|Varieties and Groups|
Chili peppers (also chile, chile pepper, chilli pepper, or chilli), from Nahuatl chīlli (Nahuatl pronunciation: [ˈt͡ʃiːlːi] (listen)), are varieties of the berry-fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade family Solanaceae, cultivated for their pungency. Chili peppers are widely used in many cuisines as a spice to add "heat" to dishes. Capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids are the substances giving chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically. While chili peppers are (to varying degrees) pungent or "spicy", there are other varieties of capsicum such as bell peppers, which generally provide additional sweetness and flavor to a meal rather than "heat."
Chili peppers are believed to have originated somewhere in Central or South America. and were first cultivated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread around the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. This led to a wide variety of cultivars, including the annuum species, with its glabriusculum variety and New Mexico cultivar group, and the species of baccatum, chinense, frutescens, and pubescens.
Cultivars grown in North America and Europe are believed to all derive from Capsicum annuum, and have white, yellow, red or purple to black fruits. In 2019, the world's production of raw green chili peppers amounted to 38 million tons, with China producing half.
Capsicum plants originated in modern-day Bolivia and have been a part of human diets since about 7,500 BC. They are one of the oldest cultivated crops in the Americas. Origins of cultivating chili peppers have been traced to east-central Mexico some 6,000 years ago, although, according to research by the New York Botanical Garden press in 2014, chili plants were first cultivated independently across different locations in the Americas including highland Bolivia, central Mexico, and the Amazon. They were one of the first self-pollinating crops cultivated in Mexico, Central America, and parts of South America.
Peru has the highest variety of cultivated Capsicum diversity because it is a center of diversification where varieties of all five domesticates were introduced, grown, and consumed in pre-Columbian times. The largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers is consumed in Bolivia. Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms: ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. eximium, C. cardenasii, C. eshbaughii, and C. caballeroi landraces; and arivivis with small elongated fruits including C. baccatum var. baccatum and C. chacoense varieties.
Distribution to Europe
When Christopher Columbus and his crew reached the Caribbean, they were the first Europeans to encounter Capsicum. They called them "peppers" because, like black pepper of the genus Piper known in Europe, they have a spicy, hot taste unlike other foods.
Distribution to Asia
Chili peppers spread to Asia through their introduction by Portuguese traders, who—aware of their trade value and resemblance to the spiciness of black pepper—promoted their commerce in the Asian spice trade routes. They were introduced in India by the Portuguese towards the end of the 16th century. In 21st-century Asian cuisine, chili peppers are commonly used across many regions.
|Production of chillies and peppers, green – 2020|
|Region||(Millions of tons)|
|Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations|
In 2020, 36 million tonnes of green chili peppers were produced worldwide, with China producing 46% of the total.
Species and cultivars
There are five domesticated species of chili peppers:
- Capsicum annuum includes many common varieties such as bell peppers, wax, cayenne, jalapeños, Thai peppers, chiltepin, and all forms of New Mexico chile.
- Capsicum frutescens includes malagueta, tabasco, piri piri, and Malawian Kambuzi.
- Capsicum chinense includes the hottest peppers such as the naga, habanero, Datil and Scotch bonnet.
- Capsicum pubescens includes the South American rocoto peppers.
- Capsicum baccatum includes the South American aji peppers.
Though there are only a few commonly used species, there are many cultivars and methods of preparing chili peppers that have different names for culinary use. Green and red bell peppers, for example, are the same cultivar of C. annuum. Unripe peppers are green (although peppers that do not turn red on ripening have been bred). In the same species are the jalapeño, the poblano (which, when dried, is referred to as ancho), New Mexico, serrano, and other cultivars.
Peppers are commonly broken down into two groupings: bell peppers (UK: sweet peppers) and hot peppers. Most popular pepper varieties are seen as falling into one of these categories or a cross between them.
The substances that give chili peppers their pungency (spicy heat) when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) and several related chemicals, collectively called capsaicinoids. The quantity of capsaicin varies by variety, and on growing conditions. Water-stressed peppers usually produce stronger pods. When a habanero plant is stressed, by absorbing low water for example, the concentration of capsaicin increases in some parts of the fruit.
When peppers are consumed by mammals such as humans, capsaicin binds with pain receptors in the mouth and throat, potentially evoking pain via spinal relays to the brainstem and thalamus where heat and discomfort are perceived. However, birds are unable to perceive the hotness and so they can eat some of the hottest peppers. The intensity of the "heat" of chili peppers is commonly reported in Scoville heat units (SHU), invented by American pharmacist Wilbur Scoville in 1912. Historically, it was a measure of the dilution of an amount of chili extract added to sugar syrup before its heat becomes undetectable to a panel of tasters; the more it has to be diluted to be undetectable, the more powerful the variety, and therefore the higher the rating. The modern method is a quantitative analysis of SHU using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to directly measure the capsaicinoid content of a chili pepper variety. Pure capsaicin is a hydrophobic, colorless, odorless, and crystalline-to-waxy solid at room temperature, and measures 16,000,000 SHU.
Capsaicin is produced by the plant as a defense against mammalian predators and microbes, in particular a fusarium fungus carried by hemipteran insects that attack certain species of chili peppers, according to one study. Peppers increased the quantity of capsaicin in proportion to the damage caused by fungal predation on the plant's seeds.
A wide range of intensity is found in commonly used peppers:
|Bell pepper||0 SHU|
|Fresno, jalapeño||3,500–10,000 SHU|
|Piri piri||50,000–100,000 SHU|
|Habanero, Scotch bonnet, bird's eye||100,000–350,000 SHU|
Notable hot chili peppers
The top 8 world's hottest chili peppers (by country) are:
|United States||Pepper X||3.18M SHU(*)|
|Wales||Dragon's Breath||2.48M SHU(*)|
|United States||Carolina Reaper||2.2M SHU|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Trinidad moruga scorpion||2.0M SHU(*)|
|India||Bhut jolokia (Ghost pepper)||1.58M SHU|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Trinidad Scorpion Butch T||1.463M SHU|
|England||Naga Viper||1.4M SHU|
|England||Infinity chili||1.2M SHU|
NOTE: SHU claims marked with an asterisk (*) have not been confirmed by Guinness World Records.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (April 2020)
Chili pepper pods are technically berries. When used fresh, they are most often prepared and eaten like a vegetable. Whole pods can be dried and then crushed or ground into chili powder that is used as a spice or seasoning. Chilies can be dried to prolong their shelf life. Chili peppers can also be preserved by brining, immersing the pods in oil, or by pickling.
Many fresh chilies such as poblano have a tough outer skin that does not break down on cooking. Chilies are sometimes used whole or in large slices, by roasting, or other means of blistering or charring the skin, so as not to entirely cook the flesh beneath. When cooled, the skins will usually slip off easily.
The leaves of every species of Capsicum are edible. Though almost all other Solanaceous crops have toxins in their leaves, chili peppers do not. The leaves, which are mildly bitter and nowhere near as hot as the fruit, are cooked as greens in Filipino cuisine, where they are called dahon ng sili (literally "chili leaves"). They are used in the chicken soup tinola. In Korean cuisine, the leaves may be used in kimchi. In Japanese cuisine, the leaves are cooked as greens, and also cooked in tsukudani style for preservation.
Many Mexican dishes, including variations on chiles rellenos, use the entire chili. Dried whole chilies may be reconstituted before grinding to a paste. The chipotle is the smoked, dried, ripe jalapeño. In the northern Mexican states of Sinaloa and Sonora, chiltepin peppers (a wild pepper) are used in cheeses and soups to add spiciness to dishes. In southern Mexico, mole sauce is made with dried chiles, such as ancho and chipotle peppers. Chiles are used in salsas. Mexican households usually grow chile plants to use in cooking.
In India, most households always keep a stock of fresh hot green chilies at hand, and use them to flavor most curries and dry dishes. It is typically lightly fried with oil in the initial stages of preparation of the dish. Some states in India, such as Rajasthan, make entire dishes only by using spices and chilies.
Chili is a staple fruit in Bhutan. Bhutanese call this crop ema (in Dzongkha) or solo (in Sharchop). The ema datshi recipe is entirely made of chili mixed with local cheese.
Chilies are present in many cuisines. Some notable chili-forward dishes other than the ones mentioned elsewhere in this article include arrabbiata sauce, paprikash, chiles en nogada, jerk chicken, mole poblano, nam phrik, 'nduja, sambal, and som tam.
Fresh or dried chilies are often used to make hot sauce, a liquid condiment—usually bottled when commercially available—that adds spice to other dishes. Hot sauces are found in many cuisines including harissa from North Africa, chili oil from China (known as rāyu in Japan), and sriracha from Thailand. Dried chilies are also used to infuse cooking oil.
The contrast in color and appearance makes chili plants interesting to some as a purely decorative garden plant.
- Black pearl pepper: small cherry-shaped fruits and dark brown to black leaves
- Black Hungarian pepper: green foliage, highlighted by purple veins and purple flowers, jalapeño-shaped fruits
- Bishop's crown pepper, Christmas bell pepper: named for its distinct three-sided shape resembling a red bishop's crown or a red Christmas bell
Psychologist Paul Rozin suggests that eating chilies is an example of a "constrained risk" like riding a roller coaster, in which extreme sensations like pain and fear can be enjoyed because individuals know that these sensations are not actually harmful. This method lets people experience extreme feelings without any significant risk of bodily harm.
Topical use and health research
Capsaicin, the pungent chemical in chili peppers, is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays, and dermal patches to relieve pain. A 2022 review of preliminary research indicated that regular consumption of chili peppers was associated with weak evidence for a lower risk of death from cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
Capsaicin extracted from chilies is used in pepper sprays and some tear gas formulations as a chemical irritant, for use as less-lethal weapons for control of unruly individuals or crowds. Such products have considerable potential for misuse, and may cause injury or death.
Conflicts between farmers and elephants have long been widespread in African and Asian countries, where elephants nightly destroy crops, raid grain houses, and sometimes kill people. Farmers have found the use of chilies effective in crop defense against elephants. Elephants do not like capsaicin. Because the elephants have a large and sensitive olfactory and nasal system, the smell of the chili causes them discomfort and deters them from feeding on the crops. By planting a few rows of the fruit around valuable crops, farmers create a buffer zone through which the elephants are reluctant to pass. Chili dung bombs are also used for this purpose. They are bricks made of mixing dung and chili, and are burned, creating a noxious smoke that keeps hungry elephants out of farmers' fields. This can lessen dangerous physical confrontation between people and elephants.
Birds do not have the same sensitivity to capsaicin, because it targets a specific pain receptor in mammals. Chili peppers are eaten by birds living in the chili peppers' natural range, possibly contributing to seed dispersal and evolution of the protective capsaicin in chili peppers, as a bird in flight can spread the seeds further away from the parent plant after they pass through its digestive system than any land or tree dwelling mammal could do so under the same circumstances, thus reducing competition for resources.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||166 kJ (40 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||1.5 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.|
|Capsaicin||0.01g – 6 g|
|†Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. |
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Red hot chili peppers are 88% water, 9% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and 0.4% fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, chili peppers supply 40 calories, and are a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin B6 (table).
Spelling and usage
The three primary spellings are chili, chile and chilli, all of which are recognized by dictionaries.
- Chili is widely used in English of the United States and Canada. However, it is also commonly used as a short name for chili con carne (literally "chili with meat"), most versions of which are seasoned with chili powder, which in turn can refer to pure dried, ground chili peppers, or to a mixture containing other spices.
- Chile is the most common Spanish spelling in Mexico and several other Latin American countries, as well as some parts of the United States and Canada, which refers specifically to this plant and its fruit. In the Southwest United States (particularly New Mexico), chile also denotes a thick, spicy, un-vinegared sauce made from this fruit, available in red and green varieties, and served over the local food, while chili denotes the meat dish. The plural is chile or chiles.
- Chilli was the original Romanization of the Náhuatl language word for the fruit (chilli) and is the preferred British spelling according to the Oxford English Dictionary, although it also lists chile and chili as variants. Chilli (and its plural chillies) is the most common spelling in India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore and South Africa.
The name of the plant is unrelated to that of Chile, the country, which has an uncertain etymology perhaps relating to local place names. Certain Spanish-speaking countries in South America and the Caribbean, including Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Puerto Rico, call the peppers as ají, a word of Taíno origin.
Though pepper originally referred to the genus Piper, not Capsicum, the latter usage is included in English dictionaries, including the Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam-Webster. The word pepper is also commonly used in the botanical and culinary fields in the names of different types of pungent plants and their fruits.
The volatile oil in spicy peppers may cause skin irritation, requiring handwashing and care when touching the eyes or any sensitive body parts. Consuming hot peppers may cause stomach pain, hyperventilation, sweating, vomiting, and symptoms possibly requiring hospitalization.
The habanero pepper
Removing seeds and pith from dried chilies in San Pedro Atocpan, Mexico
Dried Thai bird's eye chilies
Guntur chilli drying in the sun, Andhra Pradesh, India
Sundried chili at Imogiri, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
New Mexico chiles dried on the plant in Mesilla, New Mexico
Peperoncino chili in Tropea, Italy with a sign saying "Il Viagra Calabrese" (the Calabrian viagra).
- Chili grenade, a type of weapon made with chili peppers
- Hatch, New Mexico, known as the "Chile Capital of the World"
- History of chocolate, which the Maya drank with ground chili peppers
- International Connoisseurs of Green and Red Chile, organization for the promotion of chili peppers
- Ristra, an arrangement of dried chili pepper pods
- Salsa (sauce)
- Sweet chili sauce, a condiment for adding a sweet, mild heat taste to food
- Food and drink prohibitions, which in some cultures includes chili peppers
- ^ "Chili pepper". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
- ^ "Capsicum annuum L. — The Plant List". www.theplantlist.org.
- ^ Dasgupta RR (8 May 2011). "Indian chilli displacing jalapenos in global cuisine". The Economic Times.
- ^ "HORT410. Peppers – Notes". Purdue University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Archived from the original on 26 December 2018. Retrieved 20 October 2009.
Common name: pepper. Latin name: Capsicum annuum L. ... Harvested organ: fruit. Fruit varies substantially in shape, pericarp thickness, color and pungency.
- ^ Mishan, Ligaya. "How The Chili Became Hot". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
- ^ a b Pickersgill B (December 1971). "Relationships Between Weedy and Cultivated Forms in Some Species of Chili Peppers (Genus Capsicum)". Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution. 25 (4): 683–691. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.1971.tb01926.x. PMID 28564789. S2CID 205772121.
- ^ a b Katherine C, Christine H (16 December 2014). "A Systematic Approach to Species-Level Identification of Chile Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Seeds: Establishing the Groundwork for Tracking the Domestication and Movement of Chile Peppers through the Americas and Beyond". Economic Botany. New York Botanical Garden Press. 68 (3): 316–336. doi:10.1007/s12231-014-9279-2. JSTOR 43305668. S2CID 36556206. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
- ^ a b Kraft KH, Brown CH, Nabhan GP, Luedeling E, Luna Ruiz J, Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge G, et al. (April 2014). "Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111 (17): 6165–6170. Bibcode:2014PNAS..111.6165K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1308933111. PMC 4035960. PMID 24753581.
- ^ "Green chili production in 2019; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity/Green Chillies and Peppers from pick lists". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2021. Retrieved 12 December 2021.
- ^ a b c d Bosland PW (1998). "Capsicums: Innovative uses of an ancient crop". In Janick J (ed.). Progress in New Crops. Arlington, VA: ASHS Press. pp. 479–487. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- ^ "Birthplace of the domesticated chili pepper identified in Mexico". EurekaAlert, American Association for the Advancement of Science. 21 April 2014.
- ^ Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich (July 2016). "Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers ( Capsicum , Solanaceae)". Annals of Botany. 118 (1): 35–51. doi:10.1093/aob/mcw079. ISSN 0305-7364. PMC 4934398. PMID 27245634.
- ^ a b van Zonneveld M, Ramirez M, Williams DE, Petz M, Meckelmann S, Avila T, et al. (2015). "Screening Genetic Resources of Capsicum Peppers in Their Primary Center of Diversity in Bolivia and Peru". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0134663. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1034663V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0134663. PMC 4581705. PMID 26402618.
- ^ a b Bosland PW, Votava E (2000). Peppers: Vegetable and Spice Capsicums. New York City: CABI. p. 1. ISBN 9780851993355. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- ^ Collingham E (February 2006). Curry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-09-943786-4.
- ^ Raj NM, Peter KV, Nybe EV (1 January 2007). Spices. New India Publishing. pp. 107–. ISBN 978-81-89422-44-8.
- ^ Robinson S (14 June 2007). "Chili Peppers: Global Warming". Time. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- ^ McQuaid J (20 February 2015). "What's driving the global chili pepper craze?". Forbes Media. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- ^ a b "Green chili production in 2020; Crops/World Regions/Production Quantity/Green Chillies and Peppers from pick lists". UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Statistics Division (FAOSTAT). 2022. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
- ^ Normah MN, Chin HF, Reed BM (2013). Conservation of tropical plant species. New York: Springer. p. 397. ISBN 9781461437758. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- ^ Kosuge S, Inagaki Y, Okumura H (1961). "Studies on the pungent principles of red pepper. Part VIII. On the chemical constitutions of the pungent principles". Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi. 35: 923–927. doi:10.1271/nogeikagaku1924.35.10_923. Chem. Abstr. 1964, 60, 9827g.
- ^ Kosuge S, Inagaki Y (1962). "Studies on the pungent principles of red pepper. Part XI. Determination and contents of the two pungent". J. Agric. Chem. Soc. Japan (in Japanese). 36: 251–254.
- ^ Ruiz-Lau N, Medina-Lara F, Minero-García Y, Zamudio-Moreno E, Guzmán-Antonio A, Echevarría-Machado I, Martínez-Estévez M (1 March 2011). "Water Deficit Affects the Accumulation of Capsaicinoids in Fruits of Capsicum chinense Jacq". HortScience. 46 (3): 487–492. doi:10.21273/HORTSCI.46.3.487. ISSN 0018-5345.
- ^ O'Neill J, Brock C, Olesen AE, Andresen T, Nilsson M, Dickenson AH (October 2012). "Unravelling the mystery of capsaicin: a tool to understand and treat pain". Pharmacological Reviews. 64 (4): 939–971. doi:10.1124/pr.112.006163. PMC 3462993. PMID 23023032.
- ^ "History of the Scoville Scale | FAQS". Tabasco.Com. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 23 December 2010.
- ^ a b Tewksbury JJ, Reagan KM, Machnicki NJ, Carlo TA, Haak DC, Peñaloza AL, Levey DJ (August 2008). "Evolutionary ecology of pungency in wild chilies". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 105 (33): 11808–11811. Bibcode:2008PNAS..10511808T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0802691105. PMC 2575311. PMID 18695236.
- ^ Filippone PT (11 October 2000). "Chile Pepper Heat Scoville Scale". Homecooking.about.com. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- ^ Licata E (23 September 2017). "Pepper X is the new hottest pepper in the world". Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Morris L (22 January 2018). "The Hottest Chilli in the World was Created in Wales Accidentally". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 18 February 2018. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
- ^ Lynch K (19 November 2013). "Confirmed: Smokin Ed's Carolina Reaper sets new record for hottest chilli". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 8 November 2014.
- ^ Bryan SM (16 February 2012). "Trinidad Moruga Scorpion wins hottest pepper title". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 1 April 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
- ^ Joshi M (11 March 2012). "Chile Pepper Institute studies what's hot". Your life. USA Today. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012.
- ^ Da Silva M (12 April 2011). "Aussies grow world's hottest chilli". Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 28 October 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2011.
- ^ "Title of world's hottest chili pepper stolen – again". The Independent. London. 25 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- ^ Henderson N (19 February 2011). ""Record-breaking" chilli is hot news". BBC News. Retrieved 20 February 2011.
- ^ "Home". Guinness World Records.
- ^ "Dahon ng Sili (Chili pepper leaves)". Tribo ความสุขบนเตียง. Archived from the original on 12 March 2007.
- ^ "Vitamin Rich Chili pepper Leaf Kimchi". Ssoft International Corporation. Archived from the original on 14 November 2009.
- ^ "Chilies as Ornamental Plants". Seedsbydesign. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013.
- ^ "Bishop's crown pepper, image". CayenneDiane.com.
- ^ Rozin P, Schiller D (1980). "The Nature and Acquisition of a Preference for Chili Pepper by Humans". Motivation and Emotion. 4 (1): 77–101. doi:10.1007/BF00995932. S2CID 143848453.
- ^ Fattori V, Hohmann MS, Rossaneis AC, Pinho-Ribeiro FA, Verri WA (June 2016). "Capsaicin: Current Understanding of Its Mechanisms and Therapy of Pain and Other Pre-Clinical and Clinical Uses". Molecules. 21 (7): 844. doi:10.3390/molecules21070844. PMC 6273101. PMID 27367653.
- ^ Kaur M, Verma BR, Zhou L, Lak HM, Kaur S, Sammour YM, et al. (March 2022). "Association of pepper intake with all-cause and specific cause mortality - A systematic review and meta-analysis". American Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 9: 100301. doi:10.1016/j.ajpc.2021.100301. PMC 8688560. PMID 34977833.
- ^ a b Haar RJ, Iacopino V, Ranadive N, Weiser SD, Dandu M (October 2017). "Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray". BMC Public Health. 17 (1): 831. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4814-6. PMC 5649076. PMID 29052530.
- ^ Mott M. "Elephant Crop Raids Foiled by Chili Peppers, Africa Project Finds". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2013.
- ^ Tewksbury JJ, Nabhan GP (July 2001). "Seed dispersal. Directed deterrence by capsaicin in chilies". Nature. 412 (6845): 403–404. doi:10.1038/35086653. PMID 11473305. S2CID 4389051.
- ^ a b "Chili". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2021.; other spellings are listed as variants, with "chilli" described as "chiefly British"
- ^ The Canadian Oxford Dictionary lists chili as the main entry, and labels chile as a variant, and chilli as a British variant.
- ^ Heiser C (August 1990). Seed To Civilization: The Story of Food. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-79681-2.
- ^ "chile". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- ^ a b c "Chilli, chilly". OED. Vol. 2 C (1 Corrected re-issue ed.). Oxford, UK. 1933. p. 346. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
- ^ Usage example: "Fall in exports crushes chilli prices in Guntur". Thehindubusinessline.com. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- ^ Usage example: "Chilli, Capsicum and Pepper are spicy plants grown for the pod. Green chilli is a culinary requirement in any Sri Lankan household". The Sunday Times. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- ^ a b "Pepper". OED. Vol. 7 N–Poy (1 Corrected re-issue ed.). Oxford, UK. 1913. p. 663. Retrieved 19 July 2021. (sense 2b of pepper)
- ^ "pepper". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- ^ Andrea Beck (8 May 2019). "How to Handle Hot Peppers and Chiles Safely". Better Homes and Gardens. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
- ^ Veronique Greenwood (21 October 2016). "Many of us love the burning sensation from hot chillies. But are they doing us any harm?". BBC. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
- Kottasová I, Hunt K (4 October 2021). "How chili peppers helped Nobel Prize winners understand how we feel heat". CNN.
- Murez C (9 November 2020). "Hot Discovery: Chili Peppers Might Extend Your Life". U.S. News& World Report. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- "Researchers develop portable device to quantify capsaicin content in chili peppers". News Medical Life Sciences. 22 October 2020. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
- Plant Cultures: Chilli pepper botany, history and uses
- The Chile Pepper Institute of New Mexico State University
- Capsicums: Innovative Uses of an Ancient Crop
- Chilli: La especia del Nuevo Mundo (Article from Germán Octavio López Riquelme about biology, nutrition, culture and medical topics. In Spanish)
- The Hot Pepper List List of chili pepper varieties ordered by heat rating in Scoville Heat Units (SHU)
- Agriculture in Mesoamerica
- Chili peppers
- Medicinal plants of Central America
- Medicinal plants of South America
- Crops originating from Ecuador
- Crops originating from Mexico
- Crops originating from Peru
- Symbols of New Mexico
- Leaf vegetables
- New Mexican cuisine
- Cuisine of the Southwestern United States
- Crops originating from the Americas
- Indian spices
- Sri Lankan spices
- Mesoamerican cuisine
- Mexican cuisine
- Fruits originating in North America