China, Maine

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China, Maine
Town
Location in Kennebec County and the state of Maine.
Location in Kennebec County and the state of Maine.
Coordinates: 44°25′47″N 69°32′15″W / 44.42972°N 69.53750°W / 44.42972; -69.53750
Country United States
State Maine
County Kennebec
Area[1]
 • Total 56.86 sq mi (147.27 km2)
 • Land 49.88 sq mi (129.19 km2)
 • Water 6.98 sq mi (18.08 km2)
Elevation 272 ft (83 m)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 4,328
 • Estimate (2012[3]) 4,307
 • Density 86.8/sq mi (33.5/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code 04358
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-12735
GNIS feature ID 0582410

China is a town in Kennebec County, Maine, United States. The population was 4,328 at the 2010 census. China is included in the Augusta, Maine micropolitan New England City and Town Area.

Geography[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.86 square miles (147.27 km2), of which, 49.88 square miles (129.19 km2) of it is land and 6.98 square miles (18.08 km2) is water.[1]

Bodies of water in the town include China Lake, Three Mile Pond, and Branch Pond.

China Lake[edit]

China Lake
Max. length 6.8 mi (10.9 km)[4]
Surface area 3,939 acres (1,594 ha)[5]
Water volume 97,286 acre·ft (120,001,000 m3)[5]
Surface elevation 194 ft (59 m)[4]

China Lake has two large basins connected by a narrow neck. The elongated eastern basin with an average depth of less than 30 feet (9.1 m) is entirely within the town of China, and has an irregular shoreline heavily developed with residences and seasonal cottages. The more nearly circular western basin extending into East Vassalboro is as deep as 85 feet (26 m), and shoreline development around the western basin has been discouraged to allow use as a water supply for Waterville and Winslow.[6] The western basin overflows into Outlet Stream in the town of Vassalboro. Outlet Stream flows 7 miles (11 km) north to discharge into the Sebasticook River in Winslow 1 mile (1.6 km) upstream of the Kennebec River.[4]

Summer water temperatures in China Lake range from 72° near the surface to 48° in the deepest pools. Nutrient loading from shoreline development causes annual algal blooms with nocturnal depression of dissolved oxygen concentrations. These conditions have become unsuitable for historic populations of Atlantic salmon and lake trout. Introduced brown trout have adapted to lake conditions, and brook trout fishing has been sustained by stocking legal-size fish from surplus hatchery production. Fishermen seeking trout, chain pickerel, white perch, or smallmouth and largemouth bass may also catch yellow perch, sunfish, creek chub, white sucker, hornpout, or American eel. Public boat launch facilities are available at the north end of the eastern basin and in Vassalboro near the outlet of the western basin.[6]

Climate[edit]

This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, China has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps.[7]

History[edit]

In 1774 a family named Clark settled in the area and established Jones' Plantation. In 1796 Jones' Plantation was incorporated as Harlem. On June 25, 1818, the Town of China was incorporated by combining Harlem, Fairfax (Albion), and Winslow.

The name of the town was chosen by Japheth Washburn. He wanted to call the town Bloomville, but people from the town of Bloomfield objected, saying that the similarity of names could cause confusion. Mr. Washburn settled on the name China, because it was the name of one of his favorite hymns. This widely sung hymn was written by Timothy Swan of Northfield Massachusetts in 1790 and was published in Swan's "New England Harmony" in 1801.[8]

China actually had a fourth district located at the height of land between Palermo and Albion, part of which is located today in what is known as Thurston Park. It was in this area that numerous families of African-American descent settled. Their history, spanning roughly 1790 to 1860, can be itemized in the Maine state archives. If you have a guide, you can still locate some cemetery plots including a large obelisk stone in memory of "Tolbot" on a high wooded ridge which was also the location of an early shingle mill. Other burial and foundation sites are also present and can best be located by using early census maps and their indicators.

It is theorized that these families migrated here because it represented a safe area which slavehunters would not approach as China and several other towns were "Quaker" towns which would not tolerate slavehunters, no matter what either federal Fugitive Slave Act demanded.

Localities[edit]

The town of China contains four villages: China Village, South China, Weeks Mills, and Branch Mills.

Government[edit]

At a yearly Town meeting citizens elect five Town Selectmen, one of whom is chosen as chairman. The citizens also outline the budget for the coming year. The Selectmen appoint a Town Manager who oversees the daily operation of the town.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

China is part of Regional School Unit 18 (China, Rome, Belgrade, Sidney and Oakland). China students are given the choice of attending any public high school including nearby schools in Winslow, Waterville, Augusta and Oakland. There is also a private high school, Erskine Academy, in South China, which the majority of students choose to attend, and the town subsidizes their tuition (which Erskine reduces for China students). The town subsidizes a portion of tuition to any other private school a student chooses to attend, as well as the tuition to attend a public school.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1800 587
1810 939 60.0%
1820 894 −4.8%
1830 2,233 149.8%
1840 2,675 19.8%
1850 2,769 3.5%
1860 2,719 −1.8%
1870 2,118 −22.1%
1880 1,769 −16.5%
1890 1,423 −19.6%
1900 1,380 −3.0%
1910 1,297 −6.0%
1920 1,257 −3.1%
1930 1,163 −7.5%
1940 1,252 7.7%
1950 1,375 9.8%
1960 1,561 13.5%
1970 1,850 18.5%
1980 2,918 57.7%
1990 3,713 27.2%
2000 4,106 10.6%
2010 4,328 5.4%
Est. 2014 4,280 [9] −1.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]

2010 census[edit]

As of the census[2] of 2010, there were 4,328 people, 1,718 households, and 1,234 families residing in the town. The population density was 86.8 inhabitants per square mile (33.5/km2). There were 2,316 housing units at an average density of 46.4 per square mile (17.9/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 97.1% White, 0.3% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.9% of the population.

There were 1,718 households of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 28.2% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.91.

The median age in the town was 42.1 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 6.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 24.3% were from 25 to 44; 33.7% were from 45 to 64; and 11.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 49.8% male and 50.2% female.

2000 census[edit]

As of the census[11] of 2000, there were 4,106 people, 1,549 households, and 1,175 families residing in the town. The population density was 82.4 people per square mile (31.8/km²). There were 2,029 housing units at an average density of 40.7 per square mile (15.7/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 97.98% White, 0.15% African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, and 0.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.63% of the population.

There were 1,549 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 9.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 24.1% were non-families. 17.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the town the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $41,250, and the median income for a family was $42,768. Males had a median income of $31,802 versus $23,371 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,262. About 2.1% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.5% of those under age 18 and 7.0% of those age 65 or over.

Notable people[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2012-12-16. 
  3. ^ "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  4. ^ a b c The Maine Atlas and Gazeteer (Thirteenth ed.). Freeport, Maine: DeLorme Mapping Company. 1988. pp. 13&21. ISBN 0-89933-035-5. 
  5. ^ a b Maine Depts. of Environmental Protection and Inland Fisheries & Wildlife (2005-08-04). "Maine Lakes: Morphometry and Geographic Information". Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Environmental and Watershed Research, The University of Maine. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  6. ^ a b Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. "China Lake" (PDF). State of Maine. Retrieved 1 May 2016. 
  7. ^ Climate Summary for China, Maine
  8. ^ Timothy Swan
  9. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  11. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°28′43″N 69°31′02″W / 44.47861°N 69.51722°W / 44.47861; -69.51722