Chief of the Air Staff (United Kingdom)

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Chief of the Air Staff
Air Force Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg
Ensign of the Royal Air Force
(CAS Command Flag)
Air Marshal Stephen Hillier.jpg
Incumbent
Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier

since 11 July 2016
Ministry of Defence
StyleAir Chief Marshal
AbbreviationCAS
Member ofDefence Council
Air Force Board
Reports toChief of the Defence Staff
NominatorSecretary of State for Defence
AppointerPrime Minister
Subject to formal approval by the Queen-in-Council[1]
Term lengthNo fixed length
Formation3 January 1918
First holderMajor General Sir Hugh Trenchard
DeputyAssistant Chief of the Air Staff
WebsiteOfficial website

The Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) is the professional head of the Royal Air Force and a member of both the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the Air Force Board. The post was created in 1918 with Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard as the first incumbent. The current and 29th Chief of the Air Staff is Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier, who succeeded Sir Andrew Pulford in July 2016.[2][3]

History[edit]

The post of Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) was established in January 1918, just prior to the official formation of the Royal Air Force (RAF), and its first occupant was Major General Sir Hugh Trenchard. Following Trenchard's resignation in March 1918 after disagreements with the first air minister, Lord Rothermere, his rival Major General Sir Frederick Sykes was appointed. For political reasons Trenchard's resignation did not take effect until late April in order that he would be CAS when the RAF was formed. With Winston Churchill's post-war appointment as Secretary of State for War and Air, Sykes was moved sideways to head up the nascent Civil Aviation ministry and Trenchard returned as CAS. In the early 1920s, Trenchard had to fight to keep the RAF from being divided and absorbed back into the Royal Navy and the British Army. After Lord Trenchard retired in 1930 there were still suggestions that the RAF should be broken up, but Trenchard's foundations proved solid.[4]

By the time the Second World War broke out in 1939, the then occupant of the post, Air Chief Marshal Sir Cyril Newall, had a service that had been undergoing the most rapid of expansions during the British rearmament programs of the late 1930s. Newall gave way in 1940 to Air Chief Marshal Sir Charles Portal, who led the service for the rest of the war. Portal was a tireless defender of the RAF and highly capable in administration and strategy. Postwar the RAF was reoriented to perform the dual roles of defending the shrinking British Empire and possibly fighting against the Soviet Union in a Warsaw Pact verses NATO war over Germany and the United Kingdom. The Chiefs of the Air Staff of the day had to fight a constant battle to keep the British aircraft industry alive. In the end only minimal success was achieved, with only a rump aviation industrial base left by the 1970s.[5]

The first eight Chiefs of the Air Staff were originally commissioned in the British Army, with four coming from the infantry, two from the artillery and one each from the cavalry and the engineers. Of these both Lord Trenchard and Sir John Salmond each held the post over two separate periods. By the early mid-1950s sufficient time had elapsed for officers originally commissioned in the British air services of the First World War to have risen through the ranks to RAF's senior post; Sir John Slessor had originally served in the Royal Flying Corps while Sir William Dickson was commissioned into the Royal Naval Air Service. In 1956 Sir Dermot Boyle became the first CAS to have originally been commissioned in the RAF.[6]

Chiefs of the Air Staff[edit]

The following list gives details of the chiefs of the air staff from 1918 to the present:[1]

Chief of the Air Staff Took office Left office Time in office Flying specialism or arm Ref
1
Sir Hugh Trenchard
Trenchard, HughMajor General
Sir Hugh Trenchard
(1873–1956)
3 January 191813 April 1918100 daysInfantry[7]
2
Sir Frederick Sykes
Sykes, FrederickMajor General
Sir Frederick Sykes
(1877–1954)
13 April 191831 March 1919352 daysCavalry[8]
(1)
Sir Hugh Trenchard
Trenchard, HughMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Hugh Trenchard
(1873–1956)
31 March 19191 January 193010 years, 276 daysInfantry[9]
3
Sir John Salmond
Salmond, JohnAir Chief Marshal
Sir John Salmond
(1881–1968)
1 January 19301 April 19333 years, 90 daysInfantry[10]
4
Sir Geoffrey Salmond
Salmond, GeoffreyAir Chief Marshal
Sir Geoffrey Salmond
(1878–1933)
1 April 193327 April 1933 †26 daysArtillery[11]
-
Sir John Salmond
Salmond, JohnMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir John Salmond
(1881–1968)
Acting
28 April 193322 May 193324 daysInfantry[12]
5
Sir Edward Ellington
Ellington, EdwardMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Edward Ellington
(1877–1967)
22 May 19331 September 19374 years, 102 daysArtillery[13]
6
Sir Cyril Newall
Newall, CyrilMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Cyril Newall
(1886–1963)
1 September 193725 October 19403 years, 54 daysInfantry[14]
7
The Lord Portal
Portal, CharlesMarshal of the Royal Air Force
The Lord Portal
(1893–1971)
25 October 19401 January 19465 years, 68 daysEngineers[15]
8
Sir Arthur Tedder
Tedder, ArthurMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Arthur Tedder
(1890–1967)
1 January 19461 January 19504 years, 0 daysInfantry[16]
9
Sir John Slessor
Slessor, JohnMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir John Slessor
(1897–1979)
1 January 19501 January 19533 years, 0 daysFighters (biplanes)[17]
10
Sir William Dickson
Dickson, WilliamMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir William Dickson
(1898–1987)
1 January 19531 January 19563 years, 0 daysNaval aviation (biplanes)[18]
11
Sir Dermot Boyle
Boyle, DermotMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Dermot Boyle
(1904–1993)
1 January 19561 January 19604 years, 0 daysFighters (biplanes)[19]
12
Sir Thomas Pike
Pike, ThomasMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Thomas Pike
(1906–1983)
1 January 19601 September 19633 years, 243 daysFighters (biplanes)[20]
13
Sir Charles Elworthy
Elworthy, CharlesAir Chief Marshal
Sir Charles Elworthy
(1911–1993)
1 September 19631 April 19673 years, 212 daysBombers (biplanes)[21]
14
Sir John Grandy
Grandy, JohnAir Chief Marshal
Sir John Grandy
(1913–2004)
1 April 19671 April 19714 years, 0 daysFighters (biplanes)[22]
15
Sir Denis Spotswood
Spotswood, DenisAir Chief Marshal
Sir Denis Spotswood
(1916–2001)
1 April 19711 April 19743 years, 0 daysMultirole (monoplane)[23]
16
Sir Andrew Humphrey
Humphrey, AndrewAir Chief Marshal
Sir Andrew Humphrey
(1921–1977)
1 April 19747 August 19762 years, 159 daysFighters (monoplane)[24]
17
Sir Neil Cameron
Cameron, NeilMarshal of the Royal Air Force
Sir Neil Cameron
(1920–1985)
7 August 197610 August 1977337 daysFighters (monoplane)[25]
18
Sir Michael Beetham
Beetham, MichaelAir Chief Marshal
Sir Michael Beetham
(1923–2015)
10 August 197715 October 19825 years, 66 daysBombers (monoplane)[26]
19
Sir Keith Williamson
Williamson, KeithAir Chief Marshal
Sir Keith Williamson
(1928–2018)
15 October 198215 October 19853 years, 0 daysFighters (fast jet)[27]
20
Sir David Craig
Craig, DavidAir Chief Marshal
Sir David Craig
(born 1929)
15 October 198514 November 19883 years, 30 daysFighters (fast jet)[28]
21
Sir Peter Harding
Harding, PeterAir Chief Marshal
Sir Peter Harding
(born 1933)
14 November 19886 November 19923 years, 358 daysBombers (fast jet)[29]
22
Sir Michael Graydon
Graydon, MichaelAir Chief Marshal
Sir Michael Graydon
(born 1938)
6 November 199210 April 19974 years, 155 daysFighters (fast jet)[30]
23
Sir Richard Johns
Johns, RichardAir Chief Marshal
Sir Richard Johns
(born 1939)
10 April 199721 April 20003 years, 11 daysFighters (fast jet)[31]
24
Sir Peter Squire
Squire, PeterAir Chief Marshal
Sir Peter Squire
(1945–2018)
21 April 20001 August 20033 years, 102 daysFighters (fast jet)[32]
25
Sir Jock Stirrup
Stirrup, JockAir Chief Marshal
Sir Jock Stirrup
(born 1949)
1 August 200313 April 20062 years, 255 daysGround attack / reconnaissance (fast jet)[33]
26
Sir Glenn Torpy
Torpy, GlennAir Chief Marshal
Sir Glenn Torpy
(born 1953)
13 April 200631 July 20093 years, 109 daysGround attack (fast jet)[34]
27
Sir Stephen Dalton
Dalton, StephenAir Chief Marshal
Sir Stephen Dalton
(born 1954)
31 July 200931 July 20134 years, 0 daysGround attack (fast jet)[35]
28
Sir Andrew Pulford
Pulford, AndrewAir Chief Marshal
Sir Andrew Pulford
(born 1958)
31 July 201311 July 20162 years, 346 daysHelicopters[36]
29
Sir Stephen Hillier
Hillier, StephenAir Chief Marshal
Sir Stephen Hillier
11 July 2016Incumbent2 years, 125 daysGround attack (fast jet)[37]
  1. ^ The ranks and titles shown are the highest that the officer in question attained during his tour as Chief of the Air Staff. However, in the case where the officer was promoted on the day before he was posted or retired, then the lower rank is shown.

See also[edit]

Other service chiefs[edit]

Generally relevant[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Departmental Resource Accounts 2006-7 Ministry of Defence
  2. ^ "The Secretary of State announces new Senior Appointments in the Armed Services". Retrieved 15 April 2016.
  3. ^ "Chief of the Air Staff (CAS) Sir Stephen Hillier". Royal Air Force. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Sir John Salmond". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Meeting our makers: Britain's long industrial decline". New Statesman. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  6. ^ "Sir Dermot Alexander Boyle". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  7. ^ Barrass, Malcolm (9 October 2007). "Marshal of the RAF The Viscount Trenchard of Wolfeton". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
  8. ^ "Air Vice Marshal Sir Frederick Sykes". Air of Authority - A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  9. ^ "No. 31348". The London Gazette. 20 May 1919. p. 6249.
  10. ^ "No. 33565". The London Gazette. 31 December 1929. p. 8506.
  11. ^ "No. 33926". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 March 1933. p. 2194.
  12. ^ "No. 33936". The London Gazette. 2 May 1933. p. 2940.
  13. ^ "No. 33942". The London Gazette. 23 May 1933. p. 3457.
  14. ^ "No. 34432". The London Gazette. 3 September 1937. p. 5561.
  15. ^ "No. 34989". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 November 1940. p. 6492.
  16. ^ "Marshal of the Royal Air Force Lord Tedder". Air of Authority: A History of RAF Organisation. Retrieved 22 July 2012.
  17. ^ "No. 38795". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1949. p. 6168.
  18. ^ "No. 39739". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1952. p. 56.
  19. ^ "No. 40666". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 December 1955. p. 7307.
  20. ^ "No. 41664". The London Gazette (Supplement). 20 March 1959. p. 1979.
  21. ^ "No. 42924". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 February 1963. p. 1615.
  22. ^ "No. 44281". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 March 1967. p. 3691.
  23. ^ "No. 45337". The London Gazette (Supplement). 5 April 1971. p. 3340.
  24. ^ "No. 46252". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 April 1974. p. 4287.
  25. ^ "No. 46984". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 August 1976. p. 10916.
  26. ^ "No. 47289". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 August 1977. p. 9978.
  27. ^ "No. 49156". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 November 1982. p. 14275.
  28. ^ "No. 50279". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 October 1985. p. 13878.
  29. ^ "No. 51543". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 November 1988. p. 13394.
  30. ^ "Sir Michael Graydon". Debretts People of Today. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  31. ^ "Sir Richard Johns". Debretts People of Today. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  32. ^ Who's Who 2010, A & C Black, 2010, ISBN 978-1-4081-1414-8
  33. ^ "Sir Jock Stirrup". NATO. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  34. ^ "No. 57965". The London Gazette (Supplement). 25 April 2006. p. 5686.
  35. ^ "Air Rank Appointments List 07/08 dated 16 October 2008". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  36. ^ "No. 60575". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 July 2013. p. 14490.
  37. ^ "No. 61656". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 July 2016. p. 16088.