China National Traditional Orchestra

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China National Traditional Orchestra
China National (Traditional) Orchestra logo copy.png
Official Logo
Native name 中国民族乐团 Zhōngguó mínzú yuètuán
Short name CNTO or CNO
Location Beijing, China
Concert hall National Center for the Performing Arts, Beijing
Principal conductor Liu Sha
Music director Jiang Ying

The China National Traditional Orchestra (CNTO),[1][2][3][4][5] a.k.a. the China National Orchestra (CNO),[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] is a 110-piece orchestra[5] of traditional Chinese musical instruments with an accompanying folk choir.[14][15] Founded in Beijing, China in 1960, the orchestra is a state-level performing arts institution directly administered and endorsed by China's Ministry of Culture.[16][17][18][19] Its mission is to promote and advance China’s musical heritage.[5][6][17][20] The CNTO is part of a cultural exchange program called Image China and the orchestra is managed by the China Arts and Entertainment Group (CAEG).[21]


CNTO has faced its share of criticism in that it does not actually promote authentic Chinese culture, but rather, imitates Western culture with its Western-style orchestra model.[22][23] Historically, traditional Chinese music was performed with soloists or in small ensembles. What's more, the orchestra's concert repertoire has included works by Bach and Strauss, contemporary songs like New York, New York, and non-Chinese patriotic hymns like America the Beautiful.[24]

In recent years, the orchestra has focused on the commission and arrangement of more traditional pieces representative of its heritage.[24][25][26] Cultural and government influences aside, the orchestra's performances outside of China appear to be well received, as evidenced by sold-out concerts, standing ovations and multiple encores.[24][27][28]

Alternate Names[edit]

The China National (Traditional) Orchestra has been known by several English names[29][30] over the years, largely due to challenges with Chinese translation. The name China National Traditional Orchestra is transliterated into Chinese (simplified) as Zhōngguó zhōngyāng mínzú yuètuán, where mínzú yuètuán, means "ethnic nationalities" orchestra.[28]

In English-speaking countries, the CNTO has been misidentified as other similarly-titled China orchestras.[31] The orchestra is also referred to by different names within the same news article,[32] and in the orchestra's own promotional materials.

Orchestra leadership may have added the word traditional to its name to differentiate it from countless other China orchestras, minimize confusion while traveling outside China, and emphasize the CNTO's stated mission of "sharing China's musical heritage with the world."[20] In 2015, the orchestra has been consistently billed and promoted as the China National Traditional Orchestra at the Kennedy Center,[1] Carnegie Hall,[2] and Lincoln Center.[26]


Central Chinese Orchestra[33] Central National Orchestra Central Nationalities Orchestra[7][34][35]
China Central Chinese Orchestra[32][36] China Central Folk Orchestra China Central Orchestra[14]
China Central National Music Orchestra[37] China Central National Orchestra[38] China Chinese Central National Orchestra
China Chinese National Orchestra[39] Chinese National Orchestra[15][40]
National Chinese Traditional Orchestra[18][41] National Orchestra of China[42] National Traditional Orchestra of China[22][43][44][45][46]

Notable Orchestra Members[edit]

  • Xi Qiang, producer[47]


  • Wang Chaoge, director[48][49][47]
  • Jiang Ying, composer and arranger[47]
  • Liu Sha, conductor[50]
  • Tang Feng and Jin Yue, Erhu
  • Wang Ciheng, Dizi and Xiao
  • Wu Yuxia,[51] Zhao Cong, and Yu Yuanchun, Pipa
  • Feng Maintain, Ruan
  • Niu Jiandang, Suona
  • Zhu Jianping and Yu Xin, percussion
  • Chen Shasha and Ding Xiaokui, Dizi
  • Zhang Jiali, Guan
  • Lu Ning, Guqin

Creative Team[edit]

  • Li Bin, stage design
  • Wang Yugang, lighting design
  • Gan Hua and Zheng Zejian, multimedia design
  • Zuo Huanyu, costume design
  • Shen Tian, sound design


The China National (Traditional) Orchestra was founded in 1960 by Li Huanzhi (1919-2000), the former chair of the Chinese Musicians' Association. Its current president and producer is Xi Qiang,[5][52] who is also a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. In 1993, the orchestra founded Orchestra Asia, together with Ensemble Nipponia of Japan and the South Korean National Orchestra.

Performance Highlights[edit]

The orchestra has performed throughout China[12][15][40] and visited dozens of nations[53] on five continents.[13][18]

  • The Carnegie Hall Corporation commissioned the creation of Spring Dreams, a concerto for Yo-Yo Ma and the orchestra, which was performed with the famous cellist in 1997.[42][45][54]
  • In 2004, the orchestra cancelled its appearance at a concert that contained Christian content.[16][19]
  • In 2011, the orchestra became the first traditional Chinese music group to perform at Austria's Salzburg Summer Festival.[32][51]
  • In 2014, American pop music artist Katy Perry visited the orchestra to hear an arrangement of her song 'Roar' played on traditional Chinese instruments.[9][11][55][56][57]
Year Dates Location Venue Event and/or Concert Notes Source
1997 February 19 Worcester, MA Mechanics Hall premier of Spring Dreams Performance of concerto commissioned for Yo-Yo Ma and the orchestra.
  • Worcester Magazine[42]
  • ISSUU ScoresOnDemand[54]
February 20 New York, NY Carnegie Hall premier of Spring Dreams Performance of concerto commissioned for Yo-Yo Ma and the orchestra.
1998 January 27 Vienna, Austria Vienna Golden Hall (Wiener Musikverein) Chinese Lunar New Year Concert / Grand Chinese New Year Concert Chen Xieyang, conductor[53]
  • South China Morning Post[4][8]
  • Beijing Review[35]
2000 August New York, NY United Nations (UN) General Assembly Hall[40]
August 27 Washington, DC Eisenhower Theater, Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Washington City Paper[23]
August 31 Chicago, IL Orchestra Hall, Symphony Center Chicago Reader[24]
September San Francisco, CA Davies Symphony Hall San Francisco debut. Sold-out performance. Standing ovation. At the end of program, the orchestra played three encores.[28]
  • AsianWeek[3]
  • San Francisco Classical Voice[28]
September 17 New York, NY Lincoln Center The Bronze Culture Festival Yo-Yo Ma performs. Wall Street Journal[53]
2010 January 29 Brussels, Belgium BOZAR Centre for Fine Arts Europalia China Art Festival Concert organized by Europalia International and the Chinese Ministry of Culture.
  • BOZAR Centre for Fine Arts Calendar[58]
January 30 Paris, France UNESCO Headquarters or Maison de l'UNESCO Chinese New Year Concert By invitation, limited seating capacity.
Chen Xieyang, conductor
November 1 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Month-long series of stage performances to celebrate the country's cultural achievements Chen Xieyang, conductor China Central Television[61]
2011 August 5 Salzburg, Austria 91st Salzburg Festival / Salzburg Summer Festival Marks the first time a traditional Chinese music group played at this event.
  • Chen Xieyang, director
  • Xi Qiang, orchestra chair
  • China Central Television[32]
  • Xinhua News Agency[51]
December 7 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Part of concert series: One Hundred Concerts of Chinese Music[15]
2012 June 14 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Bamboo in Blues[40]
2013 February 4 Los Angeles, CA Spring Festival Celebration Global Times[36]
February 8–10 Stanford, CA Bing Concert Hall, Stanford University Pan-Asian Music Festival; Friday Night's Concert: Masters and Masterpieces Three-day residency at the university culminated in live performance, with several standing ovations and four encores...
  • Stanford Report[27]
  • Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival 2013 (program)[62]
  • Official Press Release[63]
August 26 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Impression of Chinese Music Wang Chaoge, director CITS[12]
October 7 Sanford, NC Dennis A. Wicker Civic Center, Central Carolina Community College Chinese Music Exhibition & Seminar Xi Qiang, artistic director US Fed News Service[13]
November 22 St. Petersburg, Russia Mariinsky Theater, Theatre Square Chinese Tourism Year in Russia China Central Television[64]
2014 January 13 Beijing, China Roar Katy Perry visited.
  • Getmusic Asia[55]
  • China Central Television[57]
February 14 San Francisco, CA Chinese New Year Concert Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in San Francisco[65]
2015 April 15 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, University of British Columbia China-Canada Year Opening Ceremony China Daily US[18]
May 7 Atlanta, GA The World of Coca-Cola Free concert to launch the Qin-Tai — Chinese Music Program Brought to Atlanta by The Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. GCIV Exchange Newsletter[66]
November 27 Shanghai, China Shanghai Grand Theater Rediscover Chinese Music An experimental program.
  • Xi Qiang, orchestra president
  • Wang Chaoge, director
  • Jiang Ying, composer
Shanghai Daily[47]
December 11–13 Washington, DC Kennedy Center Opera House Rediscover Chinese Music

The Washington Yu Ying Chorus will perform with the orchestra.

  • Jiang Ying, composer and arranger
  • Li Bin, stage design
  • Wang Yugang, lighting design
  • Gan Hua and Zheng Zejian, multimedia design
  • Zuo Huanyu, costume design
  • Shen Tian, sound design
  • Xi Qiang, producer
  • Kennedy Center Website
  • Washington Post Magazine[67]
  • DC Outlook[5][21]
  • Washington Chinese Media [34]
December 18 New York, NY Lincoln Center China National Traditional Orchestra: Splendor of Folk Music
  • Tang Feng, Erhu (Chinese Fiddle)
  • Wu Yuxia, Pipa (Chinese Lute)
  • Wang Ciheng, Dongxiao (Chinese Bamboo Flute)
  • Wu Lin, Konghou (Chinese Harp)
  • Zhao Cong, Pipa (Chinese Lute)
Lincoln Center[26]
December 20 New York, NY Carnegie Hall Impression Guoyue: Traditional Master Works
  • Jiang Ying, composer and arranger
  • Liu Sha, conductor
  • Tang Feng and Jin Yue, erhu
  • Wang Ciheng, dizi and xiao
  • Wu Yuxia, Zhao Cong, and Yu Yuanchun, pipa
  • Feng Maintain, ruan
  • Niu Jiandang, suona
  • Zhu Jianping and Yu Xin, percussion
  • Chen Shasha and Ding Xiaokui, dizi
  • Zhang Jiali, guanzi
  • Lu Ning, gu qin
Carnegie Hall[2][7]


  1. ^ a b "CPAA Productions Ltd. presents: China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music". The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c "Performance: Sunday, December 20, 2015 at 8 PM: China National Traditional Orchestra (Stern Auditorium / Perelman Stage).". Carnegie Hall: Calendar & Events. Carnegie Hall Corporation. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015. The China National Traditional Orchestra returns to Carnegie Hall... Presented by China National Traditional Orchestra and Princeton International Chinese Music Festival. 
  3. ^ a b "A Bold New Gesture: China National Traditional Orchestra to play at San Francisco's Davies Symphony Hall". AsianWeek (via HighBeam Research). 13 September 2000. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "Grand Chinese New Year Concert: Vienna, Austria. 1998". YouTube. Wu Promotion. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2015. Performers: Song Fei, China National Traditional Orchestra. Erhu solo. The Moon Reflected on the Er Quan Spring (Abstract). 
  5. ^ a b c d e Freeman, Peter (6 November 2015). "Kennedy Center Hosts US Premiere of Rediscover Chinese Music, December 11–13". DC Outlook. Retrieved 9 November 2015. China National Traditional Orchestra Celebrates Musical Heritage of China in Rediscover Chinese Music 
  6. ^ a b "China National Orchestra Performing in Carnegie Hall. Stern Auditorium.". American Alliance for World Music and Arts. 20 December 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c "Impression of Guoyue. Performance December 20, 2015. Carnegie Hall.". China National Orchestra. Central Nationalities Orchestra, Beijing. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015. . 
  8. ^ a b Boehler, Patrick (10 July 2014). "How a Chinese government decree could take the glimmer out of Vienna's Golden Music Hall". South China Morning Post: China Insider. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Katy Perry – China National Orchestra Visit Photos". Getmusic Asia. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  10. ^ "Chinese New Year Concert. China National Orchestra. China on String: A Musical Journey in America". Moore County Republican Men's Club. 13 January 2013. Retrieved 4 November 2015. The China National Orchestra and members of the Raleigh Symphony are partnering together to perform here at the Pinecrest High School Auditorium. 
  11. ^ a b Grenoble, Ryan (15 January 2014). "This Performance Made Katy Perry Almost Cry Her Eyelashes Off". Huffpost: Arts & Culture., Inc. Retrieved 6 November 2015. Which makes this cover of Katy Perry's "Roar," performed by the China National Orchestra, even more extraordinary. The orchestra adapted the pop star's hit single for traditional Chinese instruments, then performed it last Sunday to welcome Perry on her first trip to the country. 
  12. ^ a b c "China Travel News: Music show Impression of Chinese Music performed in Beijing". CITS. China International Travel Service Limited. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2015. On Aug 26, 2013, a national music show Impression of Chinese Music was performed at the National Center of the Performing Arts in Beijing, capital of China. The show was directed by Chinese director Wang Chaoge and performed by the China National Orchestra. 
  13. ^ a b c Central Carolina Community College Hosts China National Orchestra Members' Lecture, Performance, US Fed News Service (FNS via HighBeam Research), 7 October 2013, retrieved 10 November 2015, Xi Qiang, artistic director of the China National Orchestra, and several of the orchestra's members entertained and educated an audience of more than 100 of all ages Oct. 2 at the Chinese Music Exhibition & Seminar in the Dennis A. Wicker Civic Center 
  14. ^ a b China Central Orchestra Choir (2010), Chinese Folk Songs: Half Moon Ascending (CD), China Record Chengdu Co. / Cinevision, retrieved 7 November 2015 
  15. ^ a b c d "Chinese National Orchestra Concert". Theatre Beijing: The Official Beijing Theatre Guide Website. China Art International Travel Service. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  16. ^ a b McDonald, Joe (16 April 2004), China cancels Christian-themed concert amid unease about religious appeal, Beijing, China: AP Worldstream (AP via HighBeam Research), retrieved 10 November 2015, The Ministry of Culture ordered the chorus of the China National Orchestra to withdraw from the Saturday night concert, said conductor Su Wenxing. Su said orchestra managers refused to tell him the reason given by the ministry. 
  17. ^ a b "Learn About the Orchestra". China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music. CPAA Productions Ltd. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c d Liu, Hatty (15 April 2015). "China-Canada Year Kicks off". China Daily US. China Daily Information Co (CDIC). Retrieved 6 November 2015. …a concert presented by the National Chinese Traditional Orchestra. …attended by representatives from the Chinese Ministry of Culture. 
  19. ^ a b Polter, Julie (November 2005). "Replacing Songs with Silence Censorship, banning, blacklists: What's lost when governments stifle musical expression?". Sojourners Magazine. Retrieved 13 November 2015. In April 2004, China's Ministry of Culture ordered the China National Orchestra chorus to pull out of a planned concert. The presumed reason was that the program included a composition with Christian allusions, Easter Chorus, written by Chinese-born Canadian Huang An Lun. 
  20. ^ a b China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music on Google+
  21. ^ a b Freeman, Peter (20 November 2015). "Washington Yu Ying School Chorus to Perform with China National Traditional Orchestra". DC Outlook. Retrieved 23 November 2015. The Washington Yu Ying Chorus, which includes 40 auditioned singers from Grades 3-5, will perform Train Toccota and Wild Goose, two pieces that are part of the traditional Chinese repertoire. 
  22. ^ a b c Griffiths, Paul (16 March 1997). "Freshly Minted, an Orchestral 'Tradition'". New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 5 November 2015. …this concert by the National Traditional Orchestra of China, based in Beijing, was the first given by such a group on the Carnegie stage… 
  23. ^ a b Jenkins, Mark (25 August 2000). "Arts & Entertainment: Picks: National Traditional Orchestra of China". Washington City Paper. CL Washington, Inc. Retrieved 23 November 2015. …after Mao's Revolution…Soviet advisers helped the Chinese arrange their traditional instruments into sections to form orchestras that achieved numerical parity with their Western counterparts. 
  24. ^ a b c d Shen, Ted (24 August 2000). "China National Orchestra". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 14 November 2015. The CNO also promises encores, including a rendition of America the Beautiful. 
  25. ^ Melvin, Sheila; Cai, Jindong (2004). Rhapsody in Red: How Western Classical Music Became Chinese. New York, NY: Algora Publishing. p. 331. ISBN 0875861865. Retrieved 14 November 2015. The Chinese government has put more effort into promoting traditional instrument orchestras, including the China National Traditional Orchestra's 2000 US tour under the baton of Shanghai Symphony conductor Chen Xieyang. 
  26. ^ a b c "China National Traditional Orchestra: Splendor of Folk Music". New York, NY: Lincoln Center. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. Their extensive repertoire of new and traditional works is a result of hundreds of commissioned works and arrangements made just for the them. 
  27. ^ a b Wander, Robin (12 February 2013). "A weekend of sold-out performances at Stanford's Pan-Asian Music Festival". Stanford Report. Stanford University. Retrieved 18 November 2015. At the end of a two-hour orchestral performance, the audience wouldn't let them leave the stage. Finally, after several standing ovations and four encores, the appreciative musicians headed backstage. 
  28. ^ a b c d Mark, Lindy Li (10 September 2000), Symphony Review: Music Of Ethnic Nationalities and Chinese Pops, San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Classical Voice, retrieved 10 November 2015, The Chinese National Traditional Orchestra performed an evening of pops on Sunday to the standing ovation of a sold-out crowd… At the end of program, the orchestra played three encores. 
  29. ^ "Zhong yang min zu yue tuan (Beijing, China)". Library of Congress Name Authority File. Library of Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  30. ^ "Zhong yang min zu yue tuan (Beijing, China)". Virtual International Authority File. OCLC. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  31. ^ "China National Orchestra" (PDF). The Chinese Chamber of Commerce of Hawaii. January 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2015. The Orchestra was founded in 1956 as the Central Philharmonic Orchestra of China, then in 1996, it was restructured and renamed the China National Symphony Orchestra. 
  32. ^ a b c d Xiaomei, Wang (8 August 2011). "Chinese Orchestra performs at Austria's Salzburg Festival". China Central Television. Retrieved 13 November 2015. The China Central Chinese Orchestra performed Friday at the 91st Salzburg Festival, the first time a traditional Chinese music group played at the world-renowned event. Photo caption: Director Chen Xieyang from China National Orchestra poses at a concert held in Salzburg, Austria, Aug. 5, 2011, as part of the Salzburg Festival. 
  33. ^ Mirabile, Graziana (14 January 2014). "Katy Perry, spaccata sulla Muraglia Cinese (Katy Perry, split on the Wall of China)". Gossipnews. Retrieved 5 November 2015. The 29 year-old has also visited the Central Chinese Orchestra 
  34. ^ a b "Central Nationalities Orchestra Folk Music Drama Will Debut at the United States John F. Kennedy Center for the Arts". Washington Chinese Media. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  35. ^ a b "Chinese folk music goes to Vienna". Beijing Review: China’s National English News Weekly. 2 February 1998. The Golden Hall in Vienna, Austria, will be the venue of the performance by the Central Nationalities Orchestra of China of traditional Chinese music and some works of Strauss played on traditional Chinese musical instruments. This is a major concert that falls on the eve of the Chinese New Year, Jan 27, 1998. 
  36. ^ a b "Spring Festival celebration concert held in Los Angeles". Global Times. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Members of the China Central Chinese Orchestra perform during a Spring Festival celebration concert in Pasadena, Los Angeles, the United States, February 4, 2013. 
  37. ^ Campbell, Margaret. Great Cellists. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 0571278019. In 1997, (Chinese cellist Hai-Ye Ni) stepped in at the last moment for Yo-Yo Ma in a 14-city tour of the USA with the China Central National Music Orchestra. 
  38. ^ Wong On-yuen, Chen Tscheng-hsiung, China Central National Orchestra. The First Erhu Rhapsody Album: The World of Wong On-yuen's Hu Qin Music Vol.10 - Concerto for Erhu "The Great Wall Capriccio." Label: Linfair Records / R2G Music / DECCA. Original Release Date: 1 January 1994
  39. ^ "China Chinese National Orchestra Performs Special Moonlight". Broadway World. Wisdom Digital Media. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Performance: Feb 21-23 2010 
  40. ^ a b c d "Bamboo in Blues: Chinese National Orchestra Concert". Theatre Beijing: The Official Beijing Theatre Guide Website. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  41. ^ von Rhein, John (12 February 2015). "Chicago-area classical music picks". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Members of the National Chinese Traditional Orchestra and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra will take part in this collaboration with the Chinese Fine Arts Society. 
  42. ^ a b c "From Perlman to Yo-Yo Ma", Worcester Magazine (Worcester, MA), 8 June 2010, There was something almost spiritual about the sound of those native instruments, says Hovenesian in regards to Yo-Yo Ma, who performed in 1997 with the National Orchestra of China. 
  43. ^ Dyer, Richard (21 February 1997). "Ma debuts a masterpiece: Sheng's Spring Dreams". Boston Globe (via HighBeam Research ). ...Bright Sheng's "Spring Dreams," a work written for cellist Yo-Yo Ma and the National Traditional Orchestra of China. The official premiere came last night in Carnegie Hall... 
  44. ^ Delacoma, Wynne (28 February 1997). "String Ensemble: homage to home". Chicago Sun-Times (via HighBeam Research). Retrieved 5 November 2015. …Monday concert by the National Traditional Orchestra of China in Orchestra Hall… 
  45. ^ a b c Cameron, Lindsley (16 February 1997), "Classical Music: At Home in Two Worlds.", New York Times, (Bright Sheng) returned to his homeland for the first time last summer because he was commissioned to write a concerto for the cellist Yo-Yo Ma and the Beijing-based National Traditional Orchestra of China, who will perform the work, Spring Dreams, on Thursday evening at Carnegie Hall. 
  46. ^ Davis, Peter G. (10 March 1997). "Eastern exposure". New York (Magazine). New York Media. 
  47. ^ a b c d Qian, Zhang (26 November 2015). "Chinese music in experimental show". Shanghai Daily (Shanghai, China). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Rediscover Chinese Music, an experimental program from the China National Traditional Orchestra will be staged at Shanghai Grand Theater until Friday. 
  48. ^ "Why we're loving…Wang Chaoge, director". Campaign Live (UK Edition). Haymarket Media Group Ltd. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2015. Wang Chaoge was the co-director of the opening ceremony at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. 
  49. ^ "Impressions: Wang Chaoge". LifeStyle Magazine. Beijing Lifestyle Advertising Co., Ltd. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2015. Co-founder and CEO of Beijing Impression Wonders Arts Development Co. Ltd, Wang Chaoge’s dynamic style and groundbreaking creative approach have made her one of the top directors in China. In an exclusive interview, she gives us insight into the inspiration and art behind her most extensive works, the Impressions and Encore series. 
  50. ^ "Young Chinese conductor Liu Sha returns to conduct SCO". Singapore Chinese Orchestra Company Limited. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2015. After his debut with the Singapore Chinese Orchestra (SCO) in 2008, young Chinese conductor, Liu Sha, returns to conduct the SCO at a one-night only concert on 9 March... Liu Sha is the Conductor-in-Residence of China National Orchestra 
  51. ^ a b c Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiang (6 August 2011). "China National Orchestra perform at Salzburg Festival". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 24 November 2015. Culture & Edu: Lutanist Wu Yuxia from China National Orchestra performs at a concert held in Salzburg, Austria, Aug. 5, 2011, as part of the Salzburg Festival. 
  52. ^ Qiang, Xi; China National Orchestra (Zhongyang minzu yuetuan); Qiu, Maoru (translator); Niu, Jiandang (photographs) (2011), Chinese Music and Musical Instruments, New York, NY: Better Link Press, ISBN 9781602201057 
  53. ^ a b c Melvin, Sheila (31 August 2000). "Chinese Traditional Orchestra: Westernizing the Erhu". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  54. ^ a b c Sheng, Bright (1997), "Spring Dreams for Violoncello and Orchestra of Traditional Chinese Instruments", ISSUU ScoresOnDemand (New York, NY: G Schirmer Inc), This work was commissioned for Yo-Yo Ma and The National Traditional Orchestra of China by The Carnegie Hall Corporation. The premiere performance was given at Mechanics Hall, Worcester, MA, on February 19, 1997 and its New York premiere was given at Carnegie Hall New York City on February 20, 1997. 
  55. ^ a b "Katy Perry - Roar (Orchestral Version) Performed by China National Orchestra". YouTube. Getmusic Asia. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2015. Katy Perry visited the China National Orchestra in Beijing on 12th January 2014 
  56. ^ Kahn, John David (16 January 2014). "Katy Perry Brought to Tears by Chinese Orchestra's 'Roar' Cover.". Breibart News Network. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  57. ^ a b Wenwen, Liu (14 January 2014). "China National Orchestra perform Katy Perry hit". China Central Television (CCTV). Retrieved 13 November 2015. The China National Orchestra rearranged Katy Perry's No.1 single Roar 
  58. ^ "Music: China National Traditional Orchestra". BOZAR Center for Fine Arts. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2015. Its repertoire provides a good overview of Chinese traditional music, while taking in influences from contemporary Chinese music, western classical music, and other forms of music from around the world. 
  59. ^ "Soul of China can be found in its traditional music". China International Publishing Group. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2015. A two-hour concert by the China National Traditional Orchestra attracted some 500 people to the Center for Fine Arts. 
  60. ^ "Chinese New Year Concert: Paris, France". UNESCO » Events » Programme meetings. UNESCO. 30 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2015. To mark the Chinese New Year, the China National Orchestra, comprising 80 musicians and conducted by Mr Chen Xieyang, offers a concert in which the audience will discover or rediscover Western and Chinese musical masterpieces. 
  61. ^ Limin, Zheng (3 September 2010). "China National Orchestra joins stage celebration". China Central Television (CCTV). Retrieved 13 November 2015. Taking the stage Wednesday night at the National Center for the Performing Arts was the China National Orchestra. 
  62. ^ "Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival 2013 (program)" (PDF). Xiamen University Alumni Association of Silicon Valley. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2015. China National Orchestra: Masters and Masterpieces; Open Rehearsal 
  63. ^ Haro, Delane (11 January 2013). "Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival Showcases China National Orchestra February 8-10- 2013" (PDF) (Press release). Stanford, CA. Retrieved 23 November 2015. The 2013 Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival will showcase the China National Orchestra (CNO) 
  64. ^ Limin, Zheng (25 November 2013). "Chinese Tourism Year in Russia ends". China Central Television. Retrieved 13 November 2015. The closing ceremony of the Tourism Year kicked off at Maryinsky Theater on Friday night with the China National Orchestra, which featured classic pieces of Chinese traditional music. 
  65. ^ "China National Orchestra Gave Chinese New Year Concert in San Francisco Bay Area". Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in San Francisco. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2015. The China National Orchestra...performed concertos and orchestral works on traditional instruments to celebrate the Year of the Snake. 
  66. ^ "China National Orchestra Concert at the World of Coca-Cola". GCIV Exchange Newsletter (Georgia Council for International Visitors). Atlanta, GA. May 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  67. ^ "Holiday Arts & Entertainment (section)". Washington Post Magazine (Washington, DC: Washington Post Company LLC): pages 12–13. 22 November 2015. The United States premiere of a new China National Traditional Orchestra production comes to town… 

External links[edit]