China Airlines Flight 676
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|Date||16 February 1998|
|Summary||Crashed on approach due to bad weather and pilot error|
|Site||Chiang Kai-Shek Int'l Airport, Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City), Taiwan|
|Aircraft type||Airbus A300B4-622R|
|IATA flight No.||CI676|
|ICAO flight No.||CAL676|
|Call sign||DYNASTY 676|
|Flight origin||Ngurah Rai Int'l Airport|
|Destination||Chiang Kai-Shek Int'l Airport|
China Airlines Flight 676 (CAL676, CI676) was a scheduled international passenger flight that crashed into a road and residential area in Tayuan, Taoyuan County (now Taoyuan City), near Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (present-day Taoyuan International Airport), Taiwan on the night of Monday, 16 February 1998.
The Airbus A300 jet liner was en route from Ngurah Rai Airport in Bali, Indonesia to Taipei, Taiwan. The weather was inclement with rain and fog when the aircraft approached Chiang Kai-shek International Airport, so the pilot executed a missed approach. After the jet was cleared to land at runway 05L, the autopilot was disengaged, and the pilots then attempted a manual go-around. The jet slowed down, pitched up by 40 degrees, rose 1,000 feet (300 m), stalled, and crashed into a residential neighborhood, bursting into flames at local time 4:20 PM. All 196 people on board were killed (including the governor of Taiwan's central bank, Sheu Yuan-dong, his wife, Huang Mian-mei, and three central bank officials), along with seven people on the ground. Hsu Lu, the manager of the Voice of Taipei radio station, said that one boy was pulled alive from the wreckage and later died.
It remains the deadliest aviation accident on Taiwanese soil and the fifth-deadliest involving an Airbus A300. China Airlines had twelve A300s in its fleet at the time of the accident. It is also the second deadliest accident overall in Taiwan's history, behind China Airlines Flight 611, a Boeing 747-209B broke up over the Taiwan Strait with 225 fatalities.
Aircraft and crew
The aircraft involved in the accident was an Airbus A300B4-622R, registration B-1814. It was delivered to China Airlines on 14 December 1990 and was powered by 2x Pratt and Whitney PW4156 engines. The aircraft was 7.3 years old at the time of the accident and had completed 20,193 flight hours. Captain Kang Long-Lin, who was 49 years old, joined China Airlines in 1990, and had 7,226 hours total flight time (2,382 of them on the Airbus A300). First Officer Jiang Der-Sheng who was 44 years old, joined China Airlines in 1996, and had 3,550 hours total flight time (304 of them on the Airbus A300). Both pilots were formerly with the Republic of China Air Force. The flight consisted of 189 Taiwanese nationals, along with 5 Americans, one French, and one Indonesian.
The Airbus carried out an ILS/DME approach to runway 05L at Taipei Chiang Kai Shek Airport in light rain and fog but came in 1,000 feet too high above the glide slope (at 1,515 feet, 1.2 nm short of the threshold). Go around power was applied 19 seconds later over the threshold (at a 1,475 feet agl). The landing gear was raised and the flaps set to 20deg as the Airbus climbed through 1,723 feet in a 35-deg pitch-up.
Reaching 2,751 feet (42.7 deg pitch-up, 45 knots speed) the A300 stalled. Control could not be regained as the aircraft fell and smashed into the ground 200 feet left off the runway. It then surged forward, hit a utility pole and a highway median and skidded into several houses, surrounded by fish farms, rice paddies, factories and warehouses, and exploded, killing all on board.
Weather was 2,400 feet visibility, RVR runway 05L of 3,900 feet, 300 feet broken ceiling, 3,000 feet overcast. According to the CVR (Cockpit Voice Recorder), the last words were from the First Officer and were "Pull up, too low!" This was surrounded by the Terrain alarm and stall warnings.
Investigation and conclusion
On initial approach to land, the aircraft was more than 300 meters above its normal altitude when it was only six nautical miles away from the airport. Nonetheless it continued the approach. Only when approaching the runway threshold, a go around was initiated. During this time, the pilot had unknowingly disengaged the plane's autopilot but was not aware of it. During the go around he therefore did nothing to actively take control of the plane as he thought the autopilot would initiate the maneuver. For 11 seconds, the plane was under no one's control.
Following a formal investigation that had continued for nearly two years, a final report by a special task force under the Civil Aviation Administration concluded that pilot error was behind the crash of Flight 676. The report concludes by pointing the finger at China Airlines for what it calls "insufficient training" and "poor management of the resources in the pilot's cabin".
The cockpit voice recording was leaked on the Internet, but has been removed as it is a property of the Taiwanese government.
The person speaking is listed in bold.
- TWR - Chiang Kai-shek International Airport control tower
- F/O - First Officer on board CI676
- Capt - Captain on board CI676
- GPWS - Ground proximity warning system (aircraft system)
- CAM - Cockpit Area Microphone where sound of cockpit environment can be recorded by the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR). This includes descriptors of various unidentified sounds picked up by the CAM, including the GPWS.
- CAL - Unknown. This may be a typo and that CAM was intended.
12:04:26 TWR Clear to land. Wind 360 at 3, clear to land.
12:04:29 F/O Roger, clear to land, Dynasty 676.
12:04:34 F/O OK. Glide Slope blue. Localiser green.
12:04:42 Capt 1000 feet higher.
12:04:52 Capt Come on, 1000!
12:04:56 Capt OK. 30/40.
12:04:57 F/O 30/40.
12:05:02 F/O Landing gear, down, three green.
12:05:04 F/O Anti-skid, normal and eight released.
12:05:06 F/O Slat/Flap, 30/40.
12:05:07 F/O Spoiler.
12:05:09 F/O Armed.
12:05:10 F/O Landing light, on.
12:05:12 F/O Landing check list complete.
12:05:14 Capt Go lever, Go Around.
12:05:15 F/O Go Around, Go level.
12:05:17 Capt Yes. Go!
12:05:19 Capt Positive, gears up!
12:05:20 Capt Gear Up!
12:05:22 F/O Heading Select, flaps.
12:05:26 F/O Plus 10
12:05:27 CAM Don, Don ...
12:05:29 Capt Latch.
12:05:32 CAM Don,
12:05:33 CAM Du
12:05:34 CAM Wu ... .
12:05:36 CAM Wu Lu ... ...
12:05:37 CAM Wu Lu ... ., D-ling
12:05:38 CAM D-ling.
12:05:40 Capt OK
12:05:42 CAM Don
12:05:43 CAM Don
12:05:44 CAM Don
12:05:45 Capt OH! My God!
12:05:46 TWR Dynasty 676, confirm go around?
12:05:47 CAM Du ...
12:05:49 GPWS Terrain.
12:05:50 CAL 676 (F/O) Confirm go around!
12:05:52 F/O Pull it up, too low!
12:05:53 GPWS Whoop, Whoop, Pull up, Da La, Da La, Da La.
12:05:55 GPWS Whoop Whoop Da La, Pull Up.
12:05:57 GPWS Whoop. Whoop, Pull
12:05:58 CAM Da La.
End of Recording
Flight number retirement
- China Airlines Flight 140, another crash involving a CAL Airbus A300 during the 1990s, which also occurred on final approach.
- Flydubai Flight 981
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- "台灣飛安統計 1996-2005" [Taiwan Fei'an Statistics 1996-2005] (PDF). 行政院飛航安全委員會 Aviation Safety Council (in Chinese). Taiwan: Aviation Safety Council 飛航安全調查委員會. pp. 63頁. Retrieved 2016-08-28.:52
- "華航失事班機罹難者名單公佈" [List of victims of China Airlines’ wrecked flight announced] (in Chinese). Taiwan: Chinese Television System 華視. 1998-02-16. Retrieved 2016-08-28.
- "ASN Accident Description (China Airlines 676)". Aviation Safety Network. 16 February 1998. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- Gargan, Edward A. (1998-02-17). "Over 200 Die as Taiwan Jet Crashes in Bad Weather". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-03-11.
- Chen Yu (陳芸芸); Li Wenyi (李文儀) (2002-05-26). "華航空難特別報導 華航「空難」 33年來615人罹難" [China Airlines is difficult to report on China Airlines "air disaster" 615 people in 33 years] (in Chinese). Taiwan: Liberty Times (自由時報). Retrieved 2016-08-28.
- B-1814 China Airlines Airbus A300B4-622R – cn 578 – Planespotters.net Just Aviation. Planespotters.net.
- http://www.rvs.unibielefeld.de/publications/Incidents/DOCS/Research/Rvs/Misc/Additional/Reports/taipei/taipei.html#AircraftInformation[permanent dead link].
- China Airlines 676 CVR Transcript Archived 2 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. AirDisaster.Com.
- Official report says CAL crash was caused by pilot. Taipei Times.
- Ladkin, Peter M. "The Crash of Flight CI676". 18 March 1998. The RVS Group. RVS-J-98-01. Archived from the original on 16 July 2001. Retrieved 30 May 2007.
- CBC governor killed in plane crash
|Photos of B-1814 at Airliners.net|
|Picture of the crash|
- "Mourners gather to identify victims of Taiwan crash" (). CNN. February 17, 1998.
- "205 dead as China Air jet slams into Taiwan" (Archive). CNN. February 16, 1998.
- The Crash of Flight CI676, a China Airlines Airbus A300, Taipei, Taiwan, Monday 16 February, 1998: What We Know So Far – University of Bielefeld
- CVR Transcript of Flight 676
- "AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION REPORT - China Airlines, Airbus A300B4-622R, B-1814, Da-Yuang, Tao-Yuang, February 16, 1998" - Aviation safety Council