China Radio International

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"Radio Beijing" redirects here. For the municipal radio station (Radio Beijing Corporation), see Beijing Renmin Guangbo Diantai.
China Radio International
Crilogo.jpg
City Shijingshan Road 16th Beijing
Broadcast area Worldwide
First air date December 3, 1941
Affiliations State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television
Owner  People's Republic of China
Website CRI, CRI in English
China Radio International
Simplified Chinese 中国国际
广播电台
Traditional Chinese 中國國際
廣播電台

China Radio International (CRI) (Chinese: 中国国际广播电台; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guójì Guǎngbō Diàntái) is the People's Republic of China (PRC) state-owned international radio broadcaster, currently headquartered in Babaoshan, a subdistrict of Beijing. Formerly Radio Beijing, and originally Radio Peking, it was founded on December 3 of 1941.

CRI adopts the PRC Government's stance on political issues such as the Political status of Taiwan and the status of the Dalai Lama. CRI claims that it "endeavours to promote favourable relations between the PRC and the world". As with other nations' external broadcasters such as Voice of America, BBC World Service and Radio Australia, CRI claims to "play a significant role in the PRC's soft power strategy". Unlike those broadcasters, CRI's control via indirect majority ownership or financial support of radio stations in various nations is not published.[1][2]

It has 30 overseas bureaus, and broadcasts 1,520 hours of programming each day (24 hours in English), including news, current affairs, and features on politics, the economy, culture, science and technology.

CRI has the most comprehensive foreign service in Asia.[citation needed] More than 50 shortwave transmitters are used to cover most of the world; it is broadcast via the internet and numerous satellites; and its programs are rebroadcast by many local FM and AM radio stations worldwide.

History[edit]

Radio was first introduced in China in the 1920s and 1930s. However, few households had radio receivers. A few cities had commercial stations. Most usage of radio was for political purpose, frequently on a local area level.

The Chinese Communist Party first used radio in Yanan in March 1940 with a transmitter imported from Moscow. Xinhua New Chinese Radio (XNCR) went on the air from Yanan on December 30, 1940. XNCR transmitted to a larger geographical area after 1945, and its programs became more regular and formalised with broadcasts of news, official announcements, war bulletins, and art and literary programs.

The English service started on September 11, 1947, transmitting as XNCR from a cave in Shahe in the Taihang Mountains,[3] when China was in the midst of a civil war, to announce newly conquered areas and broadcast a Chinese political and cultural perspective to the world at large.[4][5] The station moved from the Taihang Mountains to the capital, Peking, when The People's Republic of China was formed in 1949. Its name was changed to Radio Peking on April 10, 1950 and to Radio Beijing in 1983. On January 1, 1993 the name of the station was again changed, this time to China Radio International, in order to avoid any confusion with local Beijing radio broadcasting.

Short wave/international broadcasting[edit]

CRI broadcasts via shortwave radio, satellite and the Internet in English and numerous other languages (see below). There are also numerous AM and FM relays.

Shortwave broadcasts in English are targeted at North America, the Caribbean, Europe, Africa, Asia and the South Pacific. CRI maintains direct shortwave broadcasts to developed, media-rich countries in North America and Europe, even as major Western broadcasters (such as BBC World Service, Voice of America and Radio Netherlands) reduce or discontinue such broadcasts.

CRI English Shortwave Service timetable(A16)[edit]

Frequency(kHz) StartTime(UTC) EndTime(UTC) Language TargetArea Transmitter


558 1500 1600 English South East Asia

558 1600 1700 English South East Asia

558 1700 1800 English South East Asia

684 1200 1300 English South East Asia Dongfang (Hainan)

1080 1600 1700 English South East Asia Unknown

1080 1700 1800 English South East Asia Unknown

1188 1200 1300 English South Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

1188 1500 1600 English South Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

1269 1100 1200 English South East Asia Unknown

1269 1200 1300 English South East Asia Unknown

1323 1500 1600 English Far East Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

1323 1600 1700 English Far East Tibet (Lhasa-Baiding)

1323 1700 1800 English Far East Tibet (Lhasa-Baiding)

1341 1200 1300 English South East Asia

1341 1300 1400 English South East Asia

1422 1400 1500 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

5915 2300 2400 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

5955 1100 1300 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

5955 1300 1400 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

5955 1400 1500 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

5955 1500 1600 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

5960 2000 2100 English Europe Cerrik

5960 2100 2200 English Europe Cerrik

5985 2000 2100 English South Africa Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

5990 2300 2400 English Central America Unknown

6020 0 100 English Eastern North America Cerrik

6020 100 200 English Eastern North America Cerrik

6060 1600 1700 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

6060 1700 1800 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

6075 0 100 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

6140 1700 1800 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

6165 1700 1800 English Middle East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

6175 1600 1700 English South East Asia Nanning (Guangxi)

6175 1700 1800 English South East Asia Nanning (Guangxi)

6180 0 100 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

6180 100 200 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

6180 2300 2400 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7205 2100 2200 English East Africa Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

7235 1600 1700 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7235 1700 1800 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7285 2000 2100 English Europe Cerrik

7285 2100 2200 English Europe Cerrik

7295 1900 2000 English North Africa Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7295 2000 2100 English North Africa Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7325 1500 1600 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

7325 2100 2200 English South Africa Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

7350 0 100 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7350 2300 2400 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7395 1500 1600 English Pakistan Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

7410 1700 1800 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7415 2000 2100 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7415 2100 2200 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

7420 1700 1800 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

7425 0 100 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9440 1900 2000 English Middle East Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

9440 2000 2100 English Middle East Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

9460 1200 1300 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9470 100 200 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9535 100 200 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9570 0 100 English Eastern North America Cerrik

9570 100 200 English Eastern North America Cerrik

9570 1300 1400 English Eastern North America Unknown

9570 1600 1700 English South Africa Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

9570 1700 1800 English South Africa Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

9580 100 200 English Eastern North America Unknown

9590 2200 2300 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

9600 1200 1300 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

9600 1800 1900 English Europe Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

9600 2000 2100 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9600 2100 2200 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9645 1200 1300 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

9675 100 200 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

9675 1500 1600 English South Asia Jinhua

9720 1500 1600 English Central Asia Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

9730 1200 1300 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

9730 1300 1400 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

9760 1200 1300 English Oceania Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

9765 1300 1400 English Central Asia Baoji-Xinjie

9765 1400 1500 English Central Asia Baoji-Xinjie

9790 300 400 English Western North America Unknown

9870 1300 1400 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

9870 1400 1500 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

9870 1500 1600 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

9880 1500 1600 English South East Asia Nanning (Guangxi)

9880 1600 1700 English Indonesia Nanning (Guangxi)

9880 1700 1800 English Indonesia Nanning (Guangxi)

11610 1000 1100 English Siberia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11610 1500 1600 English North Africa Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11620 800 900 English Far East Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11620 900 1000 English Far East Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11635 1000 1100 English Siberia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

11640 2000 2100 English East Africa Bamako

11640 2100 2130 English East Africa Bamako

11650 1100 1300 English Pakistan Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

11660 1100 1300 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11660 1300 1400 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11665 1400 1500 English Central Asia Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

11675 1400 1500 English Pakistan Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

11690 1200 1300 English Central Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11690 2300 2400 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

11710 500 600 English Egypt Cerrik

11710 600 700 English Egypt Cerrik

11760 1200 1300 English Oceania Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

11760 1300 1400 English Oceania Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

11765 1400 1500 English Pakistan Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

11770 100 200 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11770 200 300 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11770 300 400 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11790 0 100 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11790 2300 2400 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11795 1100 1200 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11870 600 700 English Middle East Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11885 0 100 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

11895 500 600 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11895 600 700 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11895 700 900 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11900 1300 1400 English Oceania Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

11900 1600 1700 English East Africa Jinhua

11900 1700 1800 English East Africa Jinhua

11910 1300 1400 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

11940 1600 1700 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11955 2300 2400 English Philippines Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

11965 1600 1700 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

11980 1200 1300 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

11980 1300 1400 English South East Asia Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

12015 1700 1800 English Europe Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

13570 1000 1100 English Far East Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

13590 300 400 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

13590 400 500 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

13590 1000 1100 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

13590 1100 1200 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

13630 2000 2100 English East Africa Bamako

13630 2100 2130 English East Africa Bamako

13640 200 300 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13640 1500 1600 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13645 600 700 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

13660 700 800 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

13665 1100 1300 English Europe Cerrik

13670 1300 1400 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13685 1400 1500 English East Africa Bamako

13685 1500 1600 English East Africa Bamako

13710 700 900 English Europe Cerrik

13710 1400 1500 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13720 1000 1100 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

13720 1100 1200 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

13750 0 100 English Far East Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

13755 1300 1400 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13760 1600 1700 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13760 1700 1800 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13760 1800 1900 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

13790 900 1000 English Oceania Jinhua

13790 1000 1100 English Oceania Jinhua

15110 300 400 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15120 300 400 English Siberia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

15120 400 500 English Siberia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

15125 0 100 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

15125 100 200 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

15145 600 700 English Middle East Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15210 1000 1100 English Oceania Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

15245 1500 1600 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15250 1600 1700 English Middle East Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

15350 500 600 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15350 600 700 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15350 700 900 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15350 900 1000 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15350 1000 1100 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15465 500 600 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15465 600 700 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15465 700 900 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15660 1100 1300 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

15700 1400 1500 English Western North America Unknown

15700 1500 1600 English Western North America Unknown

15785 100 200 English South East Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

15785 300 400 English Siberia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

15785 400 500 English Siberia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

17490 700 900 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17490 900 1000 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17490 1000 1100 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17490 1100 1300 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17510 500 600 English North Africa Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17510 600 700 English North Africa Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17540 500 600 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17540 600 700 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17540 700 900 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17570 900 1000 English Europe Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

17630 1200 1300 English Europe Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

17630 1300 1400 English Europe Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

17630 1400 1500 English Europe Urumqi (Xinjiang, CRI)

17630 1400 1500 English East Africa Bamako

17630 1500 1600 English East Africa Bamako

17650 900 1000 English Europe Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17650 900 1000 English Oceania Kunming CRI (Yunnan)

17670 700 900 English North Africa Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17710 600 700 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

17710 700 800 English South East Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

17730 400 500 English Central Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

17730 500 600 English Central Asia Xian-Xianyang (Shaanxi)

17750 900 1000 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17750 1000 1100 English South Asia Kashi (Kashgar) (Xinjiang)

17855 400 500 English Central Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)


17855 500 600 English Central Asia Beijing-Gaobeidian (CNR)

Programming[edit]

Mandarin Channel[edit]

At the beginning of 1984, it started to broadcast home service to the Beijing area on AM and FM frequencies. The service later expanded to dozens of major cities across the PRC, providing listeners inside the PRC with timely news and reports, music, weather, English and Chinese learning skills, as well as other services.

CRI News Radio (90.5 FM)[edit]

CRI News Radio (CRI环球资讯广播) was established on 28 September 2005, which takes advantage of CRI's journalists from all around the world and report international (and partially domestic) news, sport, entertainment and lifestyle programmes for domestic listeners in Mandarin Chinese. Its aim is to make CRI News Radio a first-class national news radio brand and its slogans are 'First News, News First', 'On-the-Spot China, Live World' etc.[6] CRI News Radio can be heard online and in Beijing on the radio on 90.5 FM; in Tianjin 90.6 FM; in Chongqing 91.7 FM; in Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macau 107.1 FM; in Shandong 89.8 FM; in Anhui 90.1 FM.

Popular Shows

  • Laowai's Viewpoint (Chinese: 老外看点 Pinyin: lao wai kan dian) international news program with three hosts from different countries
  • Bianzou Biankan (Chinese: 边走边看) travel show taking the listener to a new location with each episode
  • New Wealth Times (Chinese: 新财富时代 Pinyin: xin cai fu shi dai) financial talk show

Chinese podcasts[edit]

The following programmes can be heard on the Mandarin version of the podcast from the World Radio Network:

  • News (Chinese: 新闻节目 Pinyin: xīn wén jié mù), which comes from the Xinhua News Agency.
  • Tángrénjiē (Chinese: 唐人街 English translation: "Chinatown"), a programme about overseas Chinese (outside China)
  • Weather forecasts around China
  • Sports

This broadcast was originally targeted at London in the United Kingdom. In 2006, they removed the "London" reference, which was part of the introduction as "Ni hao London. Hello London"[7]

English Channel[edit]

CRI in English (88.0 FM, 88.7 FM, 91.5 FM, 846 AM, 1008 AM)[edit]

The CRI English channels that can be heard online are:

  • Round the Clock (Internet only)
  • News Centre (846 AM in Beijing)
  • Hit FM (88.7 FM in Beijing (24H All Day), 88.5 FM in Guangzhou (06:00—21:00 Beijing Time))
  • Easy FM (91.5 FM in Beijing (24H All Day), 87.9 FM in Shanghai (Shanghai Edition) (24H All Day), 98.5 FM in Lanzhou)
  • Language Studio (1008 AM in Beijing) - a one-hour programme that teaches English for someone who only knows Mandarin (not to be confused with Chinese Studio). The programme sounds like a kindergarten English lesson in the USA using very simple sentences (e.g. Mary goes to the bank).
  • CRI 91.9 FM (Kenya 91.9 FM)
  • Chinese Studio is a 5-minute segment that follows most CRI English programmes
  • China Drive is an English radio show about life in the PRC
  • CRI Sri Lanka FM 97.9 in Sri Lanka in Sinhala and English (05:00 — 00:00 Sri Lanka Time)

English Podcasts[edit]

The English podcast from the World Radio Network includes the following programmes, all of which are also played on Easy FM, CRI 91.9 FM in Kenya, and in radio stations throughout the world.

  • Hourly News
  • The Beijing Hour (7 days a week since April, 2015)
  • People in the Know
  • Press Clippings
  • Studio Plus
  • Today
  • China Drive
  • Realtime China
  • Africa Express
  • Chinese Studio (sponsored by the Bridge School)

Holiday Broadcasts[edit]

During major Chinese holidays (dubbed Golden Week), such as Chinese New Year, May Day, and Mid-Autumn Festival, China Radio International typically broadcasts special programmes such as:

  • Growing Up In China (during the May Day holiday)

Most of these programmes are not typical of the broadcast during the other parts of the year. The analogy is similar to Christmas music broadcasts in the United States.

Olympic Radio[edit]

In July 2006, CRI launched a new radio station called CRI Olympic Radio at 900 AM in Beijing. This special broadcast is done in Mandarin, Korean, English, Russian, French, Spanish, Arabic, Japanese and German 24 hours a day. This service terminated in late 2008 and now the frequency 900 AM is occupied by CRI News Radio (Beijing only).

Languages[edit]

China Radio International broadcasts in the following languages:[8]

Language Launched Website
Albanian http://albanian.cri.cn
Arabic http://arabic.cri.cn
Armenian 12 April 2011[9]
Belarusian 23 September 2009[10] http://belarusian.cri.cn
Bengali http://bengali.cri.cn
Bulgarian http://bulgarian.cri.cn
Burmese
Butuanon
Cebuano
Central Bikol
Chavacano
Croatian http://croatian.cri.cn
Cambodian 11 December 2008[11] http://cambodian.cri.cn
Cantonese
Czech http://czech.cri.cn
Danish
Dutch 23 September 2009[10]
English 11 September 1947[12] http://english.cri.cn
Esperanto 19 December 1964[13] http://esperanto.cri.cn
Estonian
Filipino
Finnish
French 5 June 1958[14]
German 15 April 1960
Greek 23 September 2009[10]
Hausa
Hebrew 23 September 2009[10]
Hiligaynon
Hindi 15 March 1959 http://hindi.cri.cn
Hungarian http://hungarian.cri.cn
Ibanag language
Ibaloi
Icelandic 23 September 2009[10] http://turkish.cri.cn
Indonesian
Ilokano
Italian
Japanese 3 December 1941[15]
Kapampangan
Kazakh
Korean 2 July 1950[16]
Laotian 20 November 2006[17]
Lithuanian
Malay
Mandarin
Maranao
Mongolian
Nepali 25 Jun 1975[18] http://nepal.cri.cn
Norwegian 23 September 2009[10]
Pangasinan
Palawano
Persian
Polish
Portuguese
Pashto
Romanian http://romanian.cri.cn
Russian 24 December 1954[19]
Serbian
Sinhalese January 1975 http://sinhalese.cri.cn
Spanish 3 September 1956[20]
Swahili 6 March 2006[21]
Swedish
Tamil August 1963[22][23] http://tamil.cri.cn/
Thai
Tibetan http://tibet.cri.cn
Turkish http://turkish.cri.cn
Ukrainian May 2008 http://ukrainian.cri.cn
Urdu
Uygur
Vietnamese
Waray-Waray

The Tibetan, Uygur and Kazakh services are broadcast in association with local radio stations (Tibet People's Broadcasting Station and Xinjiang People's Broadcasting Station).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Qing, Koh Gui; Shiffman, John (2 November 2015). "Beijing’s covert radio network airs China-friendly news across Washington, and the world". Reuters. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  2. ^ "The International Metropolitan Broadcast Media Cooperation Forum". Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  3. ^ "CRI Marks China's First English Radio Show." (Archive) CRI English. November 25, 2011. Retrieved on November 16, 2013.
  4. ^ Chang, Won Ho, "Mass Media in China: The History and the Future", Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989, pp. 151-152.
  5. ^ China Radio International, History and Milestones: CRI English Service (Archive)
  6. ^ "Ѷ㲥 CRI News Radio". 
  7. ^ China Broadcast
  8. ^ "CRI Online". cri.cn. Retrieved 2015-02-15. 
  9. ^ CRI English - CRI Launch In Armenia
  10. ^ a b c d e f China Daily - Six New Websites
  11. ^ Cambodia Friendship Radio
  12. ^ 中央人民广播电台研究室《解放区广播历史资料选编 1940–1949》. Beijing: 中国广播电视出版社, 1985.
  13. ^ Skizo pri Esperanto-elsendo de ĈRI, CRI.
  14. ^ Service français, CRI.
  15. ^ 日本語部紹介, CRI.
  16. ^ 조선어부 소개 및 연계방식, CRI.
  17. ^ CRI English - New Station In Laos
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Международное радио Китая, CRI.
  20. ^ Breve Historia del Departamento de Español, CRI.
  21. ^ China.org - CRI Launches First Overseas Radio Station
  22. ^ NDTV - Tamil FM Station To Launch
  23. ^ The Hindu - Tamil Radio Station Plans Expansion

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bishop, Robert L., "Qi Lai! Mobilizing One Billion Chinese: The Chinese Communication System", Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8138-0296-2
  • Chang, Won Ho, "Mass Media in China: The History and the Future", Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1989.
  • Hamm, Charles, "Music and Radio in the PRC," Asian Music, Spring/Summer 1991, vXXII, n2, p. 28-29.
  • Howkins, John, "Mass Communication in China", New York: Annenberg/ Longman Communication Books, 1982.

External links[edit]