The airline was established on 25 November 1996 and started to operate on 27 February 1997. It is owned by Chinese Postal Bureau (51%) and China Southern Airlines (49%). It was originally set up to operate domestic postal services, but in 2006 introduced international scheduled services to South Korea and Japan. From January 2007 international cargo charter services were introduced.
The China Postal Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft (as of December 2015):. In December 2015 it was announced that a total of 7 used Boeing 757 and 10 used Boeing 737 would be acquired from Boeing, being converted to freighters via Boeing's Converted Freighter (BCF) program, to be delivered in 2016 and 2017 to expand the existing fleet.