Cuban–Chinese relations are the interstate relations between the People's Republic of China and Republic of Cuba, which are both communist states. The origins of the relations began when the Qing dynasty established a consulate in Havana while Cuba was a still a colony of Spain in 1879. In 1902, the Qing recognized the independence of the Republic of Cuba from the United States (which had taken it from Spain in 1898).
The relations are based on trade, credits, and investments which have increased significantly since the 1990s. China is Cuba’s second largest trading partner after Venezuela. At a ceremonial trade gathering in Havana in early 2006, China’s ambassador to Cuba said “Our government has a firm position to develop trade co-operation between our countries. The policy, the orientation, has been determined. What’s left is the work to complete our plans.” Cuba and China are both ruled by a communist party, however, they were on different sides during the Cold War, with Cuba being an ally of the Soviet Union while China opposed it since it had different views on communism.
Bilateral trade between China and Cuba in 2005 totaled US$777 million, of which US$560 million were Chinese exports to Cuba. Bilateral trade between China and Cuba in 2014 totaled US$1.6 billion. China is sending a growing amount of durable goods to Cuba. Chinese goods have become the primary tools both in the planned revitalization of Cuban transport infrastructure and in the “Energy Revolution” of 2006 to provide electricity to the Cuban population. Some large-scale transactions include:
As of early 2006, Cuba had signed a contract for 1,000 Chinese buses for urban and inter-provincial transportation.
The Cuban government is replacing older appliances with newer, more energy-efficient models, including (as of early 2006) 30,000 Chinese refrigerators.
As of 2004, China had agreed to planning to invest US$500 million in the completion and operation of Las Camariocas, an unfinished processing facility from the Soviet era. Under the agreement, Cubaníquel, the state-run nickel producer, owns 51 percent and Chinese-government owned Minmetals Corporation owns 49 percent. Financing for the project is from the China Development Bank, with Sinosure, the Chinese Export and Credit Insurance Corporation, providing guarantees.
SINOPEC, the Chinese state oil company, has an agreement with state-owned CUPET (Cuba Petroleum) to develop oil resources. As of mid-2008, SINOPEC had done some seismic testing for oil resources on the island of Cuba, but no drilling. The company also has a contract for joint production in one of Cuba's offshore areas of high potential yield, off the coast of Pinar del Río, but had done no off-shore drilling as of mid-2008.
In November 2005, PetroChina Great Wall Drilling Co., Ltd. and CUPET held a ceremony for the signing of two drilling service contracts, to provide di; Great Wall Drilling has provided drilling rigs for oil exploration on Cuba's north coast.
In December 2005, the two countries signed an agreement to develop biotech joint ventures within the next three to five years. Two manufacturing plants using Cuban technology and processes, were operating in China as of early 2006.
Political and military relations
Chinese personnel have been operating two intelligence signal stations in Cuba since early 1999.
Other areas of cooperation
- Scientific and technical exchange and innovation in the industrial and agriculture sectors
- Cultural exchanges
- Medical, education and training exchanges
- Energy and transport infrastructure
- Jiang Zemin, The Future of Socialism Remains as Bright as Ever, Excerpt from remarks to Fidel Castro (Selected Works, Vol I, p. 327-330)
- Hearn, Adrian H. (2012), China, Global Governance and the Future of Cuba, in: Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 41, 1, 155-179.
- Hearn, Adrian H. Cuba and China: Lessons and Opportunities for the United States Commissioned report for the CubaInfo Series; The Cuban Research Institute, Florida International University, June 2009z
- Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China
- Foreign relations of Cuba
- Caribbean–People's Republic of China relations
- Chinese Cuban
- Economy of Cuba
- Marc Frank, "Trade With China Primes Cuba’s Engine for Change", The Financial Times, 29 March 2006
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- Chinese delegate Li Baodong praises Cuba's human rights record during the review of Cuba by the United Nations Human Rights Council's Universal Periodic Review, February 5, 2009