China–Egypt relations

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Sino-Egyptian relations
Map indicating locations of Egypt and China

Egypt

China

People's Republic of China – Egypt relations were established on May 30, 1956.[1] Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai visited Egypt three times during his tenure,[1] and President Hosni Mubarak has visited China several times.[1] Egypt's first democratically elected president, Mohamed Morsi also flew to China on an official visit.

History[edit]

Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah sent a delegation to Song dynasty China led by Domiyat.

Yusuf Ma Dexin visited Egypt.

The Republic of China (1912–49) sent Hui Muslims like Muhammad Ma Jian and other Hui Muslim students to study at Al-Azhar in Egypt.[2] The Fuad Muslim Library in China was named after Fuad I of Egypt by the Chinese Muslim Ma Songting.[3]

Imam Wang Jingzhai studied at Al-Azhar University in Egypt along with several other Chinese Muslim students, the first Chinese students in modern times to study in the Middle East.[4] Wang recalled his experience teaching at madrassas in the provinces of Henan (Yu), Hebei (Ji), and Shandong (Lu) which were outside of the traditional stronghold of Muslim education in northwest China, and where the living conditions were poorer and the students had a much tougher time than the northwestern students.[5] In 1931 China sent five students to study at Al-Azhar in Egypt, among them was Muhammad Ma Jian and they were the first Chinese to study at Al-Azhar.[6][7][8][9] Na Zhong, a descendant of Nasr al-Din (Yunnan) was another one of the students sent to Al-Azhar in 1931, along with Zhang Ziren, Ma Jian, and Lin Zhongming.[10]

A Hadith(圣训),(It is not a real Hadith but was a popular slogan among Arabic speakers in Middle East in the 19th-20th centuries. It spread to China via Hui Muslim students like Muhammad Ma Jian who studied at Al-Azhar in Egypt) a saying of the prophet Muhammad, spread to China, which says "Loving the Motherland is equivalent to loving the Faith" (traditional Chinese: 愛護祖國是屬於信仰的一部份; simplified Chinese: 爱护祖国是属于信仰的一部份; pinyin: àihù zǔguó shì shǔyú xìnyǎng de yī bùfèn) (Arabic: حب الوطن من الایمان‎‎ ḥubb al-waṭan min al-imān).[11]

Chinese Muslims fought against Japan in World War II. The Hui Muslim Imam Da Pusheng 达浦生 toured the Middle East to confront Japanese propagandists in Arab countries and denounce their invasion to the Islamic world. He directly confronted Japanese agents in Arab countries and challenged them in public over their propaganda. He went to British India, Hejaz in Saudi Arabia and Cairo in Egypt.

An anti-Japanese 8 month tour to spread awareness of the war in Muslim nations was undertaken by Muslim Shanghai Imam Da Pusheng.[12]

Misinformation on the war was spread in the Islamic Middle Eastern nations by Japanese agents. In response, in the World Islamic Congress in Hejaz, Imam Du openly confronted fake Muslim Japanese agents and exposed them as non-Muslims. Japan's history of imperialism was explained by Du to his fellow Muslims. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the future founder of Pakistan, met with Imam Du. The anti Japanese war effort in China received a pledge of support from Jinnah.[13]

The anti-Japanese tour took place in 1938 in the Middle East by Da.[14] From 1938 to 1948 Da served on China's National Military Council. In 1923 he completed his education at Al Azhar.[15] China's Four Great Imams counted him as one of their members.[16]

In order to gain backing for China in Muslim countries, Egypt, Syria, and Turkey was visited by Hui Muslim 馬賦良[17] Ma Fuliang and Uyghur Muslim Isa Yusuf Alptekin in 1939.[18] The Hindu leaders Tagore and Gandhi and Muslim Jinnah both discussed the war with the Chinese Muslim delegation under Ma Fuliang while in Turkey İsmet İnönü met with the Chinese Muslim delegation.[19] Newspapers in China reported the visit.[20] Ma Fuliang and Isa were working for Zhu Jiahua.[21]

The bombardment of Chinese Muslims by the warplanes of the Japanese was reported in the newspapers of Syria. Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon were all toured by the delegation. The Foreign Minister, Prime Minister, and President of Turkey met with the Chinese Muslim delegation after they came via Egypt in May 1939. Gandhi and Jinnah met with the Hui Ma Fuliang and Uyghur Isa Alptekin as they denounced Japan.[22]

Ma Fuxliang, Isa Alptekin, Wang Zengshan, Xue Wenbo, and Lin Zhongming all went to Egypt to denounce Japan in front of the Arab and Islamic words.[23]

Anti-Japanese sentiment was spread by the Hui Muslim delegation under Wang Zengshan in Turkey through the Turkish media as the Hui Muslims denounced the Japanese invaders. During a meeting of ambassadors in Turkey the Japanese ambassador was forced to be quiet after being told to shut up by the Soviet Russian ambassador when the Japanese tried to insinuate that the Hui representatives did not represent ordinary Muslims.[24]

Hui Muslim General Ma Bufang and his retinue including Ma Chengxiang moved to Egypt before being appointed as ambassador to Saudi Arabia.

Bilateral trade[edit]

Bilateral trade reached about $4 billion U.S. dollars in 2007, up from $3.19b in 2006.[25] In 2010, it was worth US$7.0 billion.[26] In 2011 Egypt was the 5th largest trading partner of China in Africa and in the first 8 months of 2012 it was the 4th.[27]

Chinese development finance to Egypt[edit]

From 2000 to 2012, there are approximately 39 Chinese official development finance projects identified in Egypt through various media reports.[28][page needed] These projects range from jointly constructing an industrial park in the Northwest Suez Economic Zone beginning June 1, 2000,[29] to the construction of a Chinese language school in Cairo in 2002 through a 4 million USD grant from the Chinese government.[30] In 2014, Egyptian president Elsisi made a visit to China and signed a number of deals there.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "China-Egypt Relations". Chinese Foreign Ministry. January 18, 2004. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  2. ^ Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 382–. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6. 
  3. ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Stéphane A. Dudoignon, Hisao Komatsu, Yasushi Kosugi, eds. Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation, Communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 28 June 2010. 
  4. ^ ed. Kurzman 2002, p. 368.
  5. ^ ed. Kurzman 2002, p. 373.
  6. ^ "China Magazine, Volumes 6-7" 1941, p. 21.
  7. ^ "China at War, Volume 6" 1941, p. 21.
  8. ^ "Asia and the Americas, Volume 42, Issues 1-6" 1942, p. 21.
  9. ^ "Asia, Volume 42" 1942, p. 21.
  10. ^ 编导:韩玲 (Director: Han Ling) 摄像:李斌 (Photography: Li Bin) (央视国际 (CCTV international)). 2005年02月24日 16:22.
  11. ^ Stéphane A. Dudoignon; Hisao Komatsu; Yasushi Kosugi (2006). Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication. Taylor & Francis. p. 279. ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  12. ^ Zhufeng Luo (January 1991). Religion Under Socialism in China. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-0-87332-609-4. 
  13. ^ http://www.88dict.com/archives/485094/ http://archive. is/jDCDc
  14. ^ Archives de sciences sociales des religions. Centre national de la recherche scientifique (France). 2001. p. 29. 
  15. ^ Wolfgang Bartke (1 January 1997). Who was Who in the People's Republic of China: With more than 3100 Portraits. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-3-11-096823-1. 
  16. ^ Stephane A. Dudoignon; Komatsu Hisao; Kosugi Yasushi (27 September 2006). Intellectuals in the Modern Islamic World: Transmission, Transformation and Communication. Routledge. pp. 321–. ISBN 978-1-134-20597-4. 
  17. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 126–. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7.  http://wenku.baidu.com/view/b09c1314a8114431b90dd89a.html?re=view
  18. ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (4 August 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-203-84497-7. Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-136-92392-0. Hsiao-ting Lin (13 September 2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7. 
  19. ^ http://www.huizu360.com/huizu/news_view.asp?tid=5&id=19276
  20. ^ http://contentdm.lib.nccu.edu.tw/cdm/ref/collection/38clip/id/34722
  21. ^ http://www.qh.xinhuanet.com/2009-11/27/content_18352582.htm
  22. ^ http://www.xzbu.com/7/view-1606508.htm
  23. ^ http://www.xzbu.com/4/view-3247116.htm
  24. ^ http://www.academia.edu/4427135/The_Chinese_Islamic_Goodwill_Mission_to_the_Middle_East_-_Japonya_ya_Kar%C5%9F%C4%B1_Sava%C5%9Fta_%C3%87inli_M%C3%BCsl%C3%BCmanlar%C4%B1n_Orta_Do%C4%9Fu_%C4%B1yi_Niyet_Heyeti_-_Wan_LEI pp. 156, 157, 158.
  25. ^ "Chinese ambassador highlights China-Egypt relations". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the People's Republic of China. 2007-10-29. Retrieved 2010-06-13. 
  26. ^ "China pledges $20bn in credit for Africa at summit". BBC News Online. BBC. 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2012-07-19. 
  27. ^ "Mozambique-China Trade Continues to Grow". allafrica.com. 2012-12-09. Retrieved 2012-12-09. 
  28. ^ Austin Strange, Bradley C. Parks, Michael J. Tierney, Andreas Fuchs, Axel Dreher, and Vijaya Ramachandran. 2013. China’s Development Finance to Africa: A Media-Based Approach to Data Collection. CGD Working Paper 323. Washington DC: Center for Global Development.http://china.aiddata.org[page needed]
  29. ^ Strange, Parks, Tierney, Fuchs, Dreher, and Ramachandran, China’s Development Finance to Africa: A Media-Based Approach to Data Collection.http://aiddatachina.org/projects/440[dead link][dead link]
  30. ^ Strange, Parks, Tierney, Fuchs, Dreher, and Ramachandran, China’s Development Finance to Africa: A Media-Based Approach to Data Collection.http://aiddatachina.org/projects/468[dead link][dead link]