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China Gates is a short piano piece composed by the minimalist American composer John Adams in 1977. Adams wrote this work as a companion piece to his Phrygian Gates, dating from the same period. Phrygian Gates is the longer of the two pieces and uses many of the same techniques as China Gates, but in terms of structure the two pieces have little in common.
The piece is one of Adams' first mature works, which he wrote for the then 17-year-old pianist Sarah Cahill during a rainy season in northern California. Adams himself has suggested that the constant eighth notes of the piece reflect the steady rainfall of the time. The bass notes of the piece form the root of the mode, while the upper voices oscillate between different modes. K. Robert Schwarz has noted how the style of China Gates is in keeping with the ideas of "process music" of Steve Reich.
The piece is written in three parts. In the first part, the modes alternate between A-flat mixolydian and G-sharp aeolian, which sound almost like the major and minor versions of the same key. The third part alternates between F lydian and F locrian. The second part alternates more rapidly between all four modes. Adams has described the structure of the work as an "almost perfect palindrome".
Recordings and Notable Performances
- Albany TROY 038: Christopher O'Riley, piano
- Telarc CD-80513: Gloria Cheng-Cochran, piano
- Nonesuch 79699: Nicolas Hodges, piano
- Black Box Classics 1098: Andrew Russo, piano
- Naxos 8.55928: Ralph van Raat, piano
- Yarlung 79580: Joanne Pearce Martin, piano
- Gold medalist Vadym Kholodenko performed the work as his opening piece in the 2013 Van Cliburn International Piano Competition.
- Schwarz, K. Robert (Autumn 1990). "Process vs. Intuition in the Recent Works of Steve Reich and John Adams". American Music (American Music, Vol. 8, No. 3) 8 (3): 245–273. doi:10.2307/3052096. JSTOR 3052096.
- Allan Kozinn (24 February 1991). "Pianists Leave Ideological Warfare to Composers". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Bernard Holland (9 August 1998). "New Life For Work By Adams". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Allan Kozinn (15 August 2004). "At Home With the Songs of Norway (and Finland)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Clare Mackney (26 May 2005). "Road Movies - Andrew Russo and James Ehnes Play John Adams". Birmingham Post (via andante.com). Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- Bernard Holland (29 April 2007). "Muscular, Enthusiastic Strings and Piano (Note the Influences)". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-04-09.
- "Van Cliburn International Piano Competition: Saturday's Competitors". Star-Telegram. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-02.
- Boosey & Hawkes page on China Gates
- G Schirmer music publisher page on China Gates
- John Adams official page, entry on China Gates