China–Netherlands relations

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China–Netherlands relations
Map indicating locations of China and Netherlands



China – Netherlands relations officially began in November 1954.[1] In May 1972, diplomatic mission was increased to ambassadorial level.[1]


Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte with Chinese President Xi Jinping in December 2013

Sino-Dutch relations began prior to the founding of the People's Republic of China in the 17th and 18th century when Dutch traders of the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) setup trading post in Guangzhou and also in the western coast of Taiwan.[2] In the Sino–Dutch conflicts Ming dynasty China defeated the Dutch East India Company in a war over the Penghu islands from 1622-1624. The Ming dynasty forces under Zheng Zhilong defeated the Dutch again at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay in 1633, and Ming loyalists under Zheng Chenggong (Koxinga) defeated the Dutch and expelled them from Taiwan in the 1662 Siege of Fort Zeelandia.

People's Republic of China–Netherlands began in 1954.[3] Due to the Netherlands government assistance with two submarines to Taiwan, the bilateral relationship was downgraded in May 1981 to the level of Chargé d'affaires.[1] It was until 1 February 1984, China and the Netherlands restored full diplomatic relations when the Netherlands agreed not to conduct trade in relation to defence hardware with Taiwan.[1]

Netherlands export to China includes petrochemicals, machinery, transport equipment, food, high technology and fossil fuels.[4] China's export to the Netherlands includes computer and consumer electronics, toys and clothes.[4][5][6]

In March 2014, Chinese President Xi Jinping made the first state visit of China to the Netherlands in history.[7]

Bilateral relations[edit]

Embassy of the Netherlands in China

Bilateral trade between the two countries have increased over the years. The Netherlands are China’s third largest trade partner in the EU. The trade volume jumped last year has increased by 44.3 percent.[8] This is 4.6 billion euro in 2009.[4] China exported $36.7 billions to the Netherlands in 2009.[9]

Dutch enterprises have invested US$7.48 billion into 824 projects in China.[8]

In July 2019, the UN ambassadors from 22 nations, including Netherlands, signed a joint letter to the UNHRC condemning China’s mistreatment of the Uyghurs as well as its mistreatment of other minority groups, urging the Chinese government to close the Xinjiang re-education camps.[10][11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "China and the Netherlands". Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  2. ^ Author Yong Liu, (2007), The Dutch East India Company's tea trade with China, 1757–1781, Volume 6 of TANAP monographs on the history of the Asian-European interaction, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-15599-6, ISBN 978-90-04-15599-2, 277 pages, 17–89, 91–117
  3. ^ "China Relations with Europe". Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  4. ^ a b c "More goods exported to China, imports from China down". Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 2 July 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ "Imports from China rising more slowly". Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  7. ^ "Historisch bezoek Xi aan Nederland". NOS (in Dutch). 22 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  8. ^ a b 1 Jul 2009, Background Information about the People's Republic of China Archived 18 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 January 2013. Retrieved 2013-01-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. ^ "Which Countries Are For or Against China's Xinjiang Policies?". The Diplomat. 15 July 2019.
  11. ^ "More than 20 ambassadors condemn China's treatment of Uighurs in Xinjiang". The Guardian. 11 July 2019.

External links[edit]