Chinatown (Washington, D.C.)
Downtown Historic District
|Neighborhood of Washington, D.C.|
Chinatown's "Friendship Archway", as seen looking west on H Street, NW
Chinatown within the District of Columbia
|• Councilmember||Jack Evans|
Chinatown in Washington, D.C.(Chinese: 華府華埠; pinyin: huá fǔ huà bù), is a small, historic borough east of downtown consisting of about 20 ethnic Chinese and other Asian restaurants and small businesses along H and I Streets between 5th and 8th Streets, Northwest. It is known for its annual Chinese New Year festival and parade and the Friendship Arch, a Chinese gate built over H Street at 7th Street. Other nearby prominent landmarks include the Verizon Center, a sports and entertainment arena, and the Old Patent Office Building, which houses two of the Smithsonian Museums. The neighborhood is served by the Gallery Place-Chinatown station of the Washington Metro.
The Chinatown area was once home to many Chinese immigrants. Chinese immigrants began to move into the area in the 1930s, having been displaced from Washington's original Chinatown along Pennsylvania Avenue by the development of the Federal Triangle government office complex. The newcomers marked it with decorative metal latticework and railings as well as Chinese signage. At its peak, Chinatown extended from G Street north to Massachusetts Avenue, and from 9th Street east to 5th Street.
In 1986, the city dedicated the Friendship Archway, a traditional Chinese gate designed by Alfred H. Liu, a local architect and chairman of the Chinatown Development Corporation, who emigrated from Taiwan to the United States as a teenager. The colorful, US$1 million work of public art includes seven roofs up to 60 feet high, 7000 tiles, and 272 painted dragons in the style of the Ming and Qing dynasties. Erected to celebrate friendship with Washington's sister city of Beijing, it was hoped the arch would reinforce the neighborhood's Chinese character. According to the plaque next to the arch, it is the largest such single-span archway in the world. In 1993, the Friendship Archway underwent a major renovation funded by D.C. and Chinese governments. Artisans from China performed extensive repairs on the archway and repainted its decorations.
In 1986, the Metro station was given its present name: Gallery Place-Chinatown. The city constructed the Wah Luck House apartments at 6th and H Streets, NW, to accommodate the displaced residents in 1982. Designed by architect Alfred Liu, the apartment building introduced modern Chinese design motifs due to the red-paneled balconies. The MCI Center was completed in 1997 (renamed Verizon Center in 2006). After the construction of the Verizon Center, AsianWeek said in 2000 that the neighborhood "barely" remains.
Numerous authors have cited Chinatown as an example of gentrification. In 2015, the Washington Post reported that only about 300 Chinese-Americans remained in the borough, and many of them were being forced out by their landlords.
|Chinese-American population |
In 2010, the census tract that contains Chinatown has around 3,000 residents. Chinatown is only 21% Asian, compared to 1990, when it had a majority Chinese American population. In 1990, its population was 66% Asian and 20% African American. Washington, D.C.'s Chinatown is relatively small in terms of size and number of Chinese residents in comparison to other major Chinatown neighborhoods in the U.S., such as those in San Francisco and in Manhattan. Approximately half of Chinatown's residents live in the Wah Luck House, which has 153 units of apartment complexes. The closest Chinese supermarket, the Great Wall Supermarket, is fourteen miles west in Falls Church, Virginia.
After the 1968 riots due to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s assassination, many Chinese people sought a more economically stable and safe environment and moved out of Washington, D.C.'s Chinatown, relocating to suburban neighborhoods in Fairfax County, Virginia, and Montgomery County, Maryland. North Potomac, Maryland is 18.4% Chinese American, the highest of any community within the Washington metropolitan area. The Maryland city of Rockville also has a significant population of residents of Chinese descent, at eight percent. In Virginia, sizable Chinese American communities are located in Centreville, Chantilly, and Floris, south of Washington Dulles International Airport.
Businesses and establishments
Along with the development of the Verizon Center, historic buildings, mainly along the west side of 7th Street, were renovated and tenanted, primarily with nationally-known brand shops and dining establishments. Within a short time, a significant mixed-use office-residential-retail development on the southeast corner of 7th and H streets commenced construction. These developments, which included restaurants, shops, a cinema complex, and a bowling alley, together with the Verizon Center, transformed the area into a bustling scene for nightlife, shopping, and entertainment. An anomaly is that most of the businesses are no longer representative of Chinatown, yet due to a city requirement to post all identifying signage in Chinese characters even national chains -- Starbucks, Hooters, Ruby Tuesday, Ann Taylor, Urban Outfitters, Bed Bath and Beyond, and Legal Sea Foods—hang their names in Chinese outside their stores. Chinatown has become home to many high-growth technology companies, such as Blackboard, Blue State Digital, LivingSocial, and The Knowland Group. It is also the location of the Washington branch of the Goethe-Institut.
Chinatown's most prominent businesses are the approximately 20 Chinese and Asian restaurants, almost all of which are owned by Asian American families. Among the most well-known are Chinatown Express, Eat First, Full Kee, and Tony Cheng's. One of the restaurants, Wok & Roll, occupies what was once Mary Surratt's boarding house — the meeting place for John Wilkes Booth and his conspirators in Abraham Lincoln's assassination. Another is located in a house once owned by the On Leong Chinese Merchants Association, which was among the first Chinese organizations to move into the neighborhood; today the structure is on the National Register of Historic Places.
The neighborhood is home to a Chinese video store, several general stores, and numerous Chinese American cultural and religious charities. Chinatown has one Chinese church, Chinese Community Church, located at 500 I Street. Chinese Community Church was founded in 1935, initially at L Street, but relocated in 2006 to its current I Street location. The 6th and I streets historic synagogue has been restored and is the scene of cultural events.
- "Downtown Historic District (Chinatown) Washington, D.C.".
- "History of Washington DC -Chinatown" Chinatown Community Cultural Center Retrieved 12 December 2014
- DeFerrari, John (February 9, 2011). "Chinatown's Friendship Archway". Greatergreaterwashington.org. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Harrison Lee Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Estelle and Melvin Gelman Library, The George Washington University
- AsianWeek Staff and Associated Press. "Philadelphia Chinatown Wins Stadium Fight Archived September 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. AsianWeek. November 24–30, 2000. Retrieved on November 8, 2011.
- Leeman, Jennifer; Gabriella, Modan (June 2009). "Commodified language in Chinatown: A contextualized approach to linguistic landscape" (PDF). Journal of Sociolinguistics. 13(3): 332–362.
- Lewis, Aidan (2014-02-04). "The slow decline of American Chinatowns". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
- Hackman, Rose (2017-01-03). "'Here until they take me out': DC tenants use the law to fight gentrification". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
- Lin, Siqi (2015-09-22). "D.C.’s Chinatown in name only?". CGTN America. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
- Cohen, Rick (2015-06-30). "The Remaining Chinese in DC’s Chinatown Fight for Their Sense of Community". Nonprofit Quarterly. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
- Wang, Yanan (2015-07-16). "D.C.’s Chinatown has only 300 Chinese Americans left, and they’re fighting to stay.". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
- Stein, Perry (23 June 2015). "Remaining Chinese residents fight to stay near Chinatown neighborhood". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
- Cambria, Jak. "Washington, D.C. Chinatown USA". Chinatownology.com. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- "Washington, D.C.'s Chinatown has just 300 Chinese-American residents left".
- "Interactive: Mapping the census". U.S. Census. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Nakamura, David (July 10, 2011). "Wah Luck House maintains culture in dying D.C. Chinatown". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Nuckols, Ben; Yen, Hope (January 19, 2012). "Urban US Chinatowns wane as Asians head to suburbs". Cybercast News Service. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- "American FactFinder". U.S. Census. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- Heath, Tom (March 20, 2011). "The Buzz: Sinking Wizards, rising ticket sales". Washington Post. Retrieved June 15, 2011.
- "About Us". Chinese Community Church. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
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