China National Traditional Orchestra

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China National Traditional Orchestra
Orchestra
China National (Traditional) Orchestra logo copy.png
Official Logo
Native name 中国中央民族乐团
Short name China National Orchestra
Former name China Central Nationalities Orchestra, among many others
Location Beijing, China
Concert hall National Centre for the Performing Arts - Concert Hall, Beijing
Principal conductor Liu Sha
Music director Jiang Ying

The China National Traditional Orchestra (CNTO)[1][2][3] (Chinese: 中国中央民族乐团 or 中央民族乐团; also called China National Orchestra)[4][5][6][7] is a 110-piece[8] orchestra of traditional Chinese musical instruments[9] with an accompanying folk choir.[10][11] Founded in Beijing, China in 1960, the orchestra is a state-level (national) performing arts institution directly administered and endorsed by China's Ministry of Culture (MOC).[12][13][14][15] Its mission is to promote and advance China’s musical heritage.[16][17][13][18][19] CNTO is part of a cultural exchange program called Image China and the orchestra is managed by the China Arts and Entertainment Group (CAEG).[20]

History[edit]

The China National Traditional Orchestra was founded by composer and conductor Li Huanzhi (1919-2000),[21][22] the former chair of the Chinese Musicians' Association. CNTO's current president and producer is musician and ethnomusicologist Xi Qiang,[17][23] who is a member of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference. In 1993, the orchestra founded Orchestra Asia, together with Ensemble Nipponia of Japan and the South Korean National Orchestra.[24]

In the interest of promoting a larger view of Chinese culture, CNTO became the first Chinese orchestra known for combining music performance with other Chinese art forms, such as painting.[25] Its 2015 concert tour Rediscover Chinese Music, was promoted as "a breathtaking multimedia experience" with storytelling, lighting and sound special effects, multimedia backdrops, and moving scenery.[26][8][27]

Alternate names[edit]

The China National Traditional Orchestra has been known by several English names[28][29] over the years, largely due to challenges with Chinese translation. The orchestra's Chinese name is pronounced in Chinese as Zhōngguó Zhōngyāng Mínzú Yuètuán,[a] where Zhōngguó means "China," zhōngyāng means "central," and mínzú yuètuán means "ethnic nationalities" orchestra.[30]

In English-speaking countries, the CNTO has been misidentified as other similarly named Chinese orchestras.[31] The orchestra has also been referred to by different names within the same news article[32] and in the orchestra's own promotional materials.

English variants of the orchestra's name include:[28]

Central Chinese Orchestra[33] Central Traditional Orchestra[4] Central Nationalities Orchestra[34][35][36]
China Central Chinese Orchestra[32][37] China Central Folk Orchestra[38] China Central Orchestra[10]
China Central National Music Orchestra[39][24] China Central National Orchestra[40] China Chinese Central National Orchestra
China Chinese National Orchestra[41] Chinese National Orchestra[11][42] China Central Nationalities Orchestra
National Chinese Traditional Orchestra[14][43][44][45] National Orchestra of China[46] National Traditional Orchestra of China[47][48][49][50][51]

Perhaps owing to its favored relationship with China's Ministry of Culture, orchestra leadership might have continually revised the ensemble's English name to reflect its current importance or social status, differentiate it from countless other Chinese orchestras, and emphasize the CNTO's stated mission of "sharing China's musical heritage with the world."[18] In 2015, the orchestra has been consistently billed and promoted as the China National Traditional Orchestra at the Kennedy Center,[1] Carnegie Hall,[2] and Lincoln Center,[3] as evidenced by venue calendars and ticket sales webpages.

Criticism[edit]

The China National Traditional Orchestra has faced its share of criticism – both at home and abroad – in that it did not actually promote authentic Chinese culture in the beginning, but rather, imitated Western culture with its Western-style orchestra model.[47][52][53] Historically, traditional Chinese music was performed with soloists or in small ensembles. What's more, the orchestra's concert repertoire has included works by Bach and Strauss, contemporary songs like New York, New York, and non-Chinese patriotic hymns like America the Beautiful.[54] In recent years, the orchestra has focused on the commission and arrangement of more traditional pieces representative of its heritage.[3]

Not to be outdone by Western or popular music trends, the orchestra also collaborates with well-known directors like Wang Chaoge[55][56] to help inject energy into traditional music performances by "creating innovative shows."[57] The orchestra's performances outside of China appear to be well received, as inferred by sold-out concerts,[30] standing ovations,[58] multiple encores,[54] and media coverage.[27][59][60][61] For example, at the December 2015 Kennedy Center premiere of Rediscover Chinese Music, an audience member was recorded on camera saying "[the show] was moving. It was beautiful."[19] One could assume that the orchestra's efforts to fuse modern stage production values with ethnic melodies has been a successful tactic in attracting new, enthusiastic audiences.[62]

Notable orchestra members[edit]

  • Xi Qiang, producer[63] and president of the orchestra

Musicians[edit]

Creative team[edit]

  • Li Bin,[20] stage design
  • Wang Yugang, lighting design
  • Gan Hua, multimedia design
  • Zheng Zejian, multimedia design
  • Zuo Huanyu, costume design
  • Shen Tian, sound design

Performances[edit]

The orchestra has performed throughout China[73][11][42] and visited dozens of nations[74] on five continents.[75][14]

Highlights[edit]

  • In 1984, American classical composer Shen Sinyan, a member of the Chinese Music Society of North America, invited the orchestra to tour the United States.[76] The orchestra became "the first Chinese orchestra of Chinese instruments" to do so.[4][77]
  • In 1996, the Carnegie Hall Corporation commissioned Chinese-American composer Bright Sheng to create Spring Dreams, a concerto for Yo-Yo Ma and the orchestra.[78]
  • In 1997, Spring Dreams was performed by the orchestra and the famed cellist.[46][50]
  • In 1998, the orchestra performed for the first time at a special New Year concert in the Vienna Golden Hall (a.k.a. Wiener Musikverein).[38]
  • In 2004, the orchestra cancelled its appearance at a concert that contained Christian content.[12][15]
  • In 2011, the orchestra became the first traditional Chinese music group to perform at Austria's Salzburg Summer Festival.[32][69]
  • In 2014, American pop music artist Katy Perry visited the orchestra to hear an arrangement of her song 'Roar' played on traditional Chinese instruments.[6][7][79][80][81]
  • In December 2015, members from the orchestra performed for and with students of Washington Yu Ying Public Charter School in a school assembly; the first time the orchestra had performed for local primary school students.[82] The school's chorus — 40 singers, ages 9 to 11 — also performed a song with the orchestra during its Kennedy Center concert dates.[83][20]
Performance chronology[b]
Year Dates Location Venue Event and/or Concert Notes Source
1984 August 11 Washington, DC National Museum of Natural History Concert presented by the Smithsonian Resident Associate Program.
  • Washington Post[77]
  • Smithsonian Institution Archives[84]
1989 September Beijing, China Beijing Concert Hall In collaboration with the Han-Tang Yuefu Ensemble. Taiwan Today[85]
1997 February 19 Worcester, MA Mechanics Hall premier of Spring Dreams Performance of concerto commissioned for Yo-Yo Ma and the orchestra.
  • Worcester Magazine[46]
  • ISSUU ScoresOnDemand[78]
February 20 New York, NY Carnegie Hall premier of Spring Dreams Performance of concerto commissioned for Yo-Yo Ma and the orchestra.
1998 January 27 Vienna, Austria Vienna Golden Hall (Wiener Musikverein) Chinese Lunar New Year Concert / Grand Chinese New Year Concert Chen Xieyang, conductor[74]
2000 August 24 New York, NY United Nations (UN) General Assembly Hall China Cultural Exchange 2000
  • BeijingTheatre.com[42]
  • The China Report[87]
August 26-27 Washington, DC Eisenhower Theater, Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Washington City Paper[53]
August 31 Chicago, IL Orchestra Hall, Symphony Center China National Orchestra Gala Concert
  • Chicago Reader[54]
  • Chinese Music Society of North America[4]
September 3 St. Louis, MO Powell Symphony Hall Faces of Love Towards the East St. Louis Mayor Clarence Harmon proclaimed September 3, 2000 as China National Orchestra Day. St. Louis Chinese American News[88]
September 10 San Francisco, CA Davies Symphony Hall San Francisco debut. Sold-out performance. Standing ovation. At the end of program, the orchestra played three encores.[30]
  • AsianWeek[89]
  • San Francisco Classical Voice[30]
September 17 New York, NY Lincoln Center The Bronze Culture Festival Yo-Yo Ma performs. Wall Street Journal[74]
2010 January 29 Brussels, Belgium BOZAR Centre for Fine Arts Europalia China Art Festival Concert organized by Europalia International and the Chinese Ministry of Culture.
  • BOZAR Centre for Fine Arts Calendar[90]
  • China.org.cn[91]
January 30 Paris, France UNESCO Headquarters or Maison de l'UNESCO Chinese New Year Concert By invitation, limited seating capacity.
Chen Xieyang, conductor
UNESCO[92]
November 1 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Month-long series of stage performances to celebrate the country's cultural achievements Chen Xieyang, conductor China Central Television[93]
2011 August 5 Salzburg, Austria 91st Salzburg Festival / Salzburg Summer Festival Marks the first time a traditional Chinese music group played at this event.
  • Chen Xieyang, director
  • Xi Qiang, orchestra chair
December 7 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Part of concert series: One Hundred Concerts of Chinese Music BeijingTheatre.com[11]
2012 June 14 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Bamboo in Blues BeijingTheatre.com[42]
2013 February 4 Los Angeles, CA Spring Festival Celebration Global Times[37]
February 8–10 Stanford, CA Bing Concert Hall, Stanford University Pan-Asian Music Festival; Friday Night's Concert: Masters and Masterpieces Three-day residency at the university culminated in live performance, with several standing ovations and four encores...
  • Stanford Report[58]
  • Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival 2013 (program)[94]
  • Official Press Release[95]
February 17 Raleigh, NC Meymandi Concert Hall, Duke Energy Center for the Performing Arts China on String Stars of the National Chinese Traditional Orchestra in a program with the Raleigh Symphony Orchestra. Program sponsored by Confucius Institute at NC State University and the Carolina China Council.
  • CVNC: An Online Arts Journal[45]
August 26 Beijing, China Concert Hall of the NCPA (National Center for the Performing Arts) Impression of Chinese Music Wang Chaoge, director CITS[73]
October 2 Sanford, NC Dennis A. Wicker Civic Center, Central Carolina Community College Chinese Music Exhibition & Seminar Xi Qiang, artistic director
  • US Fed News Service[75]
  • Central Carolina Community College News[96]
November 22 St. Petersburg, Russia Mariinsky Theater, Theatre Square Chinese Tourism Year in Russia China Central Television[97]
2014 January 13 Beijing, China Roar Katy Perry visited.
  • Getmusic Asia[79]
  • China Central Television[81]
February 14 San Francisco, CA Chinese New Year Concert Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in San Francisco[98]
2015 February 15 Chicago, IL Symphony Center Sounds of China: A Chinese New Year Celebration Presented in collaboration with the Chinese Fine Arts Society (CFAS)
  • Jiuyue Ma, artistic director
  • Chicago Tribune[43]
  • Chicago Symphony Orchestra Association[44]
  • Chicago Chinatown Chamber of Commerce E-News[99]
April 15 Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, University of British Columbia China-Canada Year Opening Ceremony China Daily US[14]
May 7 Atlanta, GA The World of Coca-Cola Free concert to launch the Qin-Tai — Chinese Music Program Brought to Atlanta by The Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and The State Council Information Office of the People’s Republic of China. GCIV Exchange Newsletter[100]
November 27 Shanghai, China Shanghai Grand Theater Rediscover Chinese Music An experimental program.
  • Xi Qiang, orchestra president
  • Wang Chaoge, director
  • Jiang Ying, composer
Shanghai Daily[63]
December 11–13 Washington, DC Kennedy Center Opera House Rediscover Chinese Music

The Washington Yu Ying Public Charter School Chorus performed with the orchestra.

  • Jiang Ying, composer and arranger
  • Li Bin, stage design
  • Wang Yugang, lighting design
  • Gan Hua and Zheng Zejian, multimedia design
  • Zuo Huanyu, costume design
  • Shen Tian, sound design
  • Xi Qiang, producer
December 18 New York, NY Lincoln Center China National Traditional Orchestra: Splendor of Folk Music
  • Tang Feng, Erhu (Chinese Fiddle)
  • Wu Yuxia, Pipa (Chinese Lute)
  • Wang Ciheng, Dongxiao (Chinese Bamboo Flute)
  • Wu Lin, Konghou (Chinese Harp)
  • Zhao Cong, Pipa (Chinese Lute)
  • Lincoln Center[3]
  • Broadway World[103]
  • New York Classical Review[61]
December 20 New York, NY Carnegie Hall Impression Guoyue: Traditional Master Works Orchestra was invited by the Princeton International Chinese Music Festival.
  • Jiang Ying, composer and arranger
  • Liu Sha, conductor
  • Tang Feng and Jin Yue, erhu
  • Wang Ciheng, dizi and xiao
  • Wu Yuxia, Zhao Cong, and Yu Yuanchun, pipa
  • Feng Maintain, ruan
  • Niu Jiandang, suona
  • Zhu Jianping and Yu Xin, percussion
  • Chen Shasha and Ding Xiaokui, dizi
  • Zhang Jiali, guanzi
  • Lu Ning, gu qin

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The orchestra name is shown in Pinyin, a system for writing Chinese characters with the Latin alphabet to assist with Chinese pronunciation.
  2. ^ The Performance chronology table is not a complete history of performances. This is only the information we have discovered to date.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "CPAA Productions Ltd. presents: China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music". The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. 2 October 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c "Performance: Sunday, December 20, 2015 at 8 PM: China National Traditional Orchestra (Stern Auditorium / Perelman Stage).". Carnegie Hall: Calendar & Events. Carnegie Hall Corporation. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015. The China National Traditional Orchestra returns to Carnegie Hall... Presented by China National Traditional Orchestra and Princeton International Chinese Music Festival. 
  3. ^ a b c d "China National Traditional Orchestra: Splendor of Folk Music". New York, NY: Lincoln Center. 18 December 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015. Their extensive repertoire of new and traditional works is a result of hundreds of commissioned works and arrangements made just for the them. 
  4. ^ a b c d "China National Orchestra Gala Concert". Chinese Music Society of North America. Naperville, IL. 31 August 2000. Retrieved 24 December 2015. Many of you still remember the first arrival of the China National Orchestra (CNO) to the United States in 1984. It was then called the Central Traditional Orchestra (CTO). In 1984, history was written when it became the first Chinese orchestra of Chinese instruments to tour the U.S. (program note written by Shen Sin-yan, National President, CMSNA) 
  5. ^ a b Boehler, Patrick (10 July 2014). "How a Chinese government decree could take the glimmer out of Vienna's Golden Music Hall". South China Morning Post: China Insider. South China Morning Post Publishers Ltd. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Katy Perry – China National Orchestra Visit Photos". Getmusic Asia. 14 January 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Grenoble, Ryan (15 January 2014). "This Performance Made Katy Perry Almost Cry Her Eyelashes Off". Huffpost: Arts & Culture. TheHuffingtonPost.com, Inc. Retrieved 6 November 2015. Which makes this cover of Katy Perry's "Roar," performed by the China National Orchestra, even more extraordinary. The orchestra adapted the pop star's hit single for traditional Chinese instruments, then performed it last Sunday to welcome Perry on her first trip to the country. 
  8. ^ a b "Grand Chinese folk music production makes US premiere". English.news.cn (Xinhua News Service). 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015. The ten-program performance, a creative production from the world-renowned China National Traditional Orchestra, combines the expansive sounds of a 110-piece orchestra with story-telling, technical innovation and stunning multimedia backdrops. 
  9. ^ a b "The unique sound and history of three Chinese musical instruments". CCTV America. 23 December 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2015. The Chinese National Orchestra recently performed in Washington, D.C. and New York City. CCTV America talked with three of the musicians about the history and what makes their instrument special. (Videos: Wang Ciheng tells us about the Xiao, Wu Yuxia tells us about the Pipa, Jin Yue tells us about the Erhu) 
  10. ^ a b China Central Orchestra Choir (2010), Chinese Folk Songs: Half Moon Ascending (CD), China Record Chengdu Co. / Cinevision, retrieved 7 November 2015 
  11. ^ a b c d "Chinese National Orchestra Concert". Theatre Beijing: The Official Beijing Theatre Guide Website. China Art International Travel Service. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  12. ^ a b McDonald, Joe (16 April 2004), China cancels Christian-themed concert amid unease about religious appeal, Beijing, China: AP Worldstream (AP via HighBeam Research), retrieved 10 November 2015, The Ministry of Culture ordered the chorus of the China National Orchestra to withdraw from the Saturday night concert, said conductor Su Wenxing. Su said orchestra managers refused to tell him the reason given by the ministry. 
  13. ^ a b "Learn About the Orchestra". China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music. CPAA Productions Ltd. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  14. ^ a b c d Liu, Hatty (15 April 2015). "China-Canada Year Kicks off". China Daily US. China Daily Information Co (CDIC). Retrieved 6 November 2015. …a concert presented by the National Chinese Traditional Orchestra. …attended by representatives from the Chinese Ministry of Culture. 
  15. ^ a b Polter, Julie (November 2005). "Replacing Songs with Silence Censorship, banning, blacklists: What's lost when governments stifle musical expression?". Sojourners Magazine. Retrieved 13 November 2015. In April 2004, China's Ministry of Culture ordered the China National Orchestra chorus to pull out of a planned concert. The presumed reason was that the program included a composition with Christian allusions, Easter Chorus, written by Chinese-born Canadian Huang An Lun. 
  16. ^ "China National Orchestra Performing in Carnegie Hall. Stern Auditorium.". American Alliance for World Music and Arts. 20 December 2015. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c Freeman, Peter (6 November 2015). "Kennedy Center Hosts US Premiere of Rediscover Chinese Music, December 11–13". DC Outlook. Retrieved 9 November 2015. China National Traditional Orchestra Celebrates Musical Heritage of China in Rediscover Chinese Music 
  18. ^ a b China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music on Google+
  19. ^ a b c Wu Yixia (pipa), Wang Chaoge (director), Oushea Rollins (parent), Deanna Douglas (audience member) (12 December 2015). Rediscover Chinese Music kicks off U.S. tour (video). New China TV on YouTube (Washington, DC). Retrieved 12 December 2015. Wu Yixia, a renowned Chinese lutanist and deputy president of the orchestra, said, “We hope to bring Chinese national music to more people around the world. 
  20. ^ a b c d Freeman, Peter (20 November 2015). "Washington Yu Ying School Chorus to Perform with China National Traditional Orchestra". DC Outlook. Retrieved 23 November 2015. The Washington Yu Ying Chorus, which includes 40 auditioned singers from Grades 3-5, will perform Train Toccota and Wild Goose, two pieces that are part of the traditional Chinese repertoire. 
  21. ^ Abrahamsen, Eric (28 September 2005). "Art & Culture" [Musical Sources]. In Pillsbury, Adam. Insider's Guide to Beijing 2005-2006 (2 ed.). Beijing, China: True Run Media. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-9773334-0-0. Retrieved 2 December 2015. Founded in 1960 by famous composer Li Huanzhi, the CNO is known for its incorporation of traditional Chinese instruments into the orchestra… 
  22. ^ "Rediscover Chinese music with China National Traditional Orchestra". WTOP. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015. The China National Traditional Orchestra (formerly known as the China National Orchestra) was founded in 1960 by famous Chinese composer and conductor Li Huanzhi, a prominent member of the Chinese Music Association. 
  23. ^ Qiang, Xi; China National Orchestra (Zhongyang minzu yuetuan); Qiu, Maoru (translator); Niu, Jiandang (photographs) (2011), Chinese Music and Musical Instruments, New York, NY: Better Link Press, ISBN 9781602201057 
  24. ^ a b "China National Music Orchestra". Chinaculture.org (Ministry of Culture). 29 December 2003. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  25. ^ Women of China. Peking: Foreign Languages Press (FLP). 2003. p. 52. Different art forms are interlinked with traditional Chinese aesthetics. The grand national symphony concert — Gallery of Chinese Symphonic Music, performed by the Chinese National Orchestra — is no exception. It blends China's symphonic music with traditional Chinese painting. The outcome is unique. The result: the first symphony in China that incorporates sight, sound, time and space. 
  26. ^ "China National Traditional Orchestra: Rediscover Chinese Music". HeyEvent.com. December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015. The event showcases…musicians from China dressed in traditional costumes, include specially designed lighting and sound, backdrops and scenery. 
  27. ^ a b Brickman, Ravelle (12 December 2015). "China National Traditional Orchestra’s Rediscover Chinese Music at The Kennedy Center". DC Metro Theater Arts. Retrieved 13 December 2015. China-watchers, take note. Music-lovers, stagecraft fanatics and historians aren’t the only ones who will enjoy, and learn something from this production. 
  28. ^ a b "Zhong yang min zu yue tuan (Beijing, China)". Library of Congress Name Authority File. Library of Congress. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  29. ^ "Zhong yang min zu yue tuan (Beijing, China)". Virtual International Authority File. OCLC. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  30. ^ a b c d Mark, Lindy Li (11 September 2000), Symphony Review: Music Of Ethnic Nationalities and Chinese Pops, San Francisco, CA: San Francisco Classical Voice, retrieved 10 November 2015, The Chinese National Traditional Orchestra performed an evening of pops on Sunday to the standing ovation of a sold-out crowd… At the end of program, the orchestra played three encores. 
  31. ^ "China National Orchestra" (PDF). The Chinese Chamber of Commerce of Hawaii. January 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2015. The Orchestra was founded in 1956 as the Central Philharmonic Orchestra of China, then in 1996, it was restructured and renamed the China National Symphony Orchestra. 
  32. ^ a b c d Xiaomei, Wang (8 August 2011). "Chinese Orchestra performs at Austria's Salzburg Festival". China Central Television. Retrieved 13 November 2015. The China Central Chinese Orchestra performed Friday at the 91st Salzburg Festival, the first time a traditional Chinese music group played at the world-renowned event. Photo caption: Director Chen Xieyang from China National Orchestra poses at a concert held in Salzburg, Austria, Aug. 5, 2011, as part of the Salzburg Festival. 
  33. ^ Mirabile, Graziana (14 January 2014). "Katy Perry, spaccata sulla Muraglia Cinese (Katy Perry, split on the Wall of China)". Gossipnews. Retrieved 5 November 2015. The 29 year-old has also visited the Central Chinese Orchestra 
  34. ^ a b "Impression of Guoyue. Performance December 20, 2015. Carnegie Hall.". China National Orchestra. Central Nationalities Orchestra, Beijing. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015. . 
  35. ^ a b "Central Nationalities Orchestra Folk Music Drama Will Debut at the United States John F. Kennedy Center for the Arts". Washington Chinese Media. 30 October 2015. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  36. ^ a b "Chinese folk music goes to Vienna". Beijing Review: China’s National English News Weekly. 2 February 1998. The Golden Hall in Vienna, Austria, will be the venue of the performance by the Central Nationalities Orchestra of China of traditional Chinese music and some works of Strauss played on traditional Chinese musical instruments. This is a major concert that falls on the eve of the Chinese New Year, Jan 27, 1998. 
  37. ^ a b "Spring Festival celebration concert held in Los Angeles". Global Times. 5 February 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Members of the China Central Chinese Orchestra perform during a Spring Festival celebration concert in Pasadena, Los Angeles, the United States, February 4, 2013. 
  38. ^ a b c "Paying Vienna to sing". Global Times. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2015. Some 133 Chinese performing art groups, campus groups and individuals have given 27 musical performances in Vienna this year, the paper wrote adding that many local Chinese said they feel overwhelmed and annoyed as they are often asked to dole out free tickets to the Austrians. (Vienna's Golden Hall) became famous in China after the China Central Folk Orchestra made their debut at a special New Year concert in 1998. 
  39. ^ Margaret Campbell (19 May 2011). The Great Cellists. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-27801-5. In 1997, (Chinese cellist Hai-Ye Ni) stepped in at the last moment for Yo-Yo Ma in a 14-city tour of the USA with the China Central National Music Orchestra. 
  40. ^ Wong On-yuen, Chen Tscheng-hsiung, China Central National Orchestra. The First Erhu Rhapsody Album: The World of Wong On-yuen's Hu Qin Music Vol.10 - Concerto for Erhu "The Great Wall Capriccio." Label: Linfair Records / R2G Music / DECCA. Original Release Date: 1 January 1994
  41. ^ "China Chinese National Orchestra Performs Special Moonlight". Broadway World. Wisdom Digital Media. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Performance: Feb 21-23 2010 
  42. ^ a b c d "Bamboo in Blues: Chinese National Orchestra Concert". Theatre Beijing: The Official Beijing Theatre Guide Website. TheatreBeijing.com. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  43. ^ a b von Rhein, John (12 February 2015). "Chicago-area classical music picks". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Members of the National Chinese Traditional Orchestra and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra will take part in this collaboration with the Chinese Fine Arts Society. 
  44. ^ a b "Symphony Center Presents Announces Addition of A Special Concert - Sounds of China: A Chinese New Year Celebration" (PDF). Chicago Symphony Orchestra Association. 21 November 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2015. The program features virtuoso soloists from the National Chinese Traditional Orchestra and musicians of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and takes place Sunday, February 15, 2015 at 3 p.m. at Symphony Center. 
  45. ^ a b Lambert, John W. (17 February 2013). "East Meets West Meets East... in a Stunning Evening of Outstanding Cultural Cooperation". CVNC: An Online Arts Journal. Retrieved 22 December 2015. The concert was made possible by many sponsors, chief among them the Confucius Institute at NC State University, an educational organization seeking to advance cooperation and understanding, and the Carolina China Council, a mostly business group promoting trade, educational, and cultural exchanges. 
  46. ^ a b c "From Perlman to Yo-Yo Ma", Worcester Magazine (Worcester, MA), 8 June 2010, There was something almost spiritual about the sound of those native instruments, says Hovenesian in regards to Yo-Yo Ma, who performed in 1997 with the National Orchestra of China. 
  47. ^ a b c Griffiths, Paul (16 March 1997). "Freshly Minted, an Orchestral 'Tradition'". New York Times. New York Times Company. Retrieved 5 November 2015. …this concert by the National Traditional Orchestra of China, based in Beijing, was the first given by such a group on the Carnegie stage… 
  48. ^ Dyer, Richard (21 February 1997). "Ma debuts a masterpiece: Sheng's Spring Dreams". Boston Globe (via HighBeam Research ). ...Bright Sheng's "Spring Dreams," a work written for cellist Yo-Yo Ma and the National Traditional Orchestra of China. The official premiere came last night in Carnegie Hall... 
  49. ^ Delacoma, Wynne (28 February 1997). "String Ensemble: homage to home". Chicago Sun-Times (via HighBeam Research). Retrieved 5 November 2015. …Monday concert by the National Traditional Orchestra of China in Orchestra Hall… 
  50. ^ a b c Cameron, Lindsley (16 February 1997), "Classical Music: At Home in Two Worlds.", New York Times, (Bright Sheng) returned to his homeland for the first time last summer because he was commissioned to write a concerto for the cellist Yo-Yo Ma and the Beijing-based National Traditional Orchestra of China, who will perform the work, Spring Dreams, on Thursday evening at Carnegie Hall. 
  51. ^ Davis, Peter G. (10 March 1997). "Eastern exposure". New York (Magazine). New York Media. 
  52. ^ Melvin, Sheila; Cai, Jindong (2004). "The New Era" [Music and Nationalism]. Rhapsody in Red: How Western Classical Music Became Chinese. New York: Algora Publishing. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-87586-179-1. Retrieved 14 November 2015. The Chinese government has put more effort into promoting traditional instrument orchestras, including the China National Traditional Orchestra's 2000 US tour under the baton of Shanghai Symphony conductor Chen Xieyang. But even as the government tries to raise the profile of China’s own music through such tours, a movement has grown up in traditional music circles that is critical of the artificial nature of the big orchestras and urges a return to a more authentic performance style and repertoire. 
  53. ^ a b Jenkins, Mark (25 August 2000). "Arts & Entertainment: Picks: National Traditional Orchestra of China". Washington City Paper. CL Washington, Inc. Retrieved 23 November 2015. …after Mao's Revolution…Soviet advisers helped the Chinese arrange their traditional instruments into sections to form orchestras that achieved numerical parity with their Western counterparts. 
  54. ^ a b c Shen, Ted (24 August 2000). "China National Orchestra". Chicago Reader. Retrieved 14 November 2015. The CNO also promises encores, including a rendition of America the Beautiful. 
  55. ^ a b c Rule, Doug (3 December 2015). "Rhapsody in Chinese: Rediscover Chinese Music at the Kennedy Center". Metro Weekly (Washington, DC). Retrieved 3 December 2015. From the Olympics to orchestras, Wang Chaoge is known for directing musical spectacles 
  56. ^ Jie, Chen (30 Dec 2015). "Tuning up a tradition". China Daily Hong Kong (via PressReader.com). p. 20. Retrieved 29 Dec 2015. Chinese music reaches out to new audiences with innovative ways to help listeners identify with the stories behind it, Chen Jie discovers. 
  57. ^ "Chinese National Orchestra Concert". eBeijing, the Official Website of the Beijing Government. 25 May 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2015. Not only does the Orchestra maintain traditional music genre, but attempt to breathe new life into it by creating innovative shows… 
  58. ^ a b Wander, Robin (12 February 2013). "A weekend of sold-out performances at Stanford's Pan-Asian Music Festival". Stanford Report. Stanford University. Retrieved 18 November 2015. At the end of a two-hour orchestral performance, the audience wouldn't let them leave the stage. Finally, after several standing ovations and four encores, the appreciative musicians headed backstage. 
  59. ^ Shengdun, Hua (14 December 2015). "Traditional Chinese music brightens DC". China Daily USA (Washington, DC). Retrieved 17 December 2015. The audience that went to hear traditional Chinese music at the Kennedy Center on Dec 12 got a lot more than a sample of music spanning 2,000 years. The show was also a feast for the eyes, with novel lighting, striking multimedia sets and musicians delivering heartfelt monologues. 
  60. ^ Walter, Mike (19 December 2015). "Chinese orchestra fuses traditional music with modern elements". CCTV America. Retrieved 20 December 2015. The world renowned China National Traditional Orchestra has a way of building a young audience that appreciates classical music. It is wowing audiences in Washington, D.C. and New York. As CCTV America’s Mike Walter shows, the orchestra’s latest original production is winning over young fans. 
  61. ^ a b Piccoli, Sean (19 December 2015). "Chinese orchestra shows both solo virtuosity and a familiar sense of tradition". New York Classical Review. Retrieved 21 December 2015. Conductor He Jianguo led encores with extended remarks, in Chinese, to an enthusiastic audience between and even during the music. 
  62. ^ a b delarue (24 December 2015). "An Epic, Majestic, Transcendent Carnegie Hall Concert by the China National Traditional Orchestra". Lucid Culture (a New York-based music blog). Retrieved 24 December 2015. The mighty, majestic group performed a riveting, dynamically rich program of both ancient and contemporary music that was as vast and historically rich as China itself, a paradigm-shifting and potentially life-changing experience 
  63. ^ a b Qian, Zhang (26 November 2015). "Chinese music in experimental show". Shanghai Daily (Shanghai, China). Retrieved 26 November 2015. Rediscover Chinese Music, an experimental program from the China National Traditional Orchestra will be staged at Shanghai Grand Theater until Friday. 
  64. ^ "Why we're loving…Wang Chaoge, director". Campaign Live (UK Edition). Haymarket Media Group Ltd. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2015. Wang Chaoge was the co-director of the opening ceremony at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. 
  65. ^ "Impressions: Wang Chaoge". LifeStyle Magazine. Beijing Lifestyle Advertising Co., Ltd. 17 July 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2015. Co-founder and CEO of Beijing Impression Wonders Arts Development Co. Ltd, Wang Chaoge’s dynamic style and groundbreaking creative approach have made her one of the top directors in China. In an exclusive interview, she gives us insight into the inspiration and art behind her most extensive works, the Impressions and Encore series. 
  66. ^ McEwen, Lauren (9 December 2015). "Going Out Guide: Music: Chinese orchestra seeks young fans for classical music". Washington Post. Washington, DC. Retrieved 9 December 2015. 
  67. ^ "Young Chinese conductor Liu Sha returns to conduct SCO". Singapore Chinese Orchestra Company Limited. 29 January 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2015. After his debut with the Singapore Chinese Orchestra (SCO) in 2008, young Chinese conductor, Liu Sha, returns to conduct the SCO at a one-night only concert on 9 March... Liu Sha is the Conductor-in-Residence of China National Orchestra 
  68. ^ a b c Kun, Wang (Web editor); Fei, He (New York reporter) (21 December 2015). "Rediscovering Chinese Music in New York". CRIENGLISH.com. Retrieved 22 December 2015. Invited by the Princeton International Chinese Music Festival, the orchestra includes 110 musicians, including famed musicians such as Wang Ciheng, Wu Yuxia, Tang Feng and Feng Mantian. 
  69. ^ a b c Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiang (6 August 2011). "China National Orchestra perform at Salzburg Festival". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 24 November 2015. Culture & Edu: Lutanist Wu Yuxia from China National Orchestra performs at a concert held in Salzburg, Austria, Aug. 5, 2011, as part of the Salzburg Festival. 
  70. ^ "The introduction of Zhao Cong". Arts Council San Jose. 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2015. Zhao Cong is a leading Pipa soloist of China National Traditional Orchestra. 
  71. ^ "1999 China National Traditional Orchestra". Wu Promotion. 16 February 1999. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  72. ^ Zhu Jianping (1 January 2004). Fisherman's Song of Triumph (Yu Zhou Kai Ge) (CD). China Record Corporation. ASIN B001GPXWEY. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  73. ^ a b "China Travel News: Music show Impression of Chinese Music performed in Beijing". CITS. China International Travel Service Limited. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2015. On Aug 26, 2013, a national music show Impression of Chinese Music was performed at the National Center of the Performing Arts in Beijing, capital of China. The show was directed by Chinese director Wang Chaoge and performed by the China National Orchestra. 
  74. ^ a b c Melvin, Sheila (31 August 2000). "Chinese Traditional Orchestra: Westernizing the Erhu". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 November 2015. 
  75. ^ a b Central Carolina Community College Hosts China National Orchestra Members' Lecture, Performance, US Fed News Service (FNS via HighBeam Research), 7 October 2013, retrieved 10 November 2015, Xi Qiang, artistic director of the China National Orchestra, and several of the orchestra's members entertained and educated an audience of more than 100 of all ages Oct. 2 at the Chinese Music Exhibition & Seminar in the Dennis A. Wicker Civic Center 
  76. ^ Chinese Music 28. Chinese Music Society of North America. 2005. p. 78. [American classical composer] Shen Sinyan representing the Chinese Music Society of North America invited [composer-conductor] Liu Wenjin to visit the United States. In 1984, Shen Sinyan again invited the China National Orchestra to tour the United States. 
  77. ^ a b Townsend, J. Kenneth (13 August 1984). "Orchestra of China". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. Retrieved 24 December 2015. The Central Traditional Orchestra of China, touring the United States for the first time, showcases music from one of the most ancient and highly developed musical traditions in the world. The orchestra performed instrumental and vocal selections Saturday night at the National Museum of Natural History in a concert presented by the Smithsonian Resident Associate Program. The humble musicians had to be pushed back onstage by their colleagues several times to acknowledge the audience's standing ovation. 
  78. ^ a b c Sheng, Bright (1997), "Spring Dreams for Violoncello and Orchestra of Traditional Chinese Instruments", ISSUU ScoresOnDemand (New York, NY: G Schirmer Inc), This work was commissioned for Yo-Yo Ma and The National Traditional Orchestra of China by The Carnegie Hall Corporation. The premiere performance was given at Mechanics Hall, Worcester, MA, on February 19, 1997 and its New York premiere was given at Carnegie Hall New York City on February 20, 1997. 
  79. ^ a b "Katy Perry - Roar (Orchestral Version) Performed by China National Orchestra". YouTube. Getmusic Asia. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2015. Katy Perry visited the China National Orchestra in Beijing on 12th January 2014 
  80. ^ Kahn, John David (16 January 2014). "Katy Perry Brought to Tears by Chinese Orchestra's 'Roar' Cover.". Breibart News Network. Retrieved 3 November 2015. 
  81. ^ a b Wenwen, Liu (14 January 2014). "China National Orchestra perform Katy Perry hit". China Central Television (CCTV). Retrieved 13 November 2015. The China National Orchestra rearranged Katy Perry's No.1 single Roar 
  82. ^ Yue, Zhang (11 December 2015). "DC students get musical treat". China Daily USA (Washington, DC). Retrieved 12 December 2015. Musicians from the China National Traditional Orchestra dropped in on Yu Ying Public Charter School in Washington, DC on Thursday morning and played for the students. 
  83. ^ Bowen, Li (11 December 2015). "U.S.-Washington D.C.-China National Orchestra Show". Corbis Blog: Corbis Wire. Li Bowen/Xinhua Press/Corbis. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Students sing along with the performance of China National Orchestra at the Kennedy Center in Washington D.C., capital of the United States, Dec. 11, 2015. 
  84. ^ "Records, 1977-1988". Smithsonian Resident Associate Program Business Office. 1977–1988. Retrieved 7 Jan 2016. 
  85. ^ Chung, Oscar (1 January 2004). "Southern Winds Sigh Gently Again". Taiwan Today. Republic of China (Taiwan): Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 24 December 2015. In September 1989, the Han-Tang Yuefu Ensemble performed in Beijing Concert Hall in collaboration with the China National Orchestra… 
  86. ^ "Grand Chinese New Year Concert: Vienna, Austria. 1998". YouTube. Wu Promotion. 26 November 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2015. Performers: Song Fei, China National Traditional Orchestra. Erhu solo. The Moon Reflected on the Er Quan Spring (Abstract). 
  87. ^ She, Ben; Ming, Yi (2001). "The China Report: This Week Report 1". China News Reports in United States Media, 3rd Quarter/2000. China: Intercontinental. p. 154. ISBN 7801137973. This week marks the start of a month-long series of special events called China Cultural Exchange 2000. The series begins on Thursday, with a concert by the China National Music Orchestra at the United Nations. The orchestra will then appear at the Kennedy Center in Washington, DC on Saturday and Sunday. 
  88. ^ "The China National Traditional Orchestra U.S. Tour 2000". St. Louis Chinese American News. St. Louis, Missouri. August 2000. Retrieved 9 December 2015. Gitana Productions, Inc. Presents Faces of Love Towards the East. The China National Orchestra. A St. Louis Premiere Performance. Powell Symphony Hall. September 3, 2000. 
  89. ^ "A Bold New Gesture: China National Traditional Orchestra to play at San Francisco's Davies Symphony Hall". AsianWeek (via HighBeam Research). 13 September 2000. Retrieved 5 November 2015. 
  90. ^ "Music: China National Traditional Orchestra". BOZAR Center for Fine Arts. 29 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2015. Its repertoire provides a good overview of Chinese traditional music, while taking in influences from contemporary Chinese music, western classical music, and other forms of music from around the world. 
  91. ^ "Soul of China can be found in its traditional music". China.org.cn. China International Publishing Group. 31 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2015. A two-hour concert by the China National Traditional Orchestra attracted some 500 people to the Center for Fine Arts. 
  92. ^ "Chinese New Year Concert: Paris, France". UNESCO » Events » Programme meetings. UNESCO. 30 January 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2015. To mark the Chinese New Year, the China National Orchestra, comprising 80 musicians and conducted by Mr Chen Xieyang, offers a concert in which the audience will discover or rediscover Western and Chinese musical masterpieces. 
  93. ^ Limin, Zheng (3 September 2010). "China National Orchestra joins stage celebration". China Central Television (CCTV). Retrieved 13 November 2015. Taking the stage Wednesday night at the National Center for the Performing Arts was the China National Orchestra. 
  94. ^ "Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival 2013 (program)" (PDF). Xiamen University Alumni Association of Silicon Valley. 8 February 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2015. China National Orchestra: Masters and Masterpieces; Open Rehearsal 
  95. ^ Haro, Delane (11 January 2013). "Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival Showcases China National Orchestra February 8-10- 2013" (PDF) (Press release). Stanford, CA. Retrieved 23 November 2015. The 2013 Stanford Pan-Asian Music Festival will showcase the China National Orchestra (CNO) 
  96. ^ "CCCC Confucius Classroom to host China National Orchestra Exhibition". Central Carolina Community College. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2015. College News > Special Events: On Wednesday, Oct. 2, the Confucius Classroom at Central Carolina Community College will host an ensemble of the China National Orchestra, China's leading traditional folk music performance group. 
  97. ^ Limin, Zheng (25 November 2013). "Chinese Tourism Year in Russia ends". China Central Television. Retrieved 13 November 2015. The closing ceremony of the Tourism Year kicked off at Maryinsky Theater on Friday night with the China National Orchestra, which featured classic pieces of Chinese traditional music. 
  98. ^ "China National Orchestra Gave Chinese New Year Concert in San Francisco Bay Area". Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in San Francisco. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2015. The China National Orchestra...performed concertos and orchestral works on traditional instruments to celebrate the Year of the Snake. 
  99. ^ "Sounds of China – February 15, 2015". Chicago Chinatown Chamber of Commerce. January 2015. Retrieved 5 December 2015. 
  100. ^ "China National Orchestra Concert at the World of Coca-Cola". GCIV Exchange Newsletter (Georgia Council for International Visitors). Atlanta, GA. May 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. 
  101. ^ "Holiday Arts & Entertainment (section)". Washington Post Magazine (Washington, DC: Washington Post Company LLC). 22 November 2015. pp. 12–13. The United States premiere of a new China National Traditional Orchestra production comes to town… 
  102. ^ Rediscover Chinese Music concert. News Channel 8. Interview with Kidd O’Shea @ABC7KIDD (Sinclair Broadcast Group, Inc.). 8 December 2015. Let’s Talk Live. Washington, DC. Retrieved 9 December 2015. It’s absolutely a show for all ages,” said Ann Stahmer, Local Event Coordinator and Producer, Image China: Rediscover Chinese Music. 
  103. ^ a b "China National Traditional Orchestra to Play Two New York City Concerts This December". Broadway World. Wisdom Digital Media. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015. 
  104. ^ "Feature: Chinese orchestra enchants American audiences with innovative folk music". Xinhua News Agency. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015. The performance was the last of the orchestra's five in the United States. The first three took place at the Kennedy Center in Washington, and the fourth at the Lincoln Center in New York. 

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