Chindian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about people of Chinese and Indian descent. For the geopolitical term, see Chindia.
Chindians
Vivian Balakrishnan - 2010.jpg
Squash Stars Meet the Stars Session 1 cropped.jpg
Anya Ayoung Chee.jpg
Gjwala.JPG
PremaYinPromo.jpg
Chalida Vijitvongthong.jpg
Regions with significant populations
Languages
Other languages of India & other languages of China
Religion
Related ethnic groups

Chindian is an informal term used to refer to a person of both Chinese and Indian ancestry. There are a considerable number of Chindians in Malaysia and Singapore, where people of Chinese and Indian origin immigrated in large numbers during the 19th century.[1] There are also a sizable number living in Hong Kong and smaller numbers in other countries with overseas Chinese and Indian diaspora, such as Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago and Guyana in the Caribbean, as well as in Thailand, the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand.

Malaysia and Singapore[edit]

In Malaysia and Singapore, the majority of interracial marriages occur between Chinese and Indians. The offspring of such marriages are informally known as "Chindian". The Malaysian government, however, considers them to be an unclassified ethnicity, using the father's ethnicity as the informal term; similarly the government of Singapore classifies them as their father's ethnicity.[2]

According to government statistics, 2.4% of Singapore's population are multiracial. The highest number of interethnic marriages was in 2007, when 16.4% of the 20,000 marriages in Singapore were interethnic.[1]

Singapore only began to allow mixed-race persons to register two racial classifications on their identity cards in 2010. Parents may choose which of the two is listed first.[3] More than two races may not be listed even if the person has several different ethnicities in their ancestry.

Hong Kong[edit]

Indians have been living in Hong Kong long before the partition of India into the nations of India and Pakistan. They migrated to Hong Kong as traders, police officers and army officers during colonial rule. 25,000 of the Muslims in Hong Kong trace their roots back to what is now Pakistan. Around half of them belong to 'local boy' families, Muslims of mixed Chinese and Indian/Pakistani ancestry, descended from early Indian/Pakistani immigrants who took local Chinese spouse and brought their children up as Muslims.[4][5] These "local Indians" were not completely accepted by either the Chinese or Indian communities until now.[6]

Sugar colonies and coolie trade[edit]

Indian women and children were brought alongside Indian men as coolies while Chinese men made up 99% of Chinese coolies.[7]

The contrast with the female to male ratio among Indian and Chinese immigrants has been compared by historians.[8]

Mauritius[edit]

In the late 19th to early 20th century, Chinese men in Mauritius married Indian women due to both a lack of Chinese women and higher numbers of Indian women on the island.[9][10] At first the prospect of relations with Indian women was unappealing to the original all male Chinese migrants yet they eventually had to establish sexual unions with Indian women since there were no Chinese women coming.[11] The 1921 census in Mauritius counted that Indian women there had a total of 148 children sired by Chinese men.[12][13][14] These Chinese were mostly traders.[15] Colonialist stereotypes in the sugar colonies of Indians emerged such as "the degraded coolie woman" and the "coolie wife beater", due to Indian women being murdered by their husbands after they ran away to other richer men since the ratio of Indian women to men was low.[16]

Guyana[edit]

In Guyana, many Indian women married Chinese men due to the lack of Chinese women in the early days of settlement although the Chinese men were at first reluctant to engage in sexual unions with Indian women.[17] Chinese men had to marry women of other ethnicities due to the lack of Chinese women migrating to Guyana.[18] Creole sexual relationships and marriages with Chinese and Indians was rare,[19] however, more common was Indian women and Chinese men establishing sexual relations with each other and some Chinese men took their Indian wives back with them to China.[20] Marriages between Indian women and Chinese men in 1892 numbered six as reported by Immigration Agent Gladwin.[21] In Guyana, while marriages between Indian women and black African men is socially shameful to Indians, Chinese-Indian marriages are considered acceptable as reported by Joseph Nevadomsky in 1983.[22] "Chiney-dougla" is the Indian Guyanese term for mixed Chinese-Indian children.[23] Some Indian women in Guiana had multiple partners due to the greater number of men than woman, an account of the era told by women in Guyana is of a single Chinese man who was allowed to temporarily borrow a Hindu Indian woman by her Indian husband who was his friend, so the Chinese man could sire a child with her, after a son was born to her the Chinese man kept the boy while she was returned to her Indian husband, the boy was named William Adrian Lee.[24][25] An Indian woman named Mary See married a Chinese man surnamed Wu in Goedverwagting and founded their own family after he learned how to process sugar cane.[26]In Guyana the Chinese did not maintain their distinctive physical features due to the high rate of Chinese men marrying other ethnicities like Indian women.[27][28][29] The severe imbalance with Indian men outnumbering Indian women led some women to take advantage of the situation to squeeze favors from men and leave their partners for other men,[30] one infamous example was a pretty, light skinned, Christian Indian woman named Mary Ilandun with ancestral origins from Madras, born in 1846, who had sex with Indian, black, and Chinese men as she married them in succession and ran off with their money to her next paramour, doing this from 1868 to 1884.[31] Indian men used force to bring Indian women back in line from this kind of behavior.[32] The most severe lack of women in all the peoples of Guyana was with the Chinese and this led Europeans to believe that Chinese did not engage in wife murders while wife murders was something innate to Indian men, and unlike Indian coolie women, Chinese women were viewed as chaste.[33] Chinese women were not indentured and since they did not need to work, they avoided prospective men seeking relationships, while the character of Indian women was disparaged as immoral and their alleged sexual looseness was blamed for their deaths in the "wife murders" by Indian men.[34] The sex ratio of Indian men to Indian women was 100:63 while the sex ratio of Chinese men to Chinese women was 100:43 in Guyana in 1891.[35]

In East Coast Berbice in an Adelphi estate a Madrasi woman was cohabiting with a Chinese man in 1871.[36]

Over time, although there were more Creole marriages with Chinese, there was a growth of Indian marriages with Chinese and it was reported that "It is not an uncommon thing to find a cooly woman living with a Chinaman as his wife, and in one or two instances the woman has accompanied her reputed husband to China." by Dr. Comins in 1891, with six Indian women marrying Chinese men in 1892 as reported by The Immigration Report for 1892.[37][38]

Trinidad[edit]

In Trinidad some Chinese men had sexual relations with dark skinned Indian coolie women of Madrasee origin, siring children with them, and it was reported that "A few children are to be met with born of Madras and Creole parents and some also of Madras and Chinese parents - the Madrasee being the mother", by the missionary John Morton in 1876, Morton noted that it seemed strange since there were more Indian coolie men than Indian coolie women that Indian coolie women would marry Chinese men, but claimed it was most likely because the Chinese could provide amenities to the women since the Chinese owned shops and they were enticed by these.[39][40][41][42][43] Indian women were married by indentured Chinese men in Trinidad.[44]Few Chinese women migrated to Trinidad while the majority of Chinese migrants were men.[45] The migration of Chinese to Trinidad resulted in intermarriage between them and others.[46] Chinese in Trinidad became relatively open to having martial relations with other races and Indian women began having families with Chinese in the 1890's.[47]

Jamaica[edit]

When black and Indian women had children with Chinese men the children were called chaina raial in Jamaican English.[48] The Chinese community in Jamaica was able to consolidate because an openness to marrying Indian women was present in the Chinese since Chinese women were in short supply.[49] Women sharing was less common among Indians in Jamaica according to Verene A. Shepherd.[50] The small number of Indian women were fought over between Indian men and led to a rise in the amount of wife murders by Indian men.[51] Indian women made up 11 percent of the annual amount of Indian indentured migrants from 1845-1847 in Jamaica.[52]

India[edit]

Assam[edit]

In Assam, local Indian women married several waves of Chinese migrants during British colonial times, to the point where it became hard to physically differentiate Chinese in Assam from locals during the time of their internment during the 1962 war, and the majority of these Chinese in Assam were married to Indian women, and some of these Indian women were deported to China with their husbands.[53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]

Nilgiris[edit]

In the 19th century, when the British Straits Settlement shipped Chinese convicts to be jailed in India, the Chinese men then settled in the Nilgiri mountains near Naduvattam after their release and married Tamil Paraiyan women, having mixed Chinese-Tamil children with them. They were documented by Edgar Thurston.[63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71] [72] Paraiyan is also anglicized as "pariah".

Edgar Thurston described the colony of the Chinese men with their Tamil pariah wives and children: "Halting in the course of a recent anthropological expedition on the western side of the Nilgiri plateau, in the midst of the Government Cinchona plantations, I came across a small settlement of Chinese, who have squatted for some years on the slopes of the hills between Naduvatam and Gudalur, and developed, as the result of ' marriage ' with Tamil pariah women, into a colony, earning an honest livelihood by growing vegetables, cultivating coffee on a small scale, and adding to their income from these sources by the economic products of the cow. An ambassador was sent to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the men should, in return for monies, present themselves before me with a view to their measurements being recorded. The reply which came back was in its way racially characteristic as between Hindus and Chinese. In the case of the former, permission to make use of their bodies for the purposes of research depends essentially on a pecuniary transaction, on a scale varying from two to eight annas. The Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, sent a courteous message to the effect that they did not require payment in money, but would be perfectly happy if I would give them, as a memento, copies of their photographs."[73][74]

Thurston further describe a specific family: "The father was a typical Chinaman, whose only grievance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, he had been obliged to 'cut him tail off.' The mother was a typical Tamil Pariah of dusky hue. The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the father than to the dark tint of the mother; and the semimongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, and (in one case) conspicuously prominent cheek-bones."[75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83]

Thurston's descriptions of the Chinese-Tamil families were cited by others; one mentioned "an instance mating between a Chinese male with a Tamil Pariah female."[84][85][86][87][88] A 1959 book described attempts made to find out what happened to the colony of mixed Chinese and Tamils.[89]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sheela Narayanan (October 17, 2008). "Go ahead, call me Chindian". AsiaOne. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  2. ^ Daniels, Timothy P. (2005), Building Cultural Nationalism in Malaysia, Routledge, p. 189, ISBN 0-415-94971-8 
  3. ^ Hoe, Yeen Nie (12 January 2010), "Singaporeans of mixed race allowed to "double barrel" race in IC", ChannelNewsAsia, retrieved 10 June 2010 
  4. ^ Weiss, Anita M. (July 1991), "South Asian Muslims in Hong Kong: Creation of a 'Local Boy' Identity", Modern Asian Studies 25 (3): 417–53, doi:10.1017/S0026749X00013895. 
  5. ^ Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlaftis, Iōanna Pepelasē Minoglou (2005), Diaspora Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, Berg Publishers, p. 256, ISBN 1-85973-880-X 
  6. ^ Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember, Ian A. Skoggard (2004), Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World, Springer, p. 511, ISBN 0-306-48321-1 
  7. ^ Lisa Yun (2008). The Coolie Speaks: Chinese Indentured Laborers and African Slaves in Cuba. Temple University Press. p. 8. ISBN 1592135838. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  8. ^ Walton Look Lai (1993). Indentured labor, Caribbean sugar: Chinese and Indian migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. Johns Hopkins studies in Atlantic history and culture (illustrated ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0801844657. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  9. ^ Marina Carter, James Ng Foong Kwong (2009). Abacus and Mah Jong: Sino-Mauritian Settlement and Economic Consolidation. Volume 1 of European expansion and indigenous response, v. 1. BRILL. p. 199. ISBN 9004175725. Archived from the original on 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  10. ^ Paul Younger Professor Emeritus of Religious Studies McMaster University (2009). New Homelands : Hindu Communities in Mauritius, Guyana, Trinidad, South Africa, Fiji, and East Africa: Hindu Communities in Mauritius, Guyana, Trinidad, South Africa, Fiji, and East Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 33. ISBN 0199741921. Archived from the original on 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  11. ^ "What Inter-Ethnic Marriage In Mauritius Tells Us About The Nature of Ethnicity". p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-22. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  12. ^ Huguette Ly-Tio-Fane Pineo, Edouard Lim Fat (2008). From alien to citizen: the integration of the Chinese in Mauritius. Éditions de l'océan Indien. p. 174. ISBN 9990305692. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  13. ^ Huguette Ly Tio Fane-Pineo (1985). Chinese Diaspora in Western Indian Ocean. Ed. de l'océan indien. p. 287. ISBN 9990305692. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  14. ^ "What Inter-Ethnic Marriage In Mauritius Tells Us About The Nature of Ethnicity". p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-22. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  15. ^ Monique Dinan (2002). Mauritius in the Making: Across the Censuses, 1846-2000. Nelson Mandela Centre for African Culture, Ministry of Arts & Culture. p. 41. ISBN 9990390460. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  16. ^ Marina Carter, James Ng Foong Kwong (2009). Abacus and Mah Jong: Sino-Mauritian Settlement and Economic Consolidation. Volume 1 of European expansion and indigenous response, v. 1. BRILL. p. 203. ISBN 9004175725. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  17. ^ Brian L. Moore (1995). Cultural Power, Resistance, and Pluralism: Colonial Guyana, 1838-1900. Volume 22 of McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history (illustrated ed.). McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 272-273. ISBN 077351354X. ISSN 0846-8869. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  18. ^ History Gazette, Issues 1-2; Issues 4-27. University of Guyana. History Society. History Society. 1989. ISBN 077351354X. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  19. ^ Brian L. Moore (1987). Race, Power, and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana After Slavery, 1838-1891. Volume 4 of Caribbean studies (illustrated ed.). Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. p. 181. ISBN 0677219806. ISSN 0275-5793. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  20. ^ Brian L. Moore (1987). Race, Power, and Social Segmentation in Colonial Society: Guyana After Slavery, 1838-1891. Volume 4 of Caribbean studies (illustrated ed.). Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 0677219806. ISSN 0275-5793. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  21. ^ D. A. Bisnauth (2000). The settlement of Indians in Guyana, 1890-1930 (illustrated ed.). Peepul Tree. p. 213. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  22. ^ Preethy Sarah Samuel (2000). Cultural Continuity Or Assimilation in the Familial Domain of the Indo-Guyanese. Wayne State University. Sociology (illustrated ed.). ProQuest. p. 38. ISBN 0549387625. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  23. ^ JCAS Symposium Series, Issue 13. Kokuritsu Minzokugaku Hakubutsukan. Chiiki Kenkyū Kikaku Kōryū Sentā (illustrated ed.). Japan Center for Area Studies, National Museum of Ethnology. 2002. p. 209. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  24. ^ Gaiutra Bahadur (2013). Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. University of Chicago Press. p. 119. ISBN 022604338X. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  25. ^ Margery Kirkpatrick (1993). From the Middle Kingdom to the New World: Aspects of the Chinese Experience in Migration to British Guiana, Volume 1. Volume 1 of From the Middle Kingdom to the New World. M. Kirkpatrick. p. 156. ISBN 9768136278. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  26. ^ Margery Kirkpatrick (1993). From the Middle Kingdom to the New World: Aspects of the Chinese Experience in Migration to British Guiana, Volume 1. Volume 1 of From the Middle Kingdom to the New World. M. Kirkpatrick. p. 128. ISBN 9768136278. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  27. ^ L. Liang-chi Wang, Gungwu Wang, ed. (1998). The Chinese Diaspora: Selected Essays, Volume 2. Volume 2 of The Chinese Diaspora (illustrated ed.). Times Academic Press. p. 108. ISBN 9812100938. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  28. ^ Tim Merrill, ed. (1993). Guyana and Belize: Country Studies. Volume 550 (Issue 82 of Area handbook series). Library of Congress. Federal Research Division (2 ed.). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. p. 42. ISBN 084440778X. ISSN 1057-5294. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  29. ^ Jenny Pettit; Caroline Starbird (2000). Contemporary Issues in South America. University of Denver, CTIR. p. 48. ISBN 0943804906. Retrieved June 1, 2006. 
  30. ^ "How much was immigrant culture affected by the realities of life in Guyana and the norms of other racial groups present in Guyana between 1838 and 1905?". flax. British Academic Written English (Arts and Humanities). 
  31. ^ Brian L. Moore (1995). Cultural Power, Resistance, and Pluralism: Colonial Guyana, 1838-1900. Volume 22 of McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history (illustrated ed.). McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 169-171. ISBN 077351354X. ISSN 0846-8869. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  32. ^ Guyana Historical Journal, Volumes 1-5. University of Guyana. History Society, University of Guyana. Department of History. University of Guyana, Department of History. 1989. p. 9. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  33. ^ Gaiutra Bahadur (2013). Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. University of Chicago Press. p. 116. ISBN 022604338X. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  34. ^ Gaiutra Bahadur (2013). Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. University of Chicago Press. p. 117-118. ISBN 022604338X. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  35. ^ Gaiutra Bahadur (2013). Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. University of Chicago Press. p. 234. ISBN 022604338X. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  36. ^ Walton Look Lai (1993). Indentured labor, Caribbean sugar: Chinese and Indian migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. Johns Hopkins studies in Atlantic history and culture (illustrated ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0801844657. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  37. ^ Walton Look Lai (1993). Indentured labor, Caribbean sugar: Chinese and Indian migrants to the British West Indies, 1838-1918. Johns Hopkins studies in Atlantic history and culture (illustrated ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0801844657. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  38. ^ Brian L. Moore (1995). Cultural Power, Resistance, and Pluralism: Colonial Guyana, 1838-1900. Volume 22 of McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history (illustrated ed.). McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 350. ISBN 077351354X. ISSN 0846-8869. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  39. ^ Julitta Rydlewska, Barbara Braid, ed. (2014). Unity in Diversity, Volume 1: Cultural Paradigm and Personal Identity, Volume 1. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 1443867292. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  40. ^ Dennison Moore (1995). Origins and Development of Racial Ideology in Trinidad. Nycan. p. 238. ISBN 0968006000. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  41. ^ Selwyn D. Ryan (1999). The Jhandi and the Cross: The Clash of Cultures in Post-creole Trinidad and Tobago. Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, The University of the West Indies. p. 263. ISBN 9766180318. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  42. ^ Rebecca Chiyoko King-O'Riain, Stephen Small, Minelle Mahtani, ed. (2014). Global Mixed Race. NYU Press. p. 65-66. ISBN 0814770479. Archived from the original on 2014. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  43. ^ Regis, Ferne Louanne (April 2011). "The Dougla in Trinidad's Consciousness" (PDF). History in Action (The University of the West Indies (St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago) Dept. of History). Vol. 2 (No. 1). ISSN 2221-7886. Archived from the original (PDF) on Mar 8, 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2015. 
  44. ^ Mike Hoolboom (2013). Mike Hoolboom, ed. Practical Dreamers: Conversations with Movie Artists (illustrated ed.). Coach House Books. p. 315. ISBN 1770561811. Retrieved June 1, 2015.  Text "others" ignored (help)
  45. ^ Rebecca Chiyoko King-O'Riain, Stephen Small, Minelle Mahtani, ed. (2014). Global Mixed Race. NYU Press. p. 54. ISBN 0814770479. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  46. ^ Adrian Curtis Bird (1992). Trinidad sweet: the people, their culture, their island (2 ed.). Inprint Caribbean. p. 26. ISBN 0814770479. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  47. ^ Teresita Ang See, ed. (2000). Intercultural Relations, Cultural Transformation, and Identity: The Ethnic Chinese : Selected Papers Presented at the 1998 ISSCO Conference. International Society for the Studies of Chinese Overseas, Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran (2 ed.). Kaisa Para Sa Kaunlaran, Incorporated. p. 95. ISBN 9718857214. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  48. ^ Frederic Gomes Cassidy; Robert Brock Le Page (2002). Frederic Gomes Cassidy; Robert Brock Le Page, eds. Dictionary of Jamaican English. University of the West Indies Press. p. 103. ISBN 9766401276. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  49. ^ Franklin W. Knight; K. O. Laurence, eds. (2011). General History of the Caribbean: The long nineteenth century : nineteenth-century transformations. Volume 4 of General History of the Caribbean. P. C. Emmer, Jalil Sued Badillo, Germán Carrera Damas, B. W. Higman, Bridget Brereton, Unesco (illustrated ed.). UNESCO. p. 228. ISBN 9231033581. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  50. ^ Brian L. Moore (1995). Cultural Power, Resistance, and Pluralism: Colonial Guyana, 1838-1900. Volume 22 of McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history (illustrated ed.). McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 171. ISBN 077351354X. ISSN 0846-8869. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  51. ^ Howard Johnson (1988). Howard Johnson, ed. After the Crossing: Immigrants and Minorities in Caribbean Creole Society. Volume 7, Issue 1 of Immigrants & minorities (Issue 1 of Immigrants & minorities) (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 101. ISBN 0714633577. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  52. ^ Alena Heitlinger (1999). Alena Heitlinger, ed. Émigré Feminism: Transnational Perspectives. Volume 7, Issue 1 of Immigrants & minorities (Issue 1 of Immigrants & minorities) (illustrated ed.). University of Toronto Press. p. 156. ISBN 0802078990. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  53. ^ CHOWDHURY, RITA (November 18, 2012). "The Assamese Chinese story". The Hindu. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  54. ^ Das, Gaurav (Oct 22, 2013, 01.19AM IST). "Tracing roots from Hong Kong to Assam". The Times of India. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  55. ^ editor (Wednesday, December 8, 2010 10:00 pm). "CHINESE-ASSAMESE: How To Stay Silent In Chinese". Manipur Online. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  56. ^ MITRA, DOLA (NOV 29, 2010). "How To Stay Silent In Chinese". Outlook. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  57. ^ Sharma, Anup (Tuesday, 22 October 2013). "HOMECOMING: CHINESE TO REVISIT BIRTHPLACE IN ASSAM". the pioneer (Guwahati). Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  58. ^ "HOMECOMING: CHINESE TO REVISIT BIRTHPLACE IN ASSAM". The Telegraph, calcutta, india. Sunday, April 18, 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  59. ^ "Assamese of Chinese origin facing severe identity crisis". oneindia. Updated: Sunday, May 17, 2015, 15:28 [IST]. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  60. ^ Bora, Bijay Sankar (Posted at: May 25 2015 1:38AM). "Taunted as spies, China war victims seethe silently". The Tribune (Guwahati). Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  61. ^ TALUKDAR, SUSHANTA (November 8, 2010). "Assamese of Chinese origin can visit State: Gogoi". The Hindu (GUWAHATI). Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  62. ^ leon (4.29.10). "Sino-Indian war in 1962 – Bitter Memories". Dhapa. May 17, 2014  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  63. ^ Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur), ed. (1959). Man in India, Volume 39. A. K. Bose. p. 309. Retrieved 2 March 2012. d: TAMIL-CHINESE CROSSES IN THE NILGIRIS, MADRAS. S. S. Sarkar* (Received on 21 September 1959) DURING May 1959, while working on the blood groups of the Kotas of the Nilgiri Hills in the village of Kokal in Gudalur, inquiries were made regarding the present position of the Tamil-Chinese cross described by Thurston (1909). It may be recalled here that Thurston reported the above cross resulting from the union of some Chinese convicts, deported from the Straits Settlement, and local Tamil Paraiyan 
  64. ^ Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari (1909). Castes and tribes of southern India, Volume 2 (PDF). Government press. p. 99. Archived from the original on June 21, 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 99 CHINESE-TAMIL CROSS in the Nilgiri jail. It is recorded * that, in 1868, twelve of the Chinamen " broke out during a very stormy night, and parties of armed police were sent out to scour the hills for them. They were at last arrested in Malabar a fortnight 
  65. ^ Edgar Thurston (2011). The Madras Presidency with Mysore, Coorg and the Associated States (reissue ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 218. ISBN 1107600685. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  66. ^ RADHAKRISHNAN, D. (April 19, 2014). "Unravelling Chinese link can boost Nilgiris tourism". The Hindu. Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved May 17, 2014. http://www.bulletin247.com/english-news/show/unravelling-chinese-link-can-boost-nilgiris-tourism
  67. ^ Raman, A (Published Date: May 31, 2010 12:48 AM Last Updated: May 16, 2012 4:45 PM). "Chinese in Madras". The New Indian Express. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  68. ^ Raman, A (Published Date: Jul 12, 2010 5:40 AM Last Updated: May 16, 2012 1:38 PM). "Quinine factory and Malay-Chinese workers". The New Indian Express. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  69. ^ "Chinese connection to the Nilgiris to help promote tourism potential". travel News Digest. 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  70. ^ W. Francis (1908). The Nilgiris. Volume 1 of Madras District Gazetteers (reprint ed.). Logos Press. p. 184. Archived from the original on unknown. Retrieved May 17, 2014.  Check date values in: |archivedate= (help)
  71. ^ Madras (India : State) (1908). Madras District Gazetteers, Volume 1. Superintendent, Government Press. p. 184. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  72. ^ W. Francis (1908). The Nilgiris. Concept Publishing Company. p. 184. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  73. ^ Government Museum (Madras, India) (1897). Bulletin ..., Volumes 2-3. MADRAS: Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press. p. 31. Retrieved 2 March 2012. ON A CHINESE-TAMIL CKOSS. Halting in the course of a recent anthropological expedition on the western side of the Nilgiri plateau, in the midst of the Government Cinchona plantations, I came across a small settlement of Chinese, who have squatted for some years on the slopes of the hills between Naduvatam and Gudalur, and developed, as the result of 'marriage' with Tamil pariah women, into a colony, earning an honest livelihood by growing vegetables, cultivating cofl'ce on a small scale, and adding to their income from these sources by the economic products of the cow. An ambassador was sent to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the men should, in return for monies, present themselves before me with a view to their measurements being recorded. The reply which came back was in its way racially characteristic as between Hindus and Chinese. In the case of the former, permission to make use of their bodies for the purposes of research depends essentially on a pecuniary transaction, on a scale varying from two to eight annas. The Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, sent a courteous message to the effect that they did not require payment in money, but would be perfectly happy if I would give them, as a memento, copies of their photographs. The measurements of a single family, excepting a widowed daughter whom I was not permitted to see, and an infant in arms, who was pacified with cake while I investigated its mother, are recorded in the following table: 
  74. ^ Edgar Thurston (2004). Badagas and Irulas of Nilgiris, Paniyans of Malabar: A Cheruman Skull, Kuruba Or Kurumba - Summary of Results. Volume 2, Issue 1 of Bulletin (Government Museum (Madras, India)). Asian Educational Services. p. 31. ISBN 81-206-1857-2. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  75. ^ Government Museum (Madras, India) (1897). Bulletin ..., Volumes 2-3. MADRAS: Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press. p. 32. Retrieved 2 March 2012. The father was a typical Chinaman, whose only grievance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, he had been obliged to 'cut him tail off.' The mother was a typical Tamil Pariah of dusky hue. The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the father than to the dark tint of the mother; and the semimongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, and (in one case) conspicuously prominent cheek-bones. To have recorded the entire series of measurements of the children would have been useless for the purpose of comparison with those of the parents, and I selected from my repertoire the length and breadth of the head and nose, which plainly indicate the paternal influence on the external anatomy of the offspring. The figures given in the table bring out very clearly the great breadth, as compared with the length of the heads of all the children, and the resultant high cephalic index. In other words, in one case a mesaticephalic (79), and, in the remaining three cases, a sub-brachycephalic head (80"1; 801 ; 82-4) has resulted from the union of a mesaticephalic Chinaman (78-5) with a sub-dolichocephalic Tamil Pariah (76"8). How great is the breadth of the head in the children may be emphasised by noting that the average head-breadth of the adult Tamil Pariah man is only 13"7 cm., whereas that of the three boys, aged ten, nine, and five only, was 14 3, 14, and 13"7 cm. respectively. Quite as strongly marked is the effect of paternal influence on the character of the nose; the nasal index, in the case of each child (68"1 ; 717; 727; 68'3), bearing a much closer relation to that of the long nosed father (71'7) than to the typical Pariah nasal index of the broadnosed mother (78-7). It will be interesting to note, hereafter, what is the future of the younger members of this quaint little colony, and to observe the physical characters, temperament, improvement or deterioration, fecundity, and other points relating to the cross-breed resulting from the union of Chinese and Tamil. 
  76. ^ Edgar Thurston (2004). Badagas and Irulas of Nilgiris, Paniyans of Malabar: A Cheruman Skull, Kuruba Or Kurumba - Summary of Results. Volume 2, Issue 1 of Bulletin (Government Museum (Madras, India)). Asian Educational Services. p. 32. ISBN 81-206-1857-2. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  77. ^ Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 99. ISBN 81-206-0288-9. Retrieved 2 March 2012. The father was a typical Chinaman, whose only grievance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, he had been obliged to "cut him tail off." The mother was a typical dark-skinned Tamil paraiyan, 
  78. ^ Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 98. ISBN 81-206-0288-9. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  79. ^ Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 99. Retrieved 2 March 2012. 
  80. ^ Government Museum (Madras, India), Edgar Thurston (1897). Note on tours along the Malabar coast. Volumes 2-3 of Bulletin, Government Museum (Madras, India). Superintendent, Government Press. p. 31. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  81. ^ Government Museum (Madras, India) (1894). Bulletin, Volumes 1-2. Superintendent, Government Press. p. 31. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  82. ^ Government Museum (Madras, India) (1894). Bulletin. v. 2 1897-99. Madras : Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press. p. 31. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  83. ^ Madras Government Museum Bulletin. Vol II (No. 1). Madras. 1897. p. 31. Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  84. ^ Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur) (1954). Man in India, Volume 34, Issue 4. A.K. Bose. p. 273. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Thurston found the Chinese element to be predominant among the offspring as will be evident from his description. 'The mother was a typical dark-skinned Tamil Paraiyan. The colour of the children was more closely allied to the yellowish 
  85. ^ Mahadeb Prasad Basu (1990). An anthropological study of bodily height of Indian population. Punthi Pustak. p. 84. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Sarkar (1959) published a pedigree showing Tamil-Chinese-English crosses in a place located in the Nilgiris. Thurston (1909) mentioned an instance of a mating between a Chinese male with a Tamil Pariah female. Man (Deka 1954) described 
  86. ^ Man in India, Volumes 34-35. A. K. Bose. 1954. p. 272. Retrieved 2 March 2012. (c) Tamil (female) and African (male) (Thurston 1909). (d) Tamil Pariah (female) and Chinese (male) (Thuston, 1909). (e) Andamanese (female) and UP Brahmin (male ) (Portman 1899). (f) Andamanese (female) and Hindu (male) (Man, 1883). 
  87. ^ Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur) (1954). Man in India, Volume 34, Issue 4. A.K. Bose. p. 272. Retrieved 2 March 2012. (c) Tamil (female) and African (male) (Thurston 1909). (d) Tamil Pariah (female) and Chinese (male) (Thuston, 1909). (e) Andamanese (female) and UP Brahmin (male ) (Portman 1899). (f) Andamanese (female) and Hindu (male) (Man, 1883). 
  88. ^ Edgar Thurston, K. Rangachari (1987). Castes and Tribes of Southern India (illustrated ed.). Asian Educational Services. p. 100. ISBN 81-206-0288-9. Retrieved 2 March 2012. the remaining three cases, a sub-brachycephalic head (80-1 ; 80-1 ; 82-4) has resulted from the union of a mesaticephalic Chinaman (78•5) with a sub-dolichocephalic Tamil Paraiyan (76-8). 
  89. ^ Sarat Chandra Roy (Rai Bahadur), ed. (1959). Man in India, Volume 39. A. K. Bose. p. 309. Retrieved 2 March 2012. d: TAMIL-CHINESE CROSSES IN THE NILGIRIS, MADRAS. S. S. Sarkar* ( Received on 21 September 1959 ) iURING May 1959, while working on the blood groups of the Kotas of the Nilgiri Hills in the village of Kokal in Gudalur, enquiries were made regarding the present position of the Tamil-Chinese cross described by Thurston (1909). It may be recalled here that Thurston reported the above cross resulting from the union of some Chinese convicts, deported from the Straits Settlement, and local Tamil Paraiyan 

External links[edit]