China tropical cyclone rainfall climatology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A map of all tropical cyclone tracks, encompassing the period between the years 1985 and 2005.

China is a mountainous country, which leads to rapid dissipation of cyclones that move inland as well as significant amounts of rain from those dissipating cyclones. Typhoon Nina in 1975 caused the collapse of two huge reservoirs and ten smaller dams when 1062 mm (41.81 inches) of rain fell in Henan Province during a 24‑hour period. Super Typhoon Carla was the wettest tropical cyclone on record for mainland China.[citation needed] Since 1957, there has been a downward trend in tropical cyclone rainfall for the country.[citation needed]

Mainland[edit]

Most of the rain China experiences during the year occurs during the summer months. Typhoons cause many of the intense rains seen within the country. The heavy rains occur over a large area, typically 1,000,000 square kilometres (390,000 sq mi).[1] Across China between the years of 1983 and 2006, an average of 2.9 tropical cyclones move into Guangdong province, making it the most affected province within mainland China. Hainan averages 1.3 tropical cyclones annually, while Fujian experiences 1.2 tropical cyclones annually, and Zhejiang witnessed 0.9 tropical cyclones annually.[citation needed] The wettest tropical cyclone on record for the mainland was Super Typhoon Carla, which dropped 2,749 millimetres (108.2 in) of rain over a 48-hour period. Typhoon Nina (1975) produced the highest areal average rainfall amounts between August 4 and August 8 for the Hongru river basin for most time durations.[1] The risk of tropical cyclones across Guangxi, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Liaoning provinces is significantly lower, with these provinces averaging between 0.1 and 0.4 tropical cyclones annually.[2]

Typhoon Soudelor
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants Mainland China
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 2749.0 108.21 Carla 1967 Hsin-Liao [3]
2 1248.0 49.13 Gloria 1963 Paishih [3]
3 1062.0 41.81 Nina 1975
4 831.1 32.72 Fitow 2001 [4]
5 806.0 31.73 Soudelor 2015 Wenzhou [5]
6 703.5 27.70 Rananim 2004 [6]
7 >600.0 >24.00 Haikui 2012 Annui Province [7]
8 555.0 21.85 Chanchu 2006 [8]
9 >400.0 >15.74 Saola 2012 [9]
10 360.6 14.20 Bilis 2006 Guangdong [10]

Hong Kong[edit]

Typhoon Sam of the 1999 Pacific typhoon season became the wettest known tropical cyclone to impact Hong Kong since records began in 1884, breaking a 73‑year‑old record. A total of 23.98 inches/609 mm of rainfall fell between August 22 and August 25.[11]

Typhoon Sam
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants Hong Kong
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 616.5 24.27 Sam 1999 Hong Kong Observatory [12]
2 597.0 23.50 July 1926 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
3 562.0 22.13 June 1916 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
4 530.7 20.89 Agnes 1965 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
5 519.0 20.43 Agnes 1978 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
6 516.1 20.32 Ellen 1976 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
7 497.5 19.59 Dot 1993 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
8 491.7 19.36 Dot 1982 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
9 480.9 18.93 Helen 1995 Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]
10 473.2 18.63 August 1904 Typhoon Royal Observatory, Hong Kong [12]

Lantau Island[edit]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants Lantau Island
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 700 27.56 Ira 1993 [13]

Taiwan/Taipei[edit]

The mountainous island of Taiwan province experiences an average of 1.8 tropical cyclone landfalls each year.[2] Due to its rugged topography, Taiwan sees extreme rains from tropical cyclones, particularly in its central mountain range.

Typhoon Morakot
Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Taiwan
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 3,060 120.47 Morakot 2009 Alishan, Chiayi [14]
2 2,319 91.30 Nari 2001 Wulai, New Taipei [15]
3 2,162 85.12 Flossie 1969 Beitou, Taipei [14]
4 1,987 78.23 Herb 1996 Alishan, Chiayi [16]
5 1,774 69.84 Saola 2012 Yilan City [17]
6 1,700 66.93 Lynn 1987 Taipei [18]
7 1,672 65.83 Clara 1967 Dongshan, Yilan [19]
8 1,611 63.43 Sinlaku 2008 Heping, Taichung [20]
9 1,561 61.46 Haitang 2005 Sandimen, Pingtung [21]
10 1,546 60.87 Aere 2004 Miaoli County [22]

Tibet Autonomous Region[edit]

An early October 2004 tropical depression brought moisture into the highlands of Tibet, leading to daily precipitation of 60 mm/2.4 inches liquid equivalent to Che-Ku County all in the form of heavy snow, which was a new October daily precipitation record for both rain and snow. This led to a loss of 340,000 kg of food, 230,000 kg of forage grass, and 263 livestock in the snowstorm.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pukh Raj Rakhecha; Vijay P. Singh (2009). Applied Hydrometeorology. Springer. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-4020-9843-7. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  2. ^ a b Qiang Zhang; Liguang Wu; Qiufeng Liu (April 2009). "Tropical Cyclone Damages in China: 1983-2006". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. American Meteorological Society. 90 (4): 490. Bibcode:2009BAMS...90..489Z. doi:10.1175/2008BAMS2631.1. 
  3. ^ a b J. L. H. Paulhaus (1973). World Meteorological Organization Operational Hydrology Report No. 1: Manual For Estimation of Probable Maximum Precipitation. World Meteorological Organization. p. 178. 
  4. ^ Padgett, Gary (2006-12-27). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2001". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  5. ^ "重要天气新闻通稿: 今年第13号 台风"苏迪罗"深入内陆影响结束" (in Chinese). National Meteorological Center. August 11, 2015. Archived from the original on August 11, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015. 
  6. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (2005-05-17). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary August 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 2007-01-13. 
  7. ^ "China: Floods — Information Bulletin no 2". International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. ReliefWeb. August 10, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 
  8. ^ AIRcurrents. "AIR Post-Disaster Survey for Typhoon Chanchu Documents the Vulnerability of the Chinese Building Stock to Wind and Flood". Retrieved 2007-02-25. 
  9. ^ "China: 13 killed, three missing after heavy rains". Xinhua General News. Zee News. August 7, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Bilis brings heavy rains to Fujian, Guangdong, and other places". China Meteorological Administration. 2006-07-15. 
  11. ^ Gary Padgett. MONTHLY GLOBAL TROPICAL CYCLONE SUMMARY: SEPTEMBER, 1999. Retrieved on 2007-02-19.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tropical Cyclones in 2010 (PDF) (Report). Hong Kong Observatory. p. 98. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  13. ^ C. M. Tam and C. M. Cheng. A late-season tropical cyclone related rainstorm in Hong Kong. Retrieved on 2008-03-09.
  14. ^ a b Central Weather Bureau (2010). "侵台颱風資料庫". Retrieved October 19, 2011. 
  15. ^ Unattributed (September 9, 2009). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析" (PDF). Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. Retrieved July 17, 2011. 
  16. ^ Unattributed (September 9, 2009). "莫拉克颱風暴雨量及洪流量分析" (PDF). Water Resources Agency, Ministry of Economic Affairs, Republic of China. Retrieved July 17, 2011. 
  17. ^ Chen Zhi (August 2, 2012). "Typhoon Saola dumps heavy downpours around Taiwan". Xinhua General News. Retrieved August 2, 2012. 
  18. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (1988). Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: 1987 (PDF) (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  19. ^ Lianshou, Chen. Topic 2.1 Observing and forecasting rainfall. Fifth International Workshop on Tropical Cyclones. Retrieved August 4, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Typhoon Sinlaku Central emergency operation center No.12" (PDF). Central emergency operation center. September 16, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2009. 
  21. ^ Chiu Yu-Tzu (July 20, 2005). "Haitang fizzles out, leaves Taiwan wet". Taipei Times. Retrieved April 11, 2010. 
  22. ^ Padgett, Gary. "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary: November 2004". Retrieved June 10, 2012. 
  23. ^ Padgett, Gary; Kevin Boyle; John Wallace; Huang Chunliang; Simon Clarke (17 May 2005). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October 2004". Australian Severe Weather Index. Jimmy Deguara. Retrieved 13 January 2007.