Chinese Jia-A League

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Chinese Jia-A League
Country  China
Confederation AFC (Asia)
Founded 1987 (Semi-professional)
1994 (Professional)
Level on pyramid 1
Relegation to Chinese Jia-B League
Domestic cup(s) Chinese FA Cup
International cup(s) AFC Champions League
Most championships Dalian Shide
(7 titles)

The National Football Jia A League (simplified Chinese: 全国足球甲A联赛), commonly known as Jia-A, was the highest tier of professional football in the People's Republic of China, during 1994 through 2003, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association.

The Chinese Professional Football League was established in 1994. Under the direct supervision of the CFA's Professional League Committee, this nationwide league was divided into Divisions 1 and 2. Division 1 was subdivided into Divisions 1A and 1B, Jia A and Jia B, Jia being the Chinese word for top or first. Division 2 was and still is subdivided into regional divisions.

History[edit]

Pre history[edit]

Pre 1980, China National League clubs was owned by their respective local physical culture and sports committees, sports institutes, and army sports units. Factory-owned clubs were not allowed to participate in national leagues. Dalian Dockyard, founded in 1946, was a factory-owned club, and as such could only participate in regional tournaments and national workers championship matches. In 1980,the Chinese Football Association (CFA) started to allow factory clubs to play in national leagues. Dalian Dockyard entered the National League in 1981,and in 1983, became Dalian FC, the current Dalian Shide.

In the mid-1980s, the CFA encourage factories and companies to sponsor government-owned clubs. In 1984, Guangdong, Beijing, Guangzhou and Tianjin teams were sponsored by big companies for the first time. CCTV started to show domestic league matches to the whole country. According to some articles, the match between Beijing Snowflakes and Guangdong Wanbao was a turning point for football fan participation. In 1988, Liaoning became China's first professional club, soon becoming one of Asia's best club. Liaoning was the 1990 ACC Champions, 1991 runner-up, and 1987 third place team.

The foundation[edit]

In 1986, CFA tried to find a way to found a semi-pro league, that season National League division 1 signed its first sponsor contract, Goldlion became first main sponsor of China football league.gradually more and more fans bought tickets to watch football leagues.

In 1987 the National League Division 1 was divided into two levels- Jia-A (8 teams) and Jia-B (12 teams), CFA never admit there was a semi-pro league before 1993, because of the restrict by some laws, the enterprises could only cooperate with the government in club managements. so actually we could consider it as an enterprise league though not so accurate to describe the league.

the 8 Jia-A teams in 1987 are:

Liaoning Dongyao - Now Liaoning FC, became professional team in 1988

Tianjing Seagull - Now Tianjin Teda, became pro club in 1995

Shanghai Shenzhou - Name changed to Shanghai Shenhua in 1991 and became pro club in 1993, now Shanghai Shenhua United FC

Shandong - Now Shandong Luneng Taishan, became pro-club in 1993

August first - the Army team

Beijing Snowflakes - Name Changed to Beijing Guoan in 1992 and became pro-clubs

Guangzhou Baiyunshan - Now Guangzhou Yiyao, became professional club in 1992

Hubei Energy - Now Wuhan Guanggu, became professional club in 1994

Professionalism[edit]

In early 1990s, CFA allows enterprises to purchase football clubs and manage them, whether they are state-owned enterprises or private-owned companies, Dalian Hualu - the former Dalian Dockyard, was bought by a private-owned company, Name changed to Dalian Wanda and became a professional club in 1993.

In 1992, CFA made an important decision - The China professional league will start in 1994, they order all the Jia-A clubs set up professional system before 1994, and for Jia-B clubs, they must realize professional structural reform before 1995. after that CFA hold a semi-pro football championship in 1993, and finally, in 1994, first ever professional leagues in China football history started. and in 1995, Jia-B announced to be a pro-league, which is still the second level. Jia-A and Jia-B, was named as C-league to represent the professional stage.

From Jia-A to CSL[edit]

Compared to Jia A, the Chinese Super League is a lot more demanding on teams. The CFA and CSL committee has imposed a range of minimum criteria to ensure professional management and administration, financial probity and a progressive youth development programme at every club. besides the regular professional league, CSL also has reserve league, U-19 League, U-17 League and U-15 League, also some cups for the young boys.

the second division, Jia B, with the new name China League, also has a new system.

The CSL and China League's goals are to promote high quality and high level competition; introduce advanced managerial concepts to the market; enforce the delivery of minimum standards of professionalism; encourage the influx of more higher quality foreign coaches and players; and gradually establish the European system for player registrations and transfers.

Jia-A League champions[edit]

Semi-pro seasons (1987-1993)[edit]

Season Winners Total wins Runners-up Third-place Number of clubs
1987 Liaoning 1 Tianjin Shanghai 8
1988 Liaoning 2 Shandong Shanghai 21
1989 China B 1 Liaoning Shanghai 8
1990 Liaoning 3 August 1st Dalian 8
1991 Liaoning 4 Shanghai Beijing 8
1992 Liaoning 5 Guangzhou FC Dalian 8
1993 Liaoning 6 Guangdong Beijing 8

Professional seasons (1994-2003)[edit]

Season Winners Total wins Runners-up Third-place fourth-placed Number of clubs
1994 Dalian Wanda 1 Guangzhou Apollo Shanghai Shenhua Liaoning Yuandong 12
1995 Shanghai Shenhua 1 Beijing Guoan Dalian Wanda Guangdong Hongyuan 12
1996 Dalian Wanda 2 Shanghai Shenhua August 1st Beijing Guoan 12
1997 Dalian Wanda 3 Shanghai Shenhua Beijing Guoan Yanbian Aodong 12
1998 Dalian Wanda 4 Shanghai Shenhua Beijing Guoan Guangzhou Songri 14
1999 Shandong Luneng 1 Liaoning Fushun Sichuan Quanxing Chongqing Longxin 14
2000 Dalian Shide 5 Shanghai Shenhua Sichuan Quanxing Chongqing Longxin 14
2001 Dalian Shide 6 Shanghai Shenhua Liaoning Fushun Sichuan Quanxing 14
2002 Dalian Shide 7 Shenzhen Ping'an Beijing Guoan Shandong Luneng 15
2003 Shanghai Shenhua -- 1 Shanghai International Dalian Shide Shenzhen Jianlibao 15

^1 Shanghai Shenhua were stripped of the title on 19 February 2013 for the match-fixing scandal in this season.[1]

Most successful clubs (1994-2003)[edit]

Club Champions Runners-Up Winning Seasons Runners-Up Seasons
Dalian Shide
7
0
1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002
Shanghai Shenhua
1
5
1995 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001
Shandong Luneng
1
0
1999
Guangzhou Evergrande
0
1
1994
Beijing Guoan
0
1
1995
Liaoning Fushun
0
1
1999
Shenzhen FC
0
1
2002
Shanghai International
0
1
2003

Former clubs (1994-2003)[edit]

Club Seasons in Jia-A League Best finish Worst finish Current league
Shandong Luneng Taishan 1994 to 2003 1st, 1999 12th, 2003 Chinese Super League
Shanghai Shenhua 1994 to 2003 1st, 1995 12th, 2002 Chinese Super League
Liaoning FC 1994 to 1995, 1999 to 2003 2nd, 1999 12th, 1995 Chinese Super League
Beijing Guoan 1994 to 2003 2nd, 1995 9th, 2003 Chinese Super League
Yanbian FC 1994 to 2000 4th, 1997 14th, 2000 Chinese Super League
Guangzhou Apollo 1994 to 1998 2nd, 1994 14th, 1998 Chinese Super League
Chongqing Lifan 1997 to 2003 4th, 1999, 2000 13th, 2003 Chinese Super League
Shenyang Ginde 1994, 1998 to 2003 5th, 2003 14th, 2001 Chinese Super League
Tianjin Teda 1995 to1997, 1999 to 2003 7th, 1999, 2001 11th, 1997 Chinese Super League
Jiangsu Sainty 1994 12th, 1994 Chinese Super League
Shanghai International 2002 to 2003 2nd, 2003 9th, 2002 China League One
Shenzhen Jianlibao 1996, 1998 to 2003 2nd, 2002 12th, 1998, 1999 China League One
Qingdao Jonoon 1995, 1997 to 2003 6th, 1998 13th, 2001 China League One
Dalian Shide 1994 to 2003 1st, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002 9th, 1999 Defunct
Sichuan Guancheng 1994 to 2003 3rd, 1998, 2000 14th, 2002 Defunct
Bayi 1994 to 1998, 2001 to 2003 3rd, 1996 14th, 2003 Defunct
Guangzhou Songri 1996, 1998 to 1999 4th, 1998 13th, 1999 Defunct
Guangdong Hongyuan 1994 to 1997 4th, 1995 12th, 1997 Defunct
Yunnan Hongta 2000 to 2003 7th, 2002, 2003 12th, 2000 Defunct
Wuhan Hongjinlong 1998 to1999 8th, 1998 14th, 1999 Defunct
Shaanxi Guoli 2001 to 2003 9th, 2001 15th, 2002, 2003 Defunct
Xiamen Lanshi 2000 13th, 2000 Defunct

Attendances[edit]

Season averages[edit]

Season Total Attendance Games Average Change High avg. Team No. Of Clubs Relegation Slots
1992 976,000 56 17,429 -- 25,000 Guangzhou Baiyunshan 8 -
1994 2,155,000 132 16,326 -6.3% 40,000 Sichuan Quanxing 12 2
1995 3,140,280 132 23,790 +45.7% 40,182 Sichuan Quanxing 12 2
1996 3,203,122 132 24,266 +2.0% 42,272 Jinan Taishan 12 2
1997 2,801,100 132 21,220 -14.4% 39,180 Sichuan Quanxing 12 2
1998 3,883,000 182 21,335 +0.5% 39,713 Shanghai Shenhua 14 2
1999 3,623,500 182 19,909 -7.2% 33,538 Shandong Luneng 14 2
2000 3,622,000 182 19,901 -0.1% 35,615 Shenyang Ginde 14 2
2001 3,329,872 182 18,296 -8.8% 38,700 Shanxi Guoli 14 -
2002 3,146,640 210 14,984 -22.1% 32,429 Beijing Guo'an 15 -
2003 3,719,700 210 17,710 +18.2% 30,500 Dalian Shide 15 3

Attendance by clubs[edit]

This table lists average attendances of Jia-A League clubs during 1994-2003 yearly, but only for seasons when that club played in the top division. Club names are as of 2003 season.

Team Crowd average
1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
August 1st 15,818 18,818 12,091 16,000 16,769 - - 14,385 13,429 13,071
Beijing Guoan 14,091 26,364 36,182 24,727 27,538 24,231 18,692 15,385 32,429 16,500
Chongqing Lifan - - - 27,727 24,000 17,231 16,615 21,615 14,893 19,286
Dalian Shide 26,636 22,273 29,364 19,455 27,769 17,769 27,077 21,385 18,429 30,500
Guangdong Hongyuan 9,091 20,545 15,182 9,091 - - - - - -
Guangzhou FC 10,545 18,818 13,091 15,364 5,385 - - - - -
Guangzhou Songri - - 11,727 - 7,308 12,308 - - - -
Jiangsu Sainty 5,364 - - - - - - - - -
Liaoning FC 15,364 22,727 - - - 24,538 16,846 15,846 6,964 13,786
Qingdao Jonoon - 13,364 - 10,545 11,538 12,192 16,923 15,308 6,214 12,429
Shandong Luneng Taishan 19,727 24,545 42,272 22,545 28,231 33,538 27,231 21,385 21,571 23,286
Shanghai International - - - - - - - - 17,500 17,821
Shanghai Shenhua 20,909 27,909 26,727 19,636 39,713 17,462 18,462 18,000 12,464 22,214
Shanxi Guoli - - - - - - - 38,700 9,500 19,357
Shenyang Ginde 5,591 - - - 15,077 11,923 35,615 12,000 14,500 18,857
Shenzhen Jianlibao - - 18,182 - 19,000 20,769 15,769 16,231 15,571 18,357
Sichuan Guancheng 40,000 40,182 41,455 39,180 34,231 33,077 23,462 20,654 9,607 11,786
Tianjin Teda - 19,173 20,345 17,091 - 13,692 13,692 10,154 9,250 13,000
Wuhan Yaqi - - - - 22,077 12,077 - - - -
Xiamen Lanshi - - - - - - 16,615 - - -
Yanbian FC 21,818 27,818 25,545 33,000 27,538 26,692 12,385 - - -
Yunnan Hongta - - - - - - 15,923 16,846 9,126 14,071
Whole season 16,326 23,790 24,266 21,220 21,335 19,909 19,901 18,296 14,984 17,710

Awards[edit]

The official Chinese Jia-A League annual awards are given to players, managers and referees based on their performance during the season.

Most valuable player[edit]

Year Footballer Club Nationality
1994 Li Bing Liaoning Yuandong  China
1995 Fan Zhiyi Shanghai Shenhua  China
1996 Su Maozhen Shandong Luneng  China
1997 Jorge Luis Campos Beijing Guoan  Paraguay
1998 Hao Haidong Dalian Wanda  China
1999 Qu Shengqing Liaoning FC  China
2000 Yang Chen Eintracht Frankfurt  China
2001 Li Tie Liaoning FC  China
2002 Zheng Zhi Shenzhen Jianlibao  China
2003 Jörg Albertz Shanghai Shenhua  Germany

Golden Boot award[edit]

Season Top scorer Club Goals
1994 China Hu Zhijun Guangzhou Apollo 17
1995 China Fan Zhiyi Shanghai Shenhua 15
1996 China Su Maozhen Shandong Luneng Taishan 13
1997 China Hao Haidong Dalian Wanda 14
1998 China Hao Haidong Dalian Wanda 18
1999 China Qu Shengqing Liaoning Fushun 17
2000 Paraguay Casiano Delvalle Shandong Luneng Taishan 15
2001 China Hao Haidong Dalian Shide 16
2002 China Li Jinyu Liaoning FC 15
2003 Honduras Saul Martínez
China Li Yi
Ghana Kwame Ayew
Shanghai Shenhua
Shenzhen Jianlibao
Changsha Ginde
14

Manager of the year[edit]

Youth player of the year[edit]

Sponsors[edit]

Sponsorships
Season Sponsor Annual Value Official League Name
1994 Marlboro $1.2 million[2] Marlboro Jia-A League
1995 Marlboro $1.32 million Marlboro Jia-A League
1996 Marlboro $1.44 million Marlboro Jia-A League
1997 Marlboro $1.56 million Marlboro Jia-A League
1998 Marlboro $1.68 million Marlboro Jia-A League
1999 Pepsi $10 million Pepsi Jia-A League
2000 Pepsi $11 million Pepsi Jia-A League
2001 Pepsi $12 million Pepsi Jia-A League
2002 Pepsi $13 million Pepsi Jia-A League
2003 Siemens Mobile $5 million Siemens Mobile Jia-A League

References[edit]

  1. ^ 中国足协纪律委员会处罚决定(001-038号) (in Chinese). Chinese Football Association. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  2. ^ http://sports.sohu.com/20061029/n246070477.shtml