German (descendance) Chief Rabbi and Av Beth Din of Munich (1999–2011)
Netherlands – Inter-Provincial Chief rabbinate
- Dov Yehuda Schochet (1946–1952) [Chief Rabbi of The Hague]
- Elieser Berlinger (1960–1985)
- Binyomin Jacobs (2008–recent)
New York City, United States
- Jacob Joseph was the only true Ashkenazi chief rabbi of New York City; there was never a Sephardi chief rabbi, although Dr. David DeSola Pool acted as a leader among the Sepharadim and was also respected as such. Others it has been said claimed the title of Chief Rabbi; eventually, the title became worthless through dilution.
- Chaim Jacob Wiedrewitz was the Chassidc chief rabbi of New York and Pennsylvania; he was previously the Chassidic Rav of Moscow and was officially called as "The Moskover Rav", immigrated in 1893 and died in 1911, he's buried in the Chabad society of the Bayside Cemetery in Ozone Park NY.
- Jacob S. Kassin was the Chief Rabbi of the Syrian Jewish community of New York 1930–1995.
- Leibish Wolowsky was the chief rabbi of the Galician community of NYC 1888-1913, he was previously the rabbi of Sambor, Austria and immigrated to the US in 1888. He died in 1913 and is buried in the Achum Ahuvim of Reizow at the Mount Zion Cemetery in Maspeth NY.
- Avrohom Aharon Yudelevitz who was previously the rav of Manchester, England was accepted in 1919 as the chief rabbi of the Jewish Arbitration Court of NYC, he authored many books on Jewish law and Responsa. Died in 1930 and buried in family plot at the Bayside cemetery in Ozone Park NY.
Nové Zámky, Slovakia
- Dr. Ernest Klein (1931–1944)
- Michel Seligmann (1809–1829)
- Marchand Ennery (1829–1845)
- Lazard Isidor (1847–1865)
- Zadoc Kahn (1866–1889)
- Jacques-Henri Dreyfuss (1891–1933)
- Julien Weill (1933–1950)
- Jacob Kaplan (1950–1955)
- Meïr Jaïs (1956–1980)
- Alain Goldmann (1980–1994)
- David Messas (1994–2011)
- Michel Gugenheim (2012– )
- Josiah Pardo (1648–1669) See his Haskama – Approbation to Sefer Nachalat Shiva, edition Amsterdam 1667, where he is mentioned as Chief Rabbi of both the Sephardi and Ashkenazi congregations in Rotterdam
- Yosia Pardo (1648–1669). Left in 1669 to Amsterdam.
- Yuda Loeb ben Rabbi Shlomo (1674-abt. 1700). Born in Wilna.
- Judah Salomon (1682)
- Judah Loeb ben Abraham Ephraim Asher Anshel (1700–1708) Born in Hamburg, left for Amsterdam.
- Solomon Ezekiel (1725–1735)
- Judah Ezekiel (1738–1755)
- Abraham Ezekiel (1755–79)
- Aryeh Leib Breslau (1741–1809)
- Judah Akiba Eger son of Akiba Eger I (invited but refused position)
- Elijah Casriel (1815–1833)
- E.J. Löwenstamm (1834–1845)
- Dr. Joseph Isaacsohn (1850–1871; one of three sons-in-law of Rabbi Jacob Ettlinger who were Chief Rabbis in the Netherlands)
- Dr. Bernhard Löbel Ritter (1885–1928)
- Simon Hirsch (1928–1930)
- Aaron Davids (1930–1944)
- Justus Tal (1945–1954)
- Salomon Rodrigues Pereira (1954–1959)
- Levie Vorst (1959–1971)
- Daniel Kahn (1972–1975)
- Albert Hutterer (1975–1977)
- Dov Salzmann (1986–1988)
- Lody van de Kamp
- Raphael Evers
St. Louis, Missouri
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Tel Aviv-Jaffa, Israel
- Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel (1911–1939)
- Ya'akov Moshe Toledano (1942–1960)
- Ovadia Yosef (1968–1973)
- Hayim David HaLevi (1973–1998?)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- Pinchas Menachem Joskowicz (1988–1999)
- Baruch Rabinowitz (1999–2000)
- Michael Schudrich (2000–present[update])
- Abraham Bing (1814–1839)
- Cameron Brown. "Rabbi Ovadia Yosef And His Culture War in Israel". Meria.idc.ac.il. Archived from the original on 29 October 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Himelstein, Shmuel (2011). "Chief Rabbinate". In Berlin, Adele. The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion (2nd ed.). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-973004-9. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
- Kaplan Appel, Tamar, ed. (3 August 2010). "Crown Rabbi". The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300119039. OCLC 170203576. Archived from the original on 2015-03-27. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
- Jerusalem Post, 8 December 2010
- "Jewish Travel Advisor". Jewish Travel Advisor. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Yerushaseinu 5771 (PDF).
- "Sephardim vote in new rabbinic head with massive majority".
- "Jews of Bulgaria". geni_family_tree.
- Rabbis of Chilean Masorti Forum meet with Mr. Zeev Bielsky Masorti World
- The Virtual Jewish History Tour Cuba Jewish Virtual Library
- The Jewish Traveler: Havana Hadassah Magazine
- BILEFSKY, DAN (May 10, 2009). "Hard Times Give New Life to Prague's Golem". The New York Times. Retrieved March 19, 2013.
- Elsebeth Paikin (21 May 2004). "Rabbis in Denmark – JewishGen Scandinavia SIG". Jewishgen.org. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Personality of the week: Issachar Berush Eskeles". Beit Hatefutsot. Archived from the original on 13 December 2004.
- "Weiss, Joseph Hirsch". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "RootsWeb: WISE-L [WISE] Treasure found – autobiography of Stephen WISE". Archiver.rootsweb.com. 28 April 2001. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Chabad On Line. "Ireland's De facto Chief Rabbi". collive.
- [dead link]
- "CHIEF RABBI SALANT DIES IN JERUSALEM; Head of the Ashkanezic Congregationalists Was an Eminent Talmudist. A FRIEND OF MONTEFIORE Collected Donations for the Building of New Synagogue Bet Ya'akob – Favorite of His People". The New York Times. 17 August 1909. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Japan Gets First-Ever Chief Rabbi". September 17, 2015.
- "MOORISH JEWS GRATEFUL.; Chief Rabbi Thanks Us for Our Action at Algeciras Conference" (pdf). The New York Times. 10 June 1906.
- "Ukraine's Second Chief Rabbi?". NCSJ. 15 September 2003. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Ukrainian community split over chief rabbi – Jewish News of Greater Phoenix". Jewishaz.com. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Sarna, Jonathan (2004). American Judaism: A History. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 105. ISBN 0-300-10976-8.
- Bleich, J.D. (1989). Contemporary Halakhic Problems; Volume 16. KTAV Publishing House. pp. 63–4. ISBN 978-0-88125-315-3.
- "Rab. Y. Ehrenberg – Jewish Community of Berlin". Jg-berlin.org. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Title page of Malki Ba-Kodesh, vol. 2; Hoboken, 1921
- "Bnei Brak rabbi named to new beit din post". Web.archive.org. 27 April 2006. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Frum Jewish News". The Yeshiva World. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Grand Rabbinat du Québec". Rabbinat.qc.ca. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- "Consistoire - Consistoire de paris".
- Jacobs, Joseph; Slijper, E. "Netherlands". The Jewish Encyclopedia.
The names of the chief rabbis of Rotterdam are: Judah Salomon (1682); Solomon Ezekiel (1725–35; his salary was 305 gulden); Judah Ezekiel, son of the preceding (1738–55); Abraham Judah Ezekiel, son of the preceding (1755–79); Judah Akiba Eger (1779; left in 1781); Levie Hyman Breslau, author of "Pene Aryeh" (1781–1807); Elijah Casriel, from Leeuwarden (1815–33); E.J. Löwenstamm, grandson of L.H. Breslau (1834–45); Joseph Isaacson (1850–71; removed to Filehne as a result of dissensions in the community); B. Ritter (since 1884).
- Jizkor Platenatlas. 1978. p. 37.
- Landman, Isaac (1941). The Universal Jewish encyclopedia. 5.
... and the chief rabbi of Rotterdam, Aryeh Leib Breslau (1781–1809)
- Michman, Jozeph; Beem, Hartog; Michman, Dan (1999). Geschiedenis van de joodse gemeenschap in Nederland [History of the Jewish Community in the Netherlands]. p. 522.
In 1885 werd rabbijn dr Bernard Löbel Ritter tot rabbijn van Rotterdam benoemd.
- Michman, Jozeph; Beem, Hartog; Michman, Dan (1999). Geschiedenis van de joodse gemeenschap in Nederland [History of the Jewish Community in the Netherlands]. p. 526.
Na het ontslag van Ritter in 1928 werd het twee jaar lang waargenomen door de opperrabbijn van Zwolle, Simon JS Hirsch. In 1930 vond de joodse gemeente opperrabbijn Aaron Jissachar (ABN) Davids (1895–1944) van Friesland bereid naar Rotterdam te komen. Hij werd nog datzelfde jaar benoemd.
- Michman, Jozeph; Beem, Hartog; Michman, Dan (1999). Geschiedenis van de joodse gemeenschap in Nederland [History of the Jewish Community in the Netherlands]. p. 531.
Het opperrabinaat werd in de naoorlogse periode waargenomen door de opperrabbijn van Amsterdam Justus Tal (van 1945 tot '54) en vervolgens door chacham SA Rodrigues Pereira (van 1954 tot '59). Vanaf 1946 had rabbijn Levie Vorst (1903–'87) de dagelijkse leiding van de gemeente. Direct na het afleggen van het hoogste rabbinale examen werd hij benoemd tot opperrabijn, hetgeen hij bleef aan tot zijn immigratie naar Israël in 1971. Hij werd opgevolgd door Daniël Kahn (van 1972 tot '75) en Albert Hutterer (van 1975 tot '77). Na diens vertrek heeft Rotterdam het een tijd zonder rabbijn gesteld. Van 1986 tot '88 was Dov Salzmann rabbijn.
- "Rebbetzin Paula Rivkin remembered as 'woman of valor' – St. Louis Jewish Light: Local News – Rebbetzin Paula Rivkin remembered as 'woman of valor': Local News". Stljewishlight.com. 12 January 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Sydney's new Chief Rabbi, David Rutledge, ABC "Religion Report", ABC Online, 1 June 2005, accessed 5 April 2010
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