The chin-up (also known as a chin or chinup) is a strength training exercise. People frequently do this exercise with the intention of strengthening muscles such as the latissimus dorsi and biceps, which extend the shoulder and flex the elbow, respectively. In this maneuver, the palms are faced towards the body.
In the 1970s and 1980s, the term chin-up not only included an overhand/pronated ("palms away") grip, but some authors used it as the default meaning of the term, with an underhand/supinated ("palms toward") grip called a "reverse" grip. Even in the 2010s "chin-up" still includes palms-away lifting. The term "chin-up" is still regularly used to refer to pulling using an overhand-grip.
A chin-up is named by bringing the chin up through space, specifically in relation to its position with the bar or other hand grips. This can be either touching the bar (more easily done by extending the neck, though that could be considered cheating) or by bringing the chin over the bar. This exercise is easier for males than females because of the male tendency to have stronger and larger biceps and a higher centre of gravity.
This is usually achieved most easily with vertical forearms that are close to the body. For most, bringing the chin this high is most easily achieved with a supinated (underhanded, palms-toward) grip. Due to this, the phrase "chin-up" has become associated with pulling with this type of grip. Some have delegated the term pull-up to refer to the pronated (overhanded, palms-away) grip. In spite of this, many refer to pull-ups with a pronated grip also as chin-ups, and the supine grip is still regularly called a pull-up.
Some organizations such as the American Council on Exercise have adopted this new terminology, issuing statements such as: "a chin-up differs from a pull-up in that the puller's hands are facing towards him or her in a chin-up, and away in a pull-up."[failed verification] Organizations such as the United States Marine Corps, however, use the term pull-up interchangeably to refer to both the overhand and underhand grips.
The body is pulled up, with the bar approaching or touching the upper chest. A chin-up is considered complete based on a variety of criteria in relation to where the chin should be in respect to the bar, or in respect to the hand grips.
The body is then lowered until the arms are straight but not in a lockout, and the exercise is generally repeated.
Like any pull-up, chin-ups can be performed with a kip, where the legs and back flop around to aid the exercise, or from a dead hang, where the body is kept still. Performing the chin-up correctly can be tricky with a supinated grip, because of the natural tendency to do most of the work with the elbow flexors (largely biceps) rather than the shoulder extensors (largely lats).
Initiating the pulling action with scapular depression may help avoid this problem. The exercise is most effective in stretching the working muscles when the body is lowered down to a full extension.
Chin-ups, like most pull-ups, target the latissimus dorsi muscle of the back as a shoulder extensor, scapular downward rotator and scapular depressor, in bringing the spine to the humerus. This is assisted by elbow flexors (brachialis, brachioradialis, biceps brachii) which bring the humerus to the forearm. Chin-ups, unlike pull-ups, also highly target the biceps. That is one of the main differences between pull-ups and chin-ups.
The lat's functions are also assisted, both by shoulder extensors (teres major, posterior deltoid, infraspinatus, teres minor), scapular downward rotators (rhomboids, levator scapulae), and scapular depressors (lower trapezius and pectoralis muscles).
Pulling higher with a narrow grip puts the focus on extension rather than adduction of the shoulder.
If one leans back at the top of the movement, the focus is shifted somewhat towards scapular retraction and hyperextension.
The weight of the legs and pelvis are borne by spinal ligaments and various muscles that flex or extend the spine. If the pelvis is tilted anterior and the legs brought behind, the erector spinae (with aid from the lats) bears more weight. If the pelvis is tilted posterior and the legs brought in front, the rectus abdominis (with aid from the psoas) bears more.
- Sternal chin-ups (also called sternum chins) — this variant employs a fuller range of motion at the top, raising beyond the chin and touching the sternum to the bar. The elbows are nearly directly below the shoulders this way. This requires adequate scapular depression. If leaning back (arching the spine) a sternum-up can be done that is not a chin-up, this shifts to requiring scapular retraction.
- Weighted chin-ups — weight is added dangling from a dipping belt or via weighted belt or vest, ankle weights, chains, medicine ball between the knees, dumbbell between the feet or kettlebells on top of the feet.
- One-arm chin-ups — one hand grips the bar and the other hand does not assist
- One-hand chin-ups — One hand grips the bar while the other arm assists by grabbing the forearm of the arm hanging onto the bar. These require far less strength than a one-arm chin-up.
- Spine chin-ups — in the supine position, the arms are held perpendicular to the body as the grip the bar; instead of the chin, the chest is pulled towards the bar. This exercise is performed in the horizontal (transverse) plane, whereas other chin-up variations are performed in the vertical (coronal) plane. As a result, this variation recruits the trapezius and teres major muscles much more than a vertical chin-up would, and is more commonly known as the supine row. Advanced versions popular amongst gymnasts are performed completely off the ground in some type of front lever.
Training and performance
Specific training is needed in order to increase chin-ups performance.
The performance can be measured in various ways:
- number of repetitions without touching the floor
- number of repetitions in a specified time interval (1/3/30 minutes, 1/6/12/24 hours)
- number of repetitions with a total weight (body weight plus additional weight)
Various organizations like Guinness World Records maintain lists of world records for chin-ups and pull-ups. Both recordholders.org and Guinness World Records maintain that pull-ups use a pronated grip, while chin-ups use a supinated grip.
Chin-ups in fitness assessments
The chin-up exercise is used by uniformed services around the world to assess the physical fitness of its members. In order to be accepted into and remain in a particular service, a candidate may need to carry out a certain number of chin-ups to a prescribed technique. This number may vary with age and gender.
- for US Rangers, the Ranger Physical Fitness Test requires candidates to complete at least six chin-ups in two minutes.
- for the United States Secret Service, candidates are required to execute chin-ups with their arms fully extended in the downwards phase. No time limit is required. To achieve a 'fair' rating, male candidates need to complete seven chin-ups (if aged from 20 to 29), six (30 to 39), four (40 to 49) or two (over 50). Female candidates, irrespective of age, need to complete two chin-ups.
- Australian navy clearance divers and special forces are required to complete six chin-ups (or 'heaves').
- Canadian parachutists are required to demonstrate at least seven chin-ups.
Chin-up bars are playground equipment that were once ubiquitous on children's playgrounds. They are still important in the adult equivalent of a playground, the parcourse. A chin-up bar is simply a smooth horizontal metal bar, often a pipe, held solidly above ground by a wooden or metal frame. Typical installations include 2 or 3 different heights of bars for people of different heights. Chin up bars are also a part of a home gym setup. Types of chin-up bars include doorway-mounted, wall-mounted, ceiling-mounted and free-standing.
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During a Pull-Up the muscles that are mainly worked are those of the upper body and the arms.
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14. Chinning The Bar (illus 15) Hang .. with your hands over the bar
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45 Bodybuilding, Self-defense Courses .. Tensile Contraction - by mail .. The Bodybuilding Center, P.O. Box 146-PS-6 Brampton, Ontario, Canada
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Behind neck chin up: .. Use an overhand grip.
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Take a wide overhand grip on the chinning bar and slowly hoist your body up until your chin is just above the bar.
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Natural-Hands Grip: .. palms of your hands turned to the front .. Reverse-Hands Grip: .. palms of your hands facing your body .. The Neck Chin .. a wide natural-hands grip(paper edition, ISBN changes to 0-668-05625-8 for cloth edition)
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Chin Ups: Take a fairly wide grip on a chinning bar, palms away from you .. Close-Grip Chin-Ups: Hands are close together on the chinning bar, palms away from you .. Reverse Grip Chin-Ups: Use a curling grip (palms toward you)2 photographs depicting an overhand (palms forward, pronated) grip and captions:
page 99 "Here Clare Furr shows impressively wide lats in her chin-ups."
page 132 "James DeMelo does an intense set of chin-ups"
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More Difficult: Use a wide-grip with .. your palms facing away from your body.
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grasp bar with overhand wide grip
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grasp bar with overhand wide grip
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grasp bar with wide overhand grip
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a command will not mandate that Marines must use the overhand grip when executing pull-ups or flexed-arm hang
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