Child psychotherapy

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Mental health interventions for children (also known as child psychotherapy) vary with respect to the problem being addressed and to the age and other individual characteristics of the child. Although such interventions share some approaches, treatment methods can be quite different from each other.

Terms describing child treatments may vary from one part of the world to another, with particular differences in the use of the terms "psychotherapy" and "psychoanalysis". For these reasons, readers should take special care to consider definitions of terms in this article.

Evidence-based child and adolescent psychotherapy[edit]

There are many therapeutic beginnings to address mental health concerns among children and adolescents. Some of these approaches are backed by strong scientific evidence, and some are not.[1] Some research suggests that it is the quality of the relationship with the therapist, rather than the particular form of therapeutic intervention, that is the strongest factor in helping change develop.[2]

Parent–infant psychotherapy[edit]

If the normal course of secure attachment between parent and infant is disrupted, parent–infant psychotherapy is a catch-all term to describe psychotherapies that either aim to restore this bond or to work with vulnerable parents to prevent disruption in the first instance. Examples of this kind of therapy include, "Watch, Wait, Wonder," and psychoanalytic parent-infant psychotherapy. Many of these techniques require a three-way relationship between the parent, child, and therapist. During the therapy sessions, the parent expresses his or her thoughts and feelings which are based on a combination of factors including:

  1. The parent's experiences as a child
  2. The parent's expectations and hopes for the child's future
  3. The relationships the parent has with other people

The therapist's role is as an observer and an interpreter of the interaction between the infant and the parent. He might share some of his thoughts about the behavior of the child with the parent and by doing so offering the parent an alternative way of experiencing the child. This technique helps the parent to resolve issues with his or her own infancy-experiences in order to restore secure attachment with the infant. And it helps lower the risk for psychopathological developments of the child in the future.[3][4]

Psychoanalytic Child Psychotherapy[edit]

Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with infants, children and adolescents is usually delivered by either someone qualified specifically in psychoanalytic child psychotherapy, or a psychoanalyst who has also undertaken an additional child-focused training. Recent evidence[5], covering 34 research papers (nine of which were randomized controlled trials) showed psychoanalytic psychotherapy to be particularly effective for children with the following conditions:

  • depression
  • anxiety and behavior disorders
  • personality disorders
  • learning difficulties
  • eating disorders
  • developmental issues

Furthermore, follow-up research[6] shows that in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, therapeutic improvements continue well beyond the termination of the therapy itself. This has been termed a, "sleeper effect."

In the UK, psychoanalytic psychotherapy is recommended by NICE as an evidence-based treatment for trauma from sexual abuse[7] and severe depression in adolescents[8] following the IMPACT study[9]

A list of therapies for children examined in at least two empirical research studies[edit]

  • Active Analytic Psychotherapy
  • Activity Group Therapy
  • Adaptational Psychodynamics
  • Adaptive Psychotherapy
  • Adlerian Psychotherapy
  • Adlerian Group Psychotherapy
  • Actualizing Therapy
  • Ajase Complex
  • The Alexander Technique
  • Allo-Centered Psychotherapy
  • Analytical Psychology
  • Anti-Expectation Psychotherapy Techniques
  • Anxiety Management Training
  • Arica Group Process
  • Art Therapy
  • Assertion-Structured Therapy
  • Assertive Behavior Therapy
  • Attachment Therapy
  • Attack Therapy
  • Attitude Therapy
  • Autogenic Therapy
  • Autogenic Training
  • Aversion Therapy
  • Behavioral Family Therapy
  • Behavior Modification
  • Behavioral Problem Solving
  • Bell's Family Group Therapy
  • Bereavement Counseling
  • Bibliotherapy
  • Biocentric Therapy
  • Bioenergetic Analysis
  • Bio-Energetic Group Therapy
  • Biofeedback
  • Bio Scream Psychotherapy
  • Body Energy Therapy
  • Bowen Family Therapy
  • Breathing Therapy
  • Brief Psychodynamic Therapy
  • Brief Therapy
  • Broad Spectrum Behavior Therapy
  • Buddhist Insight Meditation
  • Burn-Out Prevention
  • C1C2 project Psychotherapy
  • Cash’s Body Image Therapy, plus Virtual Reality for Anorexia Nervosa
  • Catalyst Therapy
  • Cathartic-Meditative Therapy,
  • Child-Centered Therapy
  • Child-Parent Psychotherapy
  • Christian Psychotherapy
  • Client-Centered Therapy
  • Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy (CBASP)
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Family Therapy
  • Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET)
  • Communication Therapy
  • Companionship Therapy Model
  • Comprehensive Relaxation Training
  • Computer Therapy
  • Conditioned Reflex Therapy
  • Confrontation in Psychotherapy
  • Confrontation Problem-solving Therapy
  • Contextual Therapy
  • Contextual Therapy of Phobic Behavior
  • Cooking as Therapy
  • Coping Skills Training
  • Correctional Counseling
  • Correspondence Therapy
  • Co-therapy
  • Covert Conditioning
  • Covert Modeling
  • Creative Aggression Therapy
  • Crisis Family Therapy
  • Crisis Intervention
  • Crisis Management
  • Culturalist Therapy
  • Comprehensive Family Therapy
  • Conjoint Family Counseling
  • Dance Therapy
  • Dance/Movement Therapy
  • The Deep Psychobiology of Psychotherapy
  • Developmental Dance-Movement Therapy
  • Depth Therapy
  • Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT)
  • Dialogue Psychotherapy
  • Direct Decision Therapy
  • Direct Psychoanalysis
  • Directive Psychotherapy
  • Divorce therapy
  • Dolphin-Child Therapy
  • Drama Therapy
  • Dynamic Therapy
  • Dynamic Cognitive Therapy
  • Dynamic Empathy Training
  • Dynamically Oriented Brief Psychotherapy
  • Eclectic Psychotherapy
  • Eidetic Therapy
  • Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
  • Emotional Common Sense* E-mail Therapy
  • Encouragement Therapy
  • Encounter Therapy
  • Enneagram
  • Eriksonian Therapy
  • Exaggeration Therapy
  • Existential-Humanistic Psychotherapy
  • Existential Group Psychotherapy
  • Existential Therapy
  • Experiential Analysis
  • Experiential Focusing and Psychotherapy
  • Experiential Therapy
  • Expressive Therapy
  • Family Context Therapy
  • Family Crisis Therapy
  • Family Psychotherapy
  • Feeling Therapy
  • Feminist Psychotherapy
  • Filial Therapy
  • Fischet-Hoffman Process
  • Fixed Role Therapy
  • Flooding
  • Focusing
  • Folk Healing
  • Frommian Influence
  • Future Oriented Psychotherapy
  • Gestalt Therapy
  • Gestalt Movement Therapy
  • Gestalt Synergy
  • Goal- Directed Psychotherapy
  • Group Therapy
  • Group Art Therapy
  • Group-Analytic Psychotherapy
  • Growth Therapy
  • Guided Fantasy in Psychotherapy
  • Guided Group Interaction
  • Guided imagery
  • Healing the Divided Self
  • Holistic Counseling
  • Holistic Education
  • Horneyian Therapy
  • Horticultural Therapy
  • Hypnoanalysis
  • Hypnointrospection
  • Hypnosymbolic Psychotherapy
  • Hypnotherapy
  • Immediate Therapy
  • Impasse/Priority Therapy
  • Implosive Therapy
  • Indirect Hypnotic Therapy
  • Information Feedback
  • lnsight Psychotherapy
  • Instigation Therapy
  • Integrated Psychiatric Treatment
  • Integration Therapy
  • Integrative Psychotherapy
  • Integrity Group Process
  • Intense Feeling Therapy
  • Intensive Journal
  • Intensive psychotherapy
  • Interactional psychotherapy
  • Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
  • Interpersonal Therapy
  • Interpersonal Process Recall
  • Jungian Analysis
  • Jungian Dance Therapy
  • Jungian Group psychotherapy
  • Jungian psychoanalysis
  • Kinetic psychotherapy
  • Kleinian Techniques
  • Learning Theory Therapy
  • Learning-Based Client-Centered Therapy
  • Life Skills Counseling
  • Life Skills Training
  • Living Therapy
  • Logotherapy
  • Lomi Body Work
  • Mainstreaming
  • Marathon Group Therapy
  • Mandala Therapy
  • Matrix Therapy and Past Life Regression
  • Meditative Therapy
  • Meeting Psychotherapy
  • Meta-group
  • Metaphor Therapy
  • Megavitamin Therapy
  • Mirror Image Therapy
  • Modern Psychoanalysis
  • Morita Therapy
  • Motivational enhancement therapy (MET)
  • Multidisciplinary Group Therapy
  • Multimodal Therapy
  • Multimodal Behavior Therapy
  • Multiple Therapy
  • Multiple Conjoint Psychotherapy
  • Multiple Family Therapy
  • Multiple Impact Therapy
  • Multisystemic Therapy
  • Music Therapy
  • Mutual Help Groups
  • Mutual Need Therapy
  • Mutual Storytelling Technique
  • Mythosynthesis
  • Naikan Psychotherapy
  • Narcoanalysis
  • Natural High Therapy
  • Negative Practice
  • Network Therapy
  • Neuro Linguistic Programming
  • Neurotone Therapy
  • New Identity Process
  • Nondirective Psychoanalysis
  • Nutrition-Based Psychotherapy
  • Object Relations Therapy
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Office Network Therapy
  • Operant Conditioning Therapy
  • Organic Process Therapy
  • Paraverbal Therapy
  • Partnership Therapy
  • Paradigmatic Psychotherapy
  • Parent-Child Interaction Therapy
  • Parent-Focused Child Therapy
  • Past Lives Therapy
  • Pastoral Counseling
  • Person-Centered Therapy
  • Personal Science
  • PET: Parent Effectiveness Training
  • PCIT: Parent Child Interaction Therapy
  • Phenomenological Psychotherapy
  • Phenomeno-Structural Psychotherapy
  • Philosophical Psychotherapy
  • Physiologic Therapy for the Neuroses
  • Philotherapy
  • Photo Counseling
  • Placebo Therapy
  • Poetry Therapy
  • Positive Therapy
  • Prestige Suggestion
  • Primal Therapy
  • Primary Relationship Therapy
  • Privation Psychotherapeutic Technique
  • Problem Solving Group Therapy
  • Process Psychology
  • Programmed Success Therapy
  • Provocative Therapy
  • Psychosynthesis
  • Psychic Healing
  • Psychoanalytic Family Therapy
  • Psychoanalytic Group Therapy
  • Psychoanalytically Oriented Milieu Therapy
  • Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
  • Psychodrama
  • Psychoenergetic Technique
  • Psycho-lmagination Therapy
  • Psychomaterialism
  • Psychomotor Therapy
  • Psychosynthesis
  • Psychotheatrics
  • Puppet Therapy
  • Radical Psychiatry
  • Radical Therapy
  • Radix Neo-Reichian Education
  • Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy
  • Rational-Emotive Therapy
  • Rational Stage-Directed Therapy and Crisis Intervention
  • Reality Therapy
  • Realness Therapy
  • Rebirthing
  • Redecision Therapy
  • Reevaluation Counseling
  • Relationship Enhancement Therapy
  • Relaxation Training
  • Resilient Peer Treatment
  • Responsive Therapy
  • Restricted Environmental Stimulation Therapy
  • Reichian Orgone Therapy
  • Role-Acting Therapy
  • Roleplaying Therapy
  • Sandplay Therapy
  • Sandtray Therapy
  • Say It Again-An Active Therapy Technique
  • Selective Awareness Therapy
  • Sector Therapy
  • Self-Image Therapy
  • Self Psychotherapy
  • Self Therapy
  • Self-Puzzle: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Tool
  • Senoi Dream Group Therapy
  • Separation Therapy
  • Shadow Therapy
  • Short-Term Anxiety-Provoking Psychotherapy
  • Short-Term Targeted Therapy
  • Sleep Therapy
  • Structured Short- Term Therapeutic Intervention
  • Soap Opera Therapy
  • Social Casework
  • Social Constructionist Family Therapy
  • Social Influence Therapy
  • Social Network Intervention Ross V. Speck
  • Social System Psychotherapy
  • Sociotherapy
  • Solution Focused Therapy
  • Somatology
  • Speech Therapy
  • Strategic Solution Focused Therapy
  • Strategic Therapy
  • Strategic Family Therapy
  • Street Psychotherapy
  • Stress Inoculation
  • Structural Family Therapy
  • Structural Integration
  • Supportive Psychotherapy
  • Supportive Care Therapy
  • Sullivanism Harry Stack Sullivan
  • Sullivan Group Psychotherapy
  • Strategic therapy
  • Structural family therapy
  • Suggestive therapy
  • Supportive psychotherapy
  • Symbolic-experiential family therapy
  • Systemic Therapy
  • SYNANON
  • T-Groups
  • Talk Therapy
  • Theme-Centered Interactional Groups
  • Thought Field Therapy
  • Transactional Analysis
  • Transactional Analysis Group Therapy
  • Transactional-Semantic Psychotherapy
  • Transcendental Meditation
  • Transference-Focused Therapy
  • Transpersonal Psychotherapy
  • Triad Counseling
  • Triad Therapy
  • Triadic-based Family Therapy
  • Twenty- Four Hour Therapy
  • Vector Therapy
  • Verbal Behavior Therapy
  • Videotherapy
  • Vita-Erg Therapy
  • Voice Dialog
  • Voice Therapy
  • Wholistic Therapy
  • Will Therapy of Otto Rank
  • Writing Therapy

References[edit]

  1. ^ APA Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice with Children and Adolescents (2008). Disseminating Evidence-Based Practice For Children & Adolescents: a systems approach to enhancing care. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  2. ^ Sutton, S. (2014). [Being Taken In: The Framing Relationship]. London: [Karnac].
  3. ^ Lieberman, AF (1992). "Infant-parent psychotherapy with toddlers". Development and Psychopathology. 4 (4): 559–574. doi:10.1017/s0954579400004879.
  4. ^ Lieberman, AF; Silverman, R; Pawl, JH (2000). "Infant-parent psychotherapy". In Zeanah, CH (ed.). Handbook of infant mental health (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. p. 432. ISBN 1-59385-171-5.
  5. ^ Midgely, N.; Kennedy, E. (2011). "Psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents: a critical review of the evidence base". Journal of Child Psychotherapy. 37 (3): 232–260. doi:10.1080/0075417X.2011.614738.
  6. ^ Bateman, A.; Fonagy, P. (2001). "Treatment of borderline personality disorder with psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization: an 18-month follow-up". American Journal of Psychiatry. 158 (1): 36–42. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.1.36. PMID 11136631.
  7. ^ "Therapeutic Interventions after Abuse and Neglect - Guidance 76". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. HM Government.
  8. ^ "Therapeutic Interventions for Moderate to Severe Depression - Guidance 28". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. HM Government.
  9. ^ Goodyer, I. M.; Reynolds, S.; Barrett, B.; Byford, S.; Dubika, B.; Hill, J.; et al. (2017). "Cognitive behavioural therapy and short-term psychoanalytical psychotherapy versus a brief psychosocial intervention in adolescents with unipolar major depressive disorder (IMPACT): a multicentre, pragmatic, observer-blind, randomised controlled superiority trial". Lancet Psychiatry. 4 (3): 109–119. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(16)30378-9. PMC 5285447. PMID 27914903.