Chinatown, Liverpool

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Liverpool Chinatown
Chinese Arch - geograph.org.uk - 1021559.jpg
Chinatown Gate, Nelson Street
Metropolitan borough Liverpool
Metropolitan county Merseyside
Region North West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LIVERPOOL
Postcode district L1
Dialling code 0151
Police Merseyside
Fire Merseyside
Ambulance North West
EU Parliament North West England
UK Parliament Liverpool Riverside
List of places
UK
England
Merseyside
Liverpool Chinatown
Traditional Chinese 利物浦中國城
Simplified Chinese 利物浦中国城
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese 利物浦唐人街

Chinatown is an area of Liverpool that is an ethnic enclave home to the oldest Chinese community in Europe.[1] Located in the south of the city centre, Chinatown has many Chinese businesses, such as Chinese restaurants and supermarkets, and facilities for the Chinese community. The area is also notable for its Chinese-style architecture; with the paifang on Nelson Street being the largest, multiple-span arch of its kind outside of China.[2]

History[edit]

Establishment[edit]

The first presence of Chinese people in Liverpool dates back to 1834 when the first vessel direct from China arrived in Liverpool's docks to trade such goods as silk and cotton wool.[3] Many Chinese immigrants first arrived in Liverpool in the late 1860s as a result of Alfred Holt and Company employing large numbers of Chinese seamen while establishing the Blue Funnel Shipping Line. The commercial shipping line created strong trade links between the cities of Shanghai, Hong Kong and Liverpool; mainly importing silk, cotton and tea.[4] From the 1890s onwards, small numbers of Chinese began to set up businesses catering to the Chinese sailors working on Holt's lines and others. Some of these men married working class British women, resulting in a number of British-born Eurasian Chinese being born in Liverpool.[4]

World War II[edit]

At the beginning of World War II, there were up to 20,000 Chinese mariners in the city. In 1942, there was a strike for rights and pay equal to that of white mariners. The strike had lasted for four months. For the duration of the War these men were labelled as "troublemakers" by the shipowners and the British Government. At the end of the conflict, they were forbidden shore jobs, their pay was cut by two-thirds and they were offered only one-way voyages back to China. Hundreds of men were forced to leave their families, with many of their Eurasian children continuing to live in and around Liverpool's Chinatown to this day.[5]

Liverpool's first Chinatown existed within the city's docklands, although heavy bombing during World War II lead to a relocation of its current location just west of Liverpool Cathedral.

Chinatown, Liverpool City Centre

Regeneration[edit]

The Chinese Arch was assembled in 2000 (after being built in one of Liverpool's twin cities - Shanghai) as a mark of redevelopment of the area, which is still continuing today.

Plans to redevelop a significant portion of Chinatown were revealed in October 2010 and April 2012 respectively.[6] One scheme named 'China Square' is to include a Chinese Cultural Museum and Courtyard by Marriott in the former Scandinavian Hotel building.[7] Another regeneration project tipped to take place is 'Shanghai Square', which is built will occupy the southern fringes of Chinatown.[8] The proposal includes building a 23,000 m2 (250,000 sq ft) trade centre that will provide space for up to 100 businesses, specialist accommodation for Chinese students as well as a large Asian Pacific food market.[8]

Geography[edit]

The Chinatown in Liverpool, England is located near the city centre's southern edge close to Liverpool Cathedral The city's Chinatown district has spread significantly since its first establishment, now taking up much of Berry Street. The streets of Liverpool's Chinatown are decorated with Chinese-style lanterns, waste bins and all street signs are written in English and Chinese.

Street names[edit]

Knight Street's bilingual street sign
English name Chinese name Romanisation
Simplified Traditional Mandarin
(Pinyin)
Cantonese
(Jyutping)
Bailey Street 贝利街 貝利街 Bèilì Jiē bui3 lei6 gaai1
Berry Street 巴利街 巴利街 Bālì Jiē baa1 lei6 gaai1
Cornwallis Street 康和利士街 康和利士街 Kānghélìshì Jiē hong1 wo4 lei6 si6 gaai1
Cummings Street 卡明斯街 卡明斯街 Kǎmíngsī Jiē kaa1 ming4 si1 gaai1
Duke Street 公爵街 公爵街 Gōngjué Jiē gung1 zoek3 gaai1
Griffiths Street 居富士街 居富士街 Jūfùshì Jiē geoi1 fu3 si6 gaai1
Knight Street 励德街 勵德街 Lìdé Jiē lai6 dak1 gaai1
Nelson Street 纳尔逊街 納爾遜街 Nà'ěrxùn Jiē naap6 ji6 seon3 gaai1
Roscoe Lane 罗士高里 羅士高里 Luóshìgāo Lǐ lo4 si6 gou1 lei5
Sankey Street 桑基街 桑基街 Sāngjī Jiē song1 gei1 gaai1
Seel Street 兆街 兆街 Zhào Jiē siu6 gaai1
Upper Duke Street 上公爵街 上公爵街 Shàng Gōngjué Jiē soeng6 gung1 zoek3 gaai1

Demography[edit]

2007 estimates state 1.7% of Liverpool's population as being of full Chinese descent (some 7,400 people), making it the city's single largest non-White ethnic group.[9] The International Organization for Migration, by contrast, has estimated that the number of Chinese people in Liverpool could range between 25,000 and 35,000.[10]

Liverpool's universities also host a large number of Chinese students, with The University of Liverpool having the largest number of Chinese students of any university in the UK.[11]

Economy[edit]

Chinese owned restaurants, supermarkets (including Chung Wah and Hondo), book shops and other businesses are now spread throughout the district. The large and increasing Chinese student population has seen the growth of a new network of businesses catering to the needs of Mainland Chinese students, building upon the existing Chinatown in the city.

Chinese Gospel Church

Culture and community[edit]

Facilities[edit]

Chinatown is also home to many community organisations as well as the Liverpool Chinese Gospel Church and the Liverpool Chinese Christian Disciples Church.

Landmarks[edit]

Chinese arch[edit]

Chinatown Arch in 2000 during the last stage of construction

Planning for an arch began in 1992 as part of a regeneration scheme by Liverpool City Council for the Chinatown area, designs for the arch were chosen by the local Chinese community through a competition.[12]

Initial construction began in October 1999 with the arrival of 20 specially selected craftmen from Liverpool's twin city of Shanghai. The craftsmen included stonemasons, stone carvers, painters and construction engineers.[12] Along with the Chinese workers, block components manufactured by The Shanghai Linyi Garden Company Ltd where also shipped from China to Liverpool in five large containers with 2,000 pieces.[12][13] Overall design was co-ordinated through the architectural practice of Wilkinson Hindle Hallsall and Lloyd with Liverpool City Council providing engineering design and supervision of the infrastructure and structural frame to the arch. Work finished in a relatively short time period of 90 days. This was due to the Chinese workers not traditionally celebrating Christmas and Boxing Day meaning that they could carry on working. Building of the arch finished in 2000 and was officially opened on Chinese New Year at a final cost of £ 700,000.[14]

Standing at 13.5 metres (44 ft) high the arch is the tallest in Europe and the second tallest in any Chinatown outside of mainland China.[15] (Washington D.C having the tallest outside China at 47 ft.)[16] The arch boasts 200 hand carved dragons of which 188 are ordinary and 12 are pregnant, the meaning of which is to symbolize good fortune between Liverpool and Shanghai.[12] The word "Chinatown" (trad. Chinese: 中國城; pinyin: zhōngguóchéng) is written on the centre of the arch from right-to-left using traditional Chinese characters. In 2010 as part of a £25,000 lighting scheme, multicoloured, low energy illuminating lights were added to the arch as a way to highlight one of Liverpool's significant structures.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Liverpool Chinatown Museum". Dimsum. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  2. ^ "Chinese Arch". Visit Liverpool. Retrieved 21 November 2008. 
  3. ^ "History of Liverpool Chinatown". The Liverpool Chinatown Business Association. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Liverpool Chinatown History". Liverpool Chinatown. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 
  5. ^ "Liverpool and its Chinese Seamen". halfandhalf.org.uk. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "Let's aim high for Liverpool's Chinatown". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  7. ^ "Plans revived for new hotel to replace city's derelict Scandinavian Hotel". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 10 January 2010. 
  8. ^ a b [dead link]"Shanghai Square Ltd release plans for site at heart of Liverpool Chinatown land war". Liverpool Daily Post. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  9. ^ "Neighbourhood Statistics". Office of National Statistic. Retrieved 31 January 2011. 
  10. ^ "China Mapping Exercise" (PDF). International Organization for Migration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 20 April 2008. 
  11. ^ "10 UK universities that attract the most Chinese students". China Daily. China Daily. Retrieved 18 December 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d "The 10th Anniversary of Liverpool Chinese Arch". Liverpool Chinese Business Association. 10 March 2010. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  13. ^ Herbert, Ian (3 March 2000). "Liverpool pips its arch rival with gateway to Chinatown". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  14. ^ "Chinese Arch". Dowhigh Ltd. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  15. ^ "Liverpool's Chinese arch ten years standing". BBC. 19 February 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  16. ^ "Friendship Archway, (sculpture).". Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  17. ^ "Chinatown welcomes illuminated arch". placenorthwest.co.uk. 10 November 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 

External links[edit]