|North China Marines|
|Active||1844-1941, 1900, 1925, 1927-1941|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Branch||United States Marine Corps|
|Type||Marine Embassy Guard in Peking, China (1844-1941), 4th Marine Regiment in Shanghai, China (1927-1941)|
|Role||Protect American interests and U.S. citizens in China|
|Garrison/HQ||Shanghai, China, Peking, China, Tientsin, China|
|Motto(s)||Semper Fidelis, Gung-ho, (Marine Embassy Guards - In Every Clime and Place), (4th Marine Regiment - Hold High the Torch)|
|Engagements||Boxer Rebellion, Chinese Northern Expedition, Chinese Civil War, Second Sino-Japanese War, World War II|
The term China Marines, originally referred to the United States Marines of the 4th Marine Regiment, who were stationed in Shanghai, China from 1927 to 1941 to protect American citizens and their property in the Shanghai International Settlement, during the Chinese Revolution and the Second Sino-Japanese War. Those Marines stationed at the embassy in Peking and the consulate in Tientsin referred to themselves as North China Marines.
Due to the cheap labor available, China Marines lived a relatively comfortable lifestyle, with each squad able to hire Chinese men to do their cleaning and run their errands. This, plus the inexpensive goods available on the local market, made an assignment to the China Marines highly coveted.
Most of the China Marines were withdrawn in November 1941, but the North China Marines in Peking and Tientsin were scheduled to be withdrawn on December 10. (All weapons and ammunition except rifles and pistols had been crated and shipped by rail to the embarkation port.) However, Imperial Japan attacked the United States on December 7, and the Marine Embassy guards, plus a fourteen-man Naval medical detachment, a total of 203 men, were captured and held as slave labor until the war's end in August 1945. A 204th man, a retired officer who had been living in Peking and recalled to duty, was immediately released. He continued living in Peking until he was included in the roundup of civilians and sent to the Weihsien civilian internment camp in March 1943. He was returned to the states on the exchange ship Teia Maru in Sep 1943. The last commander of the China Marines was Colonel William W. Ashurst.
With the rapid expansion of the Marine Corps during World War II and the capture of the rest of the 4th Marine Regiment at Corregidor, the surviving China Marines were few in number and highly regarded.
On January 31, 1996, Marines from the 2nd Battalion 5th Marines, as part of the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (31st MEU), Special Operations Capable (SOC), made their first visit to Shanghai, China, since World War II. The 31st MEU-SOC visited China again on November 22, 2006, during a port visit to Zhanjiang.[full citation needed]
American Legion China Post One
American Legion China Post One, formed in 1919, one year after the "Great War" and chartered by the American Legion on 20 April 1920, was originally named the General Frederick Townsend Ward Post No. 1, China. It is the only post nominally headquartered in a communist country, and has been operating in exile since 1948 — presently in Henderson, Nevada.
In popular culture
Author W.E.B. Griffin often writes of China Marines in his book series The Corps. Book 1 of the series in particular highlights the pre-World War II lives of China Marines. In his Presidential Agent series, he several times makes reference to American Legion China Post No. 1 in Exile as a post comprised in the main of retired military special operators who can be hired for assorted purposes.
- Yangtze Patrol
- Yangtze Service Medal
- Operation Beleaguer
- China Service Medal
- History of the United States Marine Corps
- List of United States Marine Corps battalions
- Biggs Jr., Chester M. (2003). The United States Marines in North China, 1894-1942. McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-1488-X.
- Shaw Jr., Henry I. (1960). The United States Marines in North China, 1945-1949 (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Historical Branch, United States Marine Corps.[permanent dead link]