Chinese Library Classification

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The Chinese Library Classification (CLC; Chinese: 中国图书馆分类法), also known as Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL),[1] is effectively the national library classification scheme in China. It is used in almost all primary and secondary schools, universities, academic institutions, as well as public libraries. It is also used by publishers to classify all books published in China.

The Book Classification of Chinese Libraries (BCCL) was first published in 1975, under the auspices of China's Administrative Bureau of Cultural Affairs. Its fourth edition (1999) was renamed CLC. In September 2010, the fifth edition was published by National Library of China Publishing House. CLC has twenty-two top-level categories, and inherits a Marxist orientation from its earlier editions.[2] (For instance, category A is Marxism, Leninism, Maoism & Deng Xiaoping Theory.) It contains a total of 43600 categories, many of which are recent additions, meeting the needs of a rapidly changing nation.[3]

The CLC system[edit]

The 22 top categories and selected sub-categories of CLC (5th Edition) are as follows:

A. Marxism, Leninism, Maoism and Deng Xiaoping theory[edit]

B. Philosophy and religions[edit]

C. Social sciences[edit]

  • C0 Social scientific theory and methodology
  • C1 Present and future of social sciences
  • C2 Organisations, groups, conferences
  • C3 Method of research in social sciences
  • C4 Education and popularization of social sciences
  • C5 Serials, anthologies, periodicals in social sciences
  • C6 Reference materials in social sciences
  • C7 (no longer used)
  • C8 Statistics in social sciences
  • C9 Sociology

D. Politics and law[edit]

E. Military science[edit]

  • E0 Military theory
  • E1 Military (worldwide)
  • E2 Military in China
  • E3 Military in Asia
  • E4 Military in Africa
  • E5 Military in Europe
  • E6 Military in Australasia
  • E7 Military in America
  • E8 Strategies, tactics, and battles
  • E9 Military technology

F. Economics[edit]

G. Culture, science, education and sports[edit]

  • G0 Philosophy of culture
  • G1 Culture
  • G2 Knowledge transmission
  • G3 Science, scientific research
  • G4 Education
  • G5 Education in individual countries
  • G6 Education (primary, secondary, tertiary)
  • G7 Education (specialized)
  • G8 Sports

H. Languages and linguistics[edit]

I. Literature[edit]

  • I0 Literary theory
  • I1 Literature (worldwide)
  • I2 Literature in China
  • I3 Literature in Asia
  • I4 Literature in Africa
  • I5 Literature in Europe
  • I6 Literature in Australasia
  • I7 Literature in America

J. Art[edit]

K. History and geography[edit]

N. Natural science[edit]

  • N0 Theory and methodology
  • N1 Present state
  • N2 Organisations, groups, conferences
  • N3 Research methodology
  • N4 Education and popularization
  • N5 Serials, anthologies, periodicals
  • N6 Reference materials
  • N8 Field surveys
  • N9 Minor sciences

O. Mathematics, physics and chemistry[edit]

P. Astronomy and geoscience[edit]

Q. Life sciences[edit]

R. Medicine and health sciences[edit]

S. Agricultural science[edit]

T. Industrial technology[edit]

U. Transportation[edit]

V. Aviation and Aerospace[edit]

  • V1 Research and Exploration of Aviation and Aerospace Technology
  • V2 Aviation
  • V4 Aerospace (Spaceflight)
  • V7 Aerospace Medicine [4]

X. Environmental science[edit]

Z. General works[edit]

  • Z1 Collectanea/generalia (book series)
    • Z12 Collectanea of China
      • Z121 General collectanea
        • Z121.2 Song Dynasty
        • Z121.3 Yuan Dynasty
        • Z121.4 Ming Dynasty
        • Z121.5 Qing Dynasty
        • Z121.6 Republic period
        • Z121.7 Modern
      • Z122 Collectanea of a particular locality
      • Z123 Collectanea by members of a particular family
      • Z124 Collectanea by individual writers
      • Z125 Collectanea of lost books
      • Z126 Collectanea of Chinese classics
    • Z13 Collectanea and book series of Asia
    • Z14 Book series of Africa
    • Z15 Book series of Europe
    • Z16 Book series of Oceania
    • Z17 Book series of America
  • Z2 Encyclopedias and Chinese encyclopedias (Leishu)
    • Z22 Chinese encyclopedias
      • Z221 Tang Dynasty
      • Z222 Song Dynasty
      • Z223 Yuan Dynasty
      • Z224 Ming Dynasty
      • Z225 Qing Dynasty
      • Z226 Republic
      • Z227 Modern
      • Z228 General popular literature
        • Z228.1 Children's books
        • Z228.2 Popular youth books
        • Z228.3 Elders' books
        • Z228.4 Women's readers
        • Z228.5 Men's readers
    • Z23 Encyclopedias of Asia
    • Z24 Encyclopedias of Africa
    • Z25 Encyclopedias of Europe
    • Z26 Encyclopedias of Oceania
    • Z27 Encyclopedias of America
    • Z28 Encyclopedias of a particular field
  • Z3 Dictionaries
  • Z4 Symposia, anthologies, selected works, essays
  • Z5 Almanac
  • Z6 Serials, periodicals
  • Z8 Catalogues, abstracts, indexes

Other classifications[edit]

The other library classifications in China are:

The other library classifications for Chinese materials outside mainland China are:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Chinese Library Classification | The CIARD R.I.N.G." Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  2. ^ Zhang, Wenxian (2003). Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL): Histories, accomplishments, problems and its comparisons. Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences, vol. 41, nr. 1, p. 1-22. (PDF)
  3. ^ The Standardization of Chinese Library Classification, Xiaochun Liu, Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, Volume 16, Issue 2, ISSN 0163-9374, Pub Date: 8/13/1993
  4. ^ Chinese Library Classification. National Library of China Publishing. 1991. ISBN 9787501343935.

External links[edit]