Chinese Academy of Sciences
|Other name||中国科学院 (The Native Name)|
|Parent institution||State Council of China|
|Founder(s)||Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government (emerged to the State Council in 1954)|
|Established||1 November 1949|
|Budget||$15.2 billion (2020)|
100+ scientific research institutes
|Address||52 Sanlihe Rd, Xicheng District, Beijing (Headquarters)|
The Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS; Chinese: 中国科学院) is the national academy for the natural sciences of the People's Republic of China. It has historical origins in the Academia Sinica during the Republican era and was formerly also known by that name. Collectively known as the "Two Academies (两院)" along with the Chinese Academy of Engineering, it functions as the national scientific think tank and academic governing body, providing advisory and appraisal services on issues stemming from the national economy, social development, and science and technology progress. It is headquartered in Xicheng District, Beijing, with branch institutes all over mainland China. It has also created hundreds of commercial enterprises, Lenovo being one of the most famous.
It is the world's largest research organization, comprising around 60,000 researchers working in 114 institutes, and has been consistently ranked among the top research organizations around the world. It also holds the University of Science and Technology of China and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
The Chinese Academy of Sciences has been ranked the No. 1 research institute in the world by Nature Index since the list's inception in 2016 by Nature Portfolio. It is the most productive institution publishing articles of sustainable development indexed in Web of Science from 1981 to 2018 among all universities and research institutions in the world.
The Chinese Academy originated in the Academia Sinica founded, in 1928, by the Republic of China. After the Communist Party took control of mainland China in 1949, the residual of Academia Sinica was renamed Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), while others relocated to Taiwan.
The Chinese Academy of Sciences has six academic divisions:
- Chemistry (化学部)
- Information Technological Sciences (信息技术科学部)
- Earth Sciences (地学部)
- Life Sciences and Medical Sciences (生命科学和医学学部)
- Mathematics and Physics (数学物理学部)
- Technological Sciences (技术科学部)
The CAS has thirteen regional branches, in Beijing, Shenyang, Changchun, Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Kunming, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Hefei and Xinjiang. It has over one hundred institutes and four universities (the University of Science and Technology of China at Hefei, Anhui, the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, ShanghaiTech University, and Shenzhen Institute of Adavanced Technology). Backed by the institutes of CAS, UCAS is headquartered in Beijing, with graduate education bases in Shanghai, Chengdu, Wuhan, Guangzhou and Lanzhou, four Science Libraries of Chinese Academy of Sciences, three technology support centers and two news and publishing units. These CAS branches and offices are located in 20 provinces and municipalities throughout China. CAS has invested in or created over 430 science- and technology-based enterprises in eleven industries, including eight companies listed on stock exchanges.
Being granted a Fellowship of the Academy represents the highest level of national honor for Chinese scientists. The CAS membership system includes Academicians (院士), Emeritus Academicians (荣誉院士) and Foreign Academicians (外籍院士).
- Current President: Bai Chunli
Research reputation and rankings
The Chinese Academy of Sciences was ranked #1 in the 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 Nature Index Annual Tables, which measure the largest contributors to papers published in 82 leading journals.
List of presidents
- 1949–1978: Guo Moruo
- 1979–1981: Fang Yi
- 1981–1987: Lu Jiaxi
- 1987–1997: Zhou Guangzhao
- 1997–2011: Lu Yongxiang
- 2011–2020: Bai Chunli
- 2020–present: Hou Jianguo
Membership of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (also known by the title Academician (CAS), Chinese: 中国科学院院士) is a lifelong honor given to Chinese scientists who have made significant achievements in various fields. According to Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences adopted in 1992 and recently amended in 2014, it is the highest academic title in China. A formal CAS member must hold Chinese citizenship, although foreigners can be elected as foreign CAS members. Members older than 80 are designated as "senior members" and may no longer hold leading positions in the organization. Academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences carry an obligation to advance science and technology, to advocate and uphold scientific spirit, to develop a scientific and technological workforce, to attend member meetings and receive consultation and evaluation tasks, and to promote international exchanges and cooperation. Academicians can give suggestions and influence Chinese state policy related to science and technology.
As of 2021, the youngest male academicians of the Chinese Academy of Sciences are chemist Che Chi-ming, materials scientist Lu Ke and geneticist Zhang Yaping (张亚平) whom were respectively elected to the CAS in 1995 and 2003 (Zhang and Lu) all at the age of 38. Chemist Vivian Yam Wing-wah is the youngest female academician elected to the CAS in 2001 also at 38 years of age.
- Beijing Branch
- University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS)
- Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science
- Institute of Acoustics (IOA)
- Institute of Atmospheric Physics
- Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences
- Institute of Physics (IOPCAS)
- Institute of Semiconductors
- Institute of Electrical Engineering (IEE)
- Institute of Information Engineering (IIE)
- Institute of Theoretical Physics
- Institute of High Energy Physics
- Institute of Biophysics
- Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology
- Institute of Electronics
- National Astronomical Observatories
- Institute of Computing Technology
- Institute of Software
- Institute of Automation
- Beijing Institute of Genomics
- Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources
- Institute of Geology and Geophysics (IGG)
- Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth
- Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research
- Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
- National Center for Nanoscience and Technology
- Institute of Policy and Management
- Institute of Psychology
- Institute of Zoology
- Changchun Branch
- Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics
- Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
- Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology
- Changchun Observatory
- Chengdu Branch
- Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment
- Chengdu Institute of Biology
- Institute of Optics and Electronics
- Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry
- Institute of Computer Application
- Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology
- Guangzhou Branch
- South China Botanical Garden
- Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology
- South China Sea Institute of Oceanology
- Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion
- Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry
- Guangzhou Institute of Biomedicine and Health
- Guiyang Branch
- Institute of Geochemistry
- Hefei Branch
- Kunming Branch
- Lanzhou Branch
- Institute of Modern Physics
- Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics
- Lanzhou Institute of Geology
- Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology
- Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources
- Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes Research
- Nanjing Branch
- Purple Mountain Observatory (Zijinshan Astronomical Observatory)
- Institute of Soil Science
- Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology
- Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology
- Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology
- Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics (SINANO)
- Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology (SIBET)
- Nanjing Botanical Garden, Memorial Sun Yat-Sen (Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Science)
- University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing College
- Shanghai Branch
- Shanghai Astronomical Observatory
- Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology
- Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics
- Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics
- Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
- Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry
- Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics
- Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences
- Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica
- Institut Pasteur of Shanghai
- Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, CAS
- Institute of Neuroscience (ION)
- ShanghaiTech University
- Shenyang Branch
- Institute of Metal Research
- Shenyang Institute of Automation
- Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology, formerly the Institute of Forestry and Pedology
- Shenyang Institute of Computing Technology
- Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics
- Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
- Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology
- Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research
- Taiyuan Branch
- Shanxi Institute of Coal Chemistry (ICCCAS)
- Wuhan Branch
- Xinjiang Branch
- Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry
- Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography
- Xi'an Branch
- Xi'an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics
- National Time Service Center
- Institute of Earth Environment
On 26 February 2007, CAS published a Declaration of Scientific Ideology and set up a commission for scientific integrity to promote transparency, autonomy and accountability of scientific research in the country. The Ministry of Science and Technology had at the same time also initiated measures to address misconduct in state-funded programs.
|ISO 4||Sci. China|
Together with the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the academy publishes the peer-reviewed academic journal, Science China (also known as Science in China). Science China comprises seven series:
- A: Mathematics
- B: Chemistry
- C: Life Sciences
- D: Earth Sciences
- E: Technological Sciences
- F: Information Sciences
- G: Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy
The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth is a branch of CAS. The Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth was a customer of Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which provides data transmission services from satellites for a wide range of societal functions. It was reported by Reuters on 21 September 2020 that SSC decided not to renew the contracts with China to help operate Chinese satellites from SSC's ground stations, or seek new business with China.
- Academia Sinica
- China Science Publishing & Media
- Chinese Academy of Engineering
- Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
- Chinese Science Citation Database
- Hanlin Academy
- History of science and technology in the People's Republic of China
- International Journal of Software and Informatics (IJSI)
- International Society of Zoological Sciences
- Legend Holdings
- Science and technology in China
- Scientific publishing in China
- Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences
- ShanghaiTech University
- University of Chinese Academy of Sciences
- University of Science and Technology of China
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- "Contact." Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved on 31 May 2018. "Add 52 Sanlihe Rd., Xicheng District, Beijing, China Postcode: 100864" - Address in Chinese: "地址：北京市三里河路52号 邮政编码：100864"
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- Cao, Cong (2015). UNESCO Science Report (PDF). Paris: UNESCO. pp. 621–641. ISBN 978-92-3-100129-1.
- "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2013–2014". Nature. 522 (7556): S34–S44. 2015. doi:10.1038/522S34a. ISSN 0028-0836.
- "Nature Global Institutions Ranking, 2016 tables".
- "中国科学院教育简介 — 中国科学院". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on 22 May 2017. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
- "Institution outputs". Nature Index. 1 December 2019 – 30 November 2020. Archived from the original on 22 April 2021. Retrieved 23 November 2020.
- Li, R.Y.M.; Li, Y.L.; Crabbe, M.J.C.; Manta, O.; Shoaib, M. The Impact of Sustainability Awareness and Moral Values on Environmental Laws. Sustainability 2021, 13, 5882. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115882
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- Crew, Bec; Jia, Hepeng (29 April 2020). "Leading research institutions 2020". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-01230-x. PMID 32350427. S2CID 217548507.
- "Institution outputs | Nature Index". Nature Index. 1 August 2019 – 31 July 2020. Archived from the original on 18 November 2020. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
- "中国科学院院士章程 [Bylaws for Members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences]". Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Obligations and Rights of a CAS Member". Academic Divisions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- Cyranoski, David (24 January 2018). "First monkeys cloned with technique that made Dolly the sheep". Nature. 553 (7689): 387–388. Bibcode:2018Natur.553..387C. doi:10.1038/d41586-018-01027-z. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 29368720.
"This paper really marks the beginning of a new era for biomedical research", says Xiong Zhi-Qi, a neuroscientist who studies brain disease at the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Neuroscience (ION) in Shanghai.
- "Director's Introduction". Institute of Neuroscience. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
As part of a major drive for excellence in basic research in the new millennium, the Chinese Academy of Sciences founded the Institute of Neuroscience (ION) on 27 November 1999.
- The Lancet (17 March 2007). "Reforming research in China". The Lancet. 369 (9565): 880. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60419-X. PMID 17368128. S2CID 205948464.
- "Science in China Press". Science in China Press. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
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- "China in Brief – Science and Technology – Awards". China Internet Information Center (State Council Information Office and the China International Publishing Group). Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- SSC. "Appendix of SSC's Chinese customers" (PDF). SSC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 June 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Ahlander, Johan; Barrett, Jonathan (21 September 2020). "Swedish space agency halts new business helping China operate satellites". Reuters. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
- Media related to Chinese Academy of Sciences at Wikimedia Commons