Islam in China
|Part of a series on|
Islam in China
|Islam in China portal|
Islam has been practiced in Chinese society for 1,400 years. Currently, Muslims are a minority group in China, representing between 0.45% to 1.8% of the total population according to the latest estimates. Though Hui Muslims are the most numerous group,  the greatest concentration of Muslims is in Xinjiang, with a significant Uyghur population. Lesser but significant populations reside in the regions of Ningxia, Gansu, and Qinghai. Of China's 55 officially recognized minority peoples, ten groups are predominantly Sunni Muslim.
- 1 History
- 2 Sectarian tensions
- 3 People
- 4 Religious practices
- 5 Representative bodies
- 6 Culture and heritage
- 7 Famous Muslims in China
- 8 See also
- 9 Footnotes
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Chinese Muslims have been in China for the last 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society. "Islam expanded gradually across the maritime and inland silk routes from the 7th to the 10th centuries through war, trade, and diplomatic exchanges."
Introduction of Islam 616-18 AD
According to Chinese Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first introduced to China in 616-18 AD by Sahaba (companions) of Prophet Muhammad : Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, Sayid, Wahab ibn Abu Kabcha and another Sahaba. Wahab ibn abu Kabcha (Wahb abi Kabcha) may have been be a son of al-Harth ibn Abdul Uzza (also known as Abu Kabsha). It is noted in other accounts that Wahab Abu Kabcha reached Canton by sea in 629 CE.
Sa`ad ibn Abi Waqqas, along with three Sahabas, namely Suhayla Abuarja, Uwais al-Qarani, and Hassan ibn Thabit, returned to China from Arabia in 637 by the Yunan-Manipur-Chittagong route, then reached Arabia by sea. Some sources date the introduction of Islam in China to 650 AD, the third sojourn of Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, when he was sent as an official envoy to Emperor Gaozong during Caliph Uthman's reign.
Earlier visits of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas were noted in Arab accounts since it was a period of nascent Islam mixed with events of many hectic preaching and warfare. They (Sahabas) were more concerned with writings of verses of the Koran as revealed to Muhammad, and his sayings and ways of life. According to China Muslims' traditional legendary accounts, Islam was first brought to China by an embassy led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas that was sent by Uthman, the third Caliph, (that was in 651, less than twenty years after the death of Muhammad) which are confusions with Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas's earlier visits. The embassy was led by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, the second cousin of Muhammad. Emperor Gaozong, the Tang emperor who received the envoy then ordered the construction of the Memorial mosque in Canton, the first mosque in the country, in memory of Muhammad.
While modern secular historians tend to say that there is no evidence for Waqqās himself ever coming to China, they do believe that Muslim diplomats and merchants came to Tang China within a few decades from the beginning of the Muslim Era. The Tang dynasty's cosmopolitan culture, with its intensive contacts with Central Asia and its significant communities of (originally non-Muslim) Central and Western Asian merchants resident in Chinese cities, which helped the introduction of Islam. The first major Muslim settlements in China consisted of Arab and Persian merchants. During the Tang and especially the Song eras, comparatively well-established, even if somewhat segregated, mercantile Muslim communities existed in the port cities of Guangzhou, Quanzhou, and Hangzhou on China's southeastern seaboard, as well as in the interior centers such as Chang'an, Kaifeng, and Yangzhou. After critical analysis, it is evident that Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas and the three other Sahabas who were preaching from 616-18 were noticed by Emperor Gaozong by 618 AD. Guangzhou is home to four mosques, including the famous Huaisheng Mosque believed to have been built by Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas, the second cousin of Muhammad . The city also has a grave believed to be that of ibn Abi Waqqas (father of Sa'd ibn abi Waqqas).
Islam was brought to China during the Tang dynasty by Arab traders, who were primarily concerned with trading and commerce. It was because of this low profile that the 845 anti-Buddhist edict during the Great Anti-Buddhist Persecution said absolutely nothing about Islam. It seems that trade occupied the attention of the early Muslim settlers, coming and going between China and the West by the oversea or the overland routes.
By the time of the Song dynasty, Muslims had come to play a major role in the import/export industry. The office of Director General of Shipping was consistently held by a Muslim during this period. In 1070, the Song emperor Shenzong invited 5,300 Muslim men from Bukhara, to settle in China in order to create a buffer zone between the Chinese and the Liao empire in the northeast. Later on these men were settled between the Sung capital of Kaifeng and Yenching (modern day Beijing). They were led by Prince Amir Sayyid "So-fei-er" (his Chinese name) who was called the "father" of the Muslim community in China. Prior to him Islam was named by the Tang and Song Chinese as Dashi fa ("law of the Arabs"). He renamed it to Huihui Jiao ("the Religion of the Huihui"). Pu Shougeng, a Muslim foreign trader, stands out in his work to help the Yuan conquer Southern China, the last outpost of Song power.In 1276, Song loyalists launched a resistance to Mongol efforts to take over Fuzhou. The Yuanshih (Yuan dynasty official history) records that Pu Shougeng "abandoned the Song cause and rejected the emperor...by the end of the year, Quanzhou submitted to the Mongols."In abandoning the Song cause, Pu Shougeng mobilized troops from the community of foreign residents,who massacred the Song emperor's relatives and Song loyalists.Pu Shougeng and his troops acted without the help of the Mongol army. Pu Shougeng himself was lavishly rewarded by the Mongols. He was appointed military commisioner for Fujian and Guangdong.
Tombs of Imam Asim and Mazaar of Zafar Sadiq
"On the foothills of Mount Lingshan are the tombs of two of the four companions that Prophet Muhammad sent eastwards to preach Islam. Known as the "Holy Tombs," they house the companions Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun—their Chinese names, of course. The other two companions went to Guangzhou and Yangzhou." The Imam Asim, also spelt Hashim, is said to have been one of the first Islamic missionaries in the region of China. He was a man of c.1000 CE in Hotan. The shrine site includes the reputed tomb of the Imam, a mosque, and several related tombs. There is also a mazaar of Imam Zafar Sadiq.
During the Mongol-founded Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), large numbers of Muslims settled in China. The Mongols, a minority in China, gave foreign immigrants, such as Muslims, Christians, and Jews from West Asia an elevated status over the native Han Chinese as part of their governing strategy, thus giving Muslims a heavy influence. Mongols recruited and forcibly relocated hundreds of thousands of Muslim immigrants from Western and Central Asia to help them administer their rapidly expanding empire. The Mongols used Persian, Arab and Buddhist Uyghur administrators, generically known as semu [色目]("various eye color") to act as officers of taxation and finance. Muslims headed many corporations in China in the early Yuan period.[page needed] Muslim scholars were brought to work on calendar making and astronomy. The architect Yeheidie'erding (Amir al-Din) learned from Han architecture and helped to design the construction of the capital of the Yuan Dynasty, Dadu, otherwise known as Khanbaliq or Khanbaligh, the predecessor of present-day Beijing. The term Hui originated from the Mandarin "Huihui," a term first used in the Yuan dynasty to describe Central Asian, Persian and Arab residents in China.
At the same time the Mongols imported Central Asians to work as administrators in China, the Mongols also sent Han Chinese and Khitans from China to work as administrators over the Muslim population in Bukhara of Central Asia, using foreigners to curtail the power of the local peoples of both lands.
The Yuan dynasty "Han people" classification included Koreans, Bohais, Jurchens and Khitans, and they are included in statistics of intermarriage between Semu and "Han people". Semu and Han intermarried with Mongols. The Haluhu (哈剌鲁) Semu married Koreans, Uighurs Tangwu, Mongols and Han during Yuan rule. Tibetan, Qincha, Uighur, Hui Hui, and Han intermarried with Korean women during the Yuan dynasty.
A rich merchant from the Ma'bar Sultanate, Abu Ali (P'aehali) 孛哈里 (or 布哈爾 Buhaer), was associated closely with the Ma'bar royal family. After falling out with them, he moved to Yuan dynasty China and received a Korean woman as his wife and a job from the Mongol Emperor, the woman was formerly 桑哥 Sangha's wife and her father was 蔡仁揆 채송년 Ch'ae In'gyu during the reign of 忠烈 Chungnyeol of Goryeo, recorded in the Dongguk Tonggam, Goryeosa and 留夢炎 Liu Mengyan's 中俺集 Zhong'anji.
Genghis Khan and his successors forbade Islamic practices like halal butchering, as well as other restrictions. Muslims had to slaughter sheep in secret. Genghis Khan outright called Muslims and Jews "slaves", and demanded that they follow the Mongol method of eating rather than the halal method. Circumcision was also forbidden. Jews were affected by these laws and forbidden by the Mongols to eat Kosher. Towards the end of the Yuan dynasty, corruption and persecution became so severe that Muslim generals joined the Han Chinese in rebelling against the Mongols. The founder of the Ming dynasty, Hongwu Emperor, led Muslim generals like Lan Yu against the Mongols, whom they defeated in combat. As he made more achievements, Lan Yu became more arrogant, self-indulgent and unbridled. He started abusing his power and status and behaved violently and recklessly, sometimes even showing disrespect towards the emperor. Once, after he seized land from peasants in Dongchang (東昌), an official questioned him on his actions, but Lan Yu drove the official away in anger. In another incident, after Lan Yu returned from a campaign in the north, he arrived at Xifeng Pass (喜峰關), where the guards denied him entry as it was already late at night, but Lan led his men to force his way through. When he was away at war, Lan Yu sometimes also demoted officers at his own will and defied orders, to the extent of going to battle without permission. During his appointment as the Crown Prince's Tutor, Lan Yu was unhappy that his post was lower than the dukes of Song and Ying, so he exclaimed, "Am I not fit to be the Imperial Tutor (太師)?" Some Muslim communities had a name in Chinese which meant "baracks" or "thanks," which many Hui Muslims claim comes from the gratitude which Chinese people have towards them for their role in defeating the Mongols.
Among all the [subject] alien peoples only the Hui-hui say "we do not eat Mongol food". [Cinggis Qa’an replied:] "By the aid of heaven we have pacified you; you are our slaves. Yet you do not eat our food or drink. How can this be right?" He thereupon made them eat. "If you slaughter sheep, you will be considered guilty of a crime." He issued a regulation to that effect ... [In 1279/1280 under Qubilai] all the Muslims say: "if someone else slaughters [the animal] we do not eat". Because the poor people are upset by this, from now on, Musuluman [Muslim] Huihui and Zhuhu [Jewish] Huihui, no matter who kills [the animal] will eat [it] and must cease slaughtering sheep themselves, and cease the rite of circumcision.
Chinese Muslim explorer and admiral, Zheng He.
During the following Ming dynasty, Muslims continued to be influential around government circles. Six of Ming dynasty founder Hongwu Emperor's most trusted generals are said to have been Muslim, including Lan Yu who, in 1388, led a strong imperial Ming army out of the Great Wall and won a decisive victory over the Mongols in Mongolia, effectively ending the Mongol dream to re-conquer China. During the war fighting the Mongols, among the Ming Emperor Zhu Yuanzhang's armies was the Hui Muslim Feng Sheng. Zhu Yuanzhang also wrote a praise of Islam, The Hundred-word Eulogy. It was recorded that "His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues." Additionally, the Yongle Emperor hired Zheng He, perhaps the most famous Chinese of Muslim birth although at least in later life not a Muslim himself, to lead seven expeditions to the Indian Ocean from 1405 and 1433. However, during the Ming Dynasty, new immigration to China from Muslim countries was restricted in an increasingly isolationist nation. The Muslims in China who were descended from earlier immigration began to assimilate by speaking Chinese and by adopting Chinese names and culture. Mosque architecture began to follow traditional Chinese architecture. This era, sometimes considered the Golden Age of Islam in China, also saw Nanjing become an important center of Islamic study. Korean (Koryŏ) women's beauty was highly commended and viewed by the Ming Zhengde Emperor's Muslim advisor.
Around 1376 the 30-year-old Chinese merchant Lin Nu visited Ormuz in Persia, converted to Islam, and married a Semu girl (“娶色目女”) (either a Persian or an Arab girl) and brought her back to Quanzhou in Fujian.
Muslims in Ming dynasty Beijing were given relative freedom by the Chinese, with no restrictions placed on their religious practices or freedom of worship, and being normal citizens in Beijing. In contrast to the freedom granted to Muslims, followers of Tibetan Buddhism and Catholicism suffered from restrictions and censure in Beijing.
The Ming policy towards the Islamic religion was tolerant, while their racial policy towards ethnic minorities was of integration through forced marriage. Muslims were allowed to practice Islam, but if they were members of other ethnic groups they were required by law to intermarry, so Hui had to marry Han since they were different ethnic groups, with the Han often converting to Islam.
Integration was mandated through intermarriage by Ming law, ethnic minorities had to marry people of other ethnic groups. The Chinese during the Ming dynasty also tried to force foreigners like the Hui into marrying Chinese women. Marriage between upper class Han Chinese and Hui Muslims was low, since upper class Han Chinese men would both refuse to marry Muslim women, and forbid their daughters from marrying Muslim men, since they did not want to convert due to their upper class status. Only low and mean status Han Chinese men would convert if they wanted to marry a Hui woman. Ming law allowed Han Chinese men and women to not have to marry Hui, and only marry each other, while Hui men and women were required to marry a spouse not of their race.
An anti pig slaughter edict led to speculation that the Zhengde Emperor adopted Islam due to his use of Muslim eunuchs who commissioned the production of porcelain with Persian and Arabic inscriptions in white and blue color. Muslim eunuchs contributed money in 1496 to repairing Niujie Mosque. Central Asian women were provided to the Zhengde Emperor by a Muslim guard and Sayyid Hussein from Hami. The guard was Yu Yung and the women were Uighur. It is unknown who really was behind the anti-pig slaughter edict. The speculation of him becoming a Muslim is remembered alongside his excessive and debauched behavior along with his concubines of foreign origin. Muslim Central Asian girls were favored by Zhengde like how Korean girls were favored by Xuande. A Uighur concubine was kept by Zhengde. Foreign origin Uighur and Mongol women were favored by the Zhengde emperor. Tatar (Mongol) and Central Asian women were bedded by Zhengde. Zhengde received Central Asian Muslim Semu women from his Muslim guard Yu Yong, and Ni'ergan was the name of one of his Muslim concubines.
When the Qing dynasty invaded the Ming dynasty in 1644, Muslim Ming loyalists led by Muslim leaders Milayin, Ding Guodong, and Ma Shouying led a revolt in 1646 against the Qing during the Milayin rebellion in order to drive the Qing out and restore the Ming Prince of Yanchang Zhu Shichuan to the throne as the emperor. The Muslim Ming loyalists were crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin and Ding Guodong killed.
When the Qing dynasty replaced the Ming dynasty starting in 1644, Muslim Ming loyalists in Gansu led by Muslim leaders Milayin and Ding Guodong led a revolt in 1646 against the Qing during the Milayin rebellion in order to drive the Qing out and restore the Ming Prince of Yanchang Zhu Shichuan to the throne as the emperor. The Muslim Ming loyalists were supported by Hami's Sultan Sa'id Baba and his son Prince Turumtay. The Muslim Ming loyalists were joined by Tibetans and Han Chinese in the revolt. After fierce fighting, and negotiations, a peace agreement was agreed on in 1649, and Milayan and Ding nominally pledged alleigance to the Qing and were given ranks as members of the Qing military. When other Ming loyalists in southern China made a resurgence and the Qing were forced to withdraw their forces from Gansu to fight them, Milayan and Ding once again took up arms and rebelled against the Qing. The Muslim Ming loyalists were then crushed by the Qing with 100,000 of them, including Milayin, Ding Guodong, and Turumtay killed in battle.
The Confucian Hui Muslim scholar Ma Zhu (1640-1710) served with the southern Ming loyalists against the Qing. Zhu Yu'ai, the Ming Prince Gui was accompanied by Hui refugees when he fled from Huguang to the Burmese border in Yunnan and as a mark of their defiance against the Qing and loyalty to the Ming, they changed their surname to Ming.
In Guangzhou, the national monuments known as "The Muslim's Loyal Trio" are the tombs of Ming loyalist Muslims who were martyred while fighting in battle against the Qing in the Manchu conquest of China in Guangzhou. The Ming Muslim loyalists were called "jiaomen sanzhong "Three defenders of the faith".
In the Jahriyya revolt sectarian violence between two suborders of the Naqshbandi Sufis, the Jahriyya Sufi Muslims and their rivals, the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims, led to a Jahriyya Sufi Muslim rebellion which the Qing dynasty in China crushed with the help of the Khafiyya Sufi Muslims.
The Muslim revolt in the northwest occurred due to violent and bloody infighting between Muslim groups, the Gedimu, Khafiya, and Jahriyya. The rebellion in Yunnan occurred because of repression by Qing officials, resulting in five bloody Hui rebellions, most notably the Panthay Rebellion, which occurred in Yunnan province from 1855 to 1873, and the Dungan revolt, which occurred mostly in Xinjiang, Shensi and Gansu, from 1862 to 1877. The Manchu government ordered the execution of all rebels, killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion,[page needed] several million in the Dungan revolt. The Hui Muslim population of Beijing was unaffected by the Muslim rebels during the Dungan revolt.
Elisabeth Allès wrote that the relationship between Hui Muslim and Han peoples continued normally in the Henan area, with no ramifications or consequences from the Muslim rebellions of other areas. Allès wrote "The major Muslim revolts in the middle of the nineteenth century which involved the Hui in Shaanxi, Gansu and Yunnan, as well as the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, do not seem to have had any direct effect on this region of the central plain."
However, many Muslims like Ma Zhan'ao, Ma Anliang, Dong Fuxiang, Ma Qianling, and Ma Julung defected to the Qing dynasty side, and helped the Qing general Zuo Zongtang exterminate the Muslim rebels. These Muslim generals belonged to the Khafiya sect, and they helped Qing massacre Jahariyya rebels. General Zuo moved the Han around Hezhou out of the area and relocated them as a reward for the Muslims there helping Qing kill other Muslim rebels.
In 1895, another Dungan Revolt broke out, and loyalist Muslims like Dong Fuxiang, Ma Anliang, Ma Guoliang, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fuxiang suppressed and massacred the rebel Muslims led by Ma Dahan, Ma Yonglin, and Ma Wanfu. A Muslim army called the Kansu Braves led by General Dong Fuxiang fought for the Qing dynasty against the foreigners during the Boxer Rebellion. They included well known generals like Ma Anliang, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fuxiang.
Uyghurs in Turfan and Hami and their leaders like Emin Khoja allied with the Qing against Uyghurs in Altishahr. During the Qing dynasty, China enfeoffed (granted freehold property in exchange for pledged service) the rulers of Turpan, in eastern present-day Xinjiang, and Hami (Kumul) as autonomous princes, while the rest of the Uyghurs in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin) were ruled by Begs.:31 Uyghurs from Turpan and Hami were appointed by China as officials to rule over Uyghurs in the Tarim Basin.
Republic of China
After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, Sun Yat-sen, who established the Republic of China, immediately proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Man (Manchu), Meng (Mongol), Hui (Muslim),[n 1] Tsang (Tibetan), and Miao peoples.
During the rule of the Kuomintang party, the Kuomintang appointed the Muslim warlords of the family known as the Ma clique as the Military Governors of the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia. Bai Chongxi was a Muslim General and Defence Minister of China during this time.
During the Second Sino-Japanese war, the Japanese destroyed 220 mosques and killed countless Hui by April 1941. The Hui Muslim county of Dachang was subjected to slaughter by the Japanese. During the Rape of Nanking the Mosques in Nanjing were flowing with dead bodies after the Japanese slaughters. Japanese smeared Hui Mosques with pork fat, forcing Hui girls to serve as sex slaves and destroyed the cemeteries of the Hui. Many Hui, Turkic Salar, Dongxiang, and Bonan Muslims fought in the war against Japan.
In 1937, during the Battle of Beiping–Tianjin the Chinese government was notified by Muslim General Ma Bufang of the Ma clique that he was prepared to bring the fight to the Japanese in a telegram message. Immediately after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Ma Bufang arranged for a cavalry division under the Muslim General Ma Biao to be sent east to battle the Japanese. Ethnic Turkic Salar Muslims made up the majority of the first cavalry division which was sent by Ma Bufang.
In the Kuomintang Islamic insurgency, Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army forces in Northwest China, in Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, as well as Yunnan, continued an unsuccessful insurgency against the communists from 1950 to 1958, after the general civil war was over.
People's Republic of China
During the Cultural Revolution, mosques along with other religious buildings were often defaced, destroyed or closed and copies of the Quran were destroyed along with temples, churches, Buddhist and Daoist monasteries, and cemeteries by the Red Guards.[page needed] In 1975, in what would be known as the Shadian incident, there was a uprising among Hui in what was the only large scale ethnic rebellion during the Cultural Revolution. In crushing the rebellion, the PLA massacred 1,600 Hui with MIG fighter jets used to fire rockets onto the village. Following the fall of the Gang of Four, apologies and reparations were made. During that time, the government also constantly accused Muslims and other religious groups of holding "superstitious beliefs" and promoting "anti-socialist trends". The government began to relax its policies towards Muslims in 1978.
Restrictions on religious freedoms imposed by the government can vary from region to region. In 1989, China banned a book titled "Xing Fengsu" ("Sexual Customs") which insulted Islam and placed its authors under arrest after protests in Lanzhou and Beijing by Chinese Hui Muslims, during which the Chinese police provided protection to the Hui Muslim protestors, and the Chinese government organized public burnings of the book. In 2007, anticipating the coming "Year of the Pig" in the Chinese calendar, depictions of pigs were banned from CCTV "to avoid conflicts with muslim minorities". This is believed to refer to China's population of 20 million Muslims (to whom pigs are considered "unclean"). Hui Muslims enjoy such freedoms, practising their religion, building Mosques at which their children attend, while Uyghurs in Xinjiang experienced strict controls.
Since the 1980s, Islamic private schools (Sino-Arabic schools (中阿學校)) have been supported and permitted by the Chinese government among Muslim areas, only specifically excluding Xinjiang from allowing these schools because of separatist sentiment there. After secondary education is completed, Hui students are permitted to embark on religious studies under an Imam.
Hui Muslims who are employed by the state are allowed to fast during Ramadan unlike Uyghurs in the same positions, the number of Huí going on Hajj was reported to be expanding in 2014, and Hui women are allowed to wear veils, while Uyghur women are discouraged from wearing them. Uyghurs find it difficult to get passports to go on Hajj.
By 2013, repression of Uyghurs extended to disappearing dissidents and imposing life imprisonment sentences on academics for promoting Uyghur social interactions.
In March 2014, the Chinese media estimated that there were around 300 Chinese Muslims active in ISIS territories. Moving forward, the Chinese government stated in May 2015 that it would not tolerate any form of terrorism and would work to “combat terrorist forces, including ETIM, [to] safeguard global peace, security and stability."
In the five years to 2017, a 306 per cent increase in criminal arrests was seen in Xinjiang and the arrests there accounted for 21 per cent of the national total, despite the region contributing just 1.5 per cent of the population. The increase was seen as driven by the government's "Strike Hard" campaign. In 2017, driven by a 92 percent in security spending there that year, an estimated 227,882 criminal arrests were made in Xinjiang.
Also at that time, the growing of long beards, and the wearing veils or Islamic robes, were banned. All vehicle owners were required to install GPS tracking devices.
The Associated Press also reported in late November that Uighur families were required to allow local government officials to live in their homes as "relatives" in a "Pair Up and Become Family" campaign. While the official was living in a home, the residents were closely watched and not allowed to pray or wear religious clothing. Authorities said that the program was voluntary but Muslims who were interviewed by AP expressed concern that refusal to cooperate would lead to serious repercussions.
In May 2018, the western news media reported that hundreds of thousands of Muslims were being detained in massive extra-judicial internment camps in western Xinjiang. These were called s "re-education" camps and later, "vocational training centres" by the government, intended for the "rehabilitation and redemption" to combat terrorism and religious extremism.
By that time, conditions in Xinjiang had deteriorated so far that they were described by informed political scientists as "Orwellian" and observers drew comparisons with Nazi concentration camps.
In response to the UN panel's finding of indefinite detention without due process, the Chinese government delegation officially conceded that it was engaging in widespread "resettlement and re-education" and State media described the controls in Xinjiang as "intense".
On 31 August 2018, the United Nations committee called on the Chinese government to "end the practice of detention without lawful charge, trial and conviction", to release the detained persons, to provide specifics as to the number of interred individuals and the reasons for their detention, and to investigate the allegations of "racial, ethnic and ethno-religious profiling". A BBC report quoted an unnamed Chinese official as saying that "Uighurs enjoyed full rights" but also admitting that "those deceived by religious extremism... shall be assisted by resettlement and re-education".
Tensions between Hui Muslims and Uyghurs arise because Hui troops and officials often dominated the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts. Xinjiang's Hui population increased by over 520 percent between 1940 and 1982, an average annual growth of 4.4 percent, while the Uyghur population only grew at 1.7 percent. This dramatic increase in Hui population led inevitably to significant tensions between the Hui and Uyghur populations. Many Hui Muslim civilians were killed by Uyghur rebellion troops in 1933 known as the Kizil massacre. During the 2009 rioting in Xinjiang that killed around 200 people, “Kill the Han, kill the Hui.” is a common cry spread across social media among Uyghur extremists. Some Uyghurs in Kashgar remember that the Hui army at the Battle of Kashgar (1934) massacred 2,000 to 8,000 Uyghurs, which causes tension as more Hui moved into Kashgar from other parts of China. Some Hui criticize Uyghur separatism and generally do not want to get involved in conflict in other countries. Hui and Uyghur live separately, attending different mosques.
The Uyghur militant organization East Turkestan Islamic Movement's magazine Islamic Turkistan has accused the Chinese "Muslim Brotherhood" (the Yihewani) of being responsible for the moderation of Hui Muslims and the lack of Hui joining jihadist groups in addition to blaming other things for the lack of Hui Jihadists, such as the fact that for more than 300 years Hui and Uyghurs have been enemies of each other, no separatist Islamist organizations among the Hui, the fact that the Hui view China as their home, and the fact that the "infidel Chinese" language is the language of the Hui.
Hui Muslim drug dealers are accused by Uyghur Muslims of pushing heroin on Uyghurs. Heroin has been vended by Hui dealers. There is a typecast image in the public eye of heroin being the province of Hui dealers. Hui have been involved in the Golden Triangle drug area.
An investigation by the Turkish Anadolu Agency which sent Turkish reporters into Xinjiang published its report and said that there was exaggeration on alleged restrictions and oppression, finding out that children and bearded men were able to go to Mosques but giving religious education to children is not allowed, while government employees experience issues with fasting but Uyghurs working in the private sector are allowed to fast, private citizens can fast and prayer is allowed.
There have been many occurrences of violent sectarian fighting between different Hui sects. Sectarian fighting between Hui sects led to the Jahriyya rebellion in the 1780s and the 1895 revolt. After a hiatus after the People's Republic of China came to power, sectarian in fighting resumed in the 1990s in Ningxia between different sects. Several sects refuse to intermarry with each other. One Sufi sect circulated an anti-Salafi pamphlet in Arabic.
In Tibet, the majority of Muslims are Hui people. Hatred between Tibetans and Muslims stems from events during the Muslim warlord Ma Bufang's rule in Qinghai such as Ngolok rebellions (1917–49) and the Sino-Tibetan War, but in 1949 the Communists put an end to the violence between Tibetans and Muslims, however, new Tibetan-Muslim violence broke out after China engaged in liberalization. Riots broke out between Muslims and Tibetans over incidents such as bones in soups and prices of balloons, and Tibetans accused Muslims of being cannibals who cooked humans in their soup and of contaminating food with urine. Tibetans attacked Muslim restaurants. Fires set by Tibetans which burned the apartments and shops of Muslims resulted in Muslim families being killed and wounded in the 2008 mid-March riots. Due to Tibetan violence against Muslims, the traditional Islamic white caps have not been worn by many Muslims. Scarfs were removed and replaced with hairnets by Muslim women in order to hide. Muslims prayed in secret at home when in August 2008 the Tibetans burned the Mosque. The repression of Tibetan separatism by the Chinese government is supported by Hui Muslims. In addition, Chinese-speaking Hui have problems with Tibetan Hui (the Tibetan speaking Kache minority of Muslims).
The main Mosque in Lhasa was burned down by Tibetans and Chinese Hui Muslims were violently assaulted by Tibetan rioters in the 2008 Tibetan unrest. Tibetan exiles and foreign scholars alike ignore this and do not talk about sectarian violence between Tibetan Buddhists and Muslims. The majority of Tibetans viewed the wars against Iraq and Afghanistan after 9/11 positively and it had the effect of galvanizing anti-Muslim attitudes among Tibetans and resulted in an anti-Muslim boycott against Muslim owned businesses.:17 Tibetan Buddhists propagate a false libel that Muslims cremate their Imams and use the ashes to convert Tibetans to Islam by making Tibetans inhale the ashes, even though the Tibetans seem to be aware that Muslims practice burial and not cremation since they frequently clash against proposed Muslim cemeteries in their area.:19
Since the Chinese government supports and backs up the Hui Muslims, the Tibetans deliberately attack the Hui Muslims as a way to demonstrate anti-government sentiment and because they have a background of sectarian violence against each other since Ma Bufang's rule due to their separate religions and ethnicity and Tibetans resent Hui economic domination.
Muslims live in every region in China. The highest concentrations are found in the northwest provinces of Xinjiang, Gansu, and Ningxia, with significant populations also found throughout Yunnan province in southwest China and Henan province in central China. Of China's 55 officially recognized minority peoples, ten groups are predominantly Muslim. The largest groups in descending order are Hui (9.8 million in year 2000 census, or 48% of the officially tabulated number of Muslims), Uyghur (8.4 million, 41%), Kazakh (1.25 million, 6.1%), Dongxiang (514,000, 2.5%), Kyrgyz (144,000), Uzbeks (125,000), Salar (105,000), Tajik (41,000), Bonan (17,000), and Tatar (5,000). However, individual members of traditionally Muslim groups may profess other religions or none at all. Additionally, Tibetan Muslims are officially classified along with the Tibetan people. Muslims live predominantly in the areas that border Central Asia, Tibet and Mongolia, i.e. Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu and Qinghai, which is known as the "Quran Belt".
The East Asian O3-M122 Y chromosome Haplogroup is found in large quantities in other Muslims close to the Hui like Dongxiang, Bo'an and Salar. The majority of Tibeto-Burmans, Han Chinese, and Ningxia and Liaoning Hui share paternal Y chromosomes of East Asian origin which are unrelated to Middle Easterners and Europeans. In contrast to distant Middle Eastern and Europeans whom the Muslims of China are not related to, East Asians, Han Chinese, and most of the Hui and Dongxiang of Linxia share more genes with each other. This indicates that native East Asian populations converted to Islam and were culturally assimilated to these ethnicities and that Chinese Muslim populations are mostly not descendants of foreigners as claimed by some accounts while only a small minority of them are.
Number of Muslims in China
China is home to a large population of adherents of Islam. According to the CIA World Factbook, about 1–2% of the total population in China are Muslims. The 2000 census counts imply that there may be up to 20 million Muslims in China. According to the textbook, “Religions in the Modern World”, it states that the “numbers of followers of any one tradition are difficult to estimate, and must in China as everywhere else rely on statistics compiled by the largest institutions, either those of the state – which tend to underestimate – or those of the religious institutions themselves – which tend to overestimate. If we include all the population of those designated ‘national’ minorities with an Islamic heritage in the territory of China, then we can conclude that there are some 20 million Muslims in the People’s Republic of China. A 2009 study done by the Pew Research Center, based on China's census, concluded there are 21,667,000 Muslims in China, accounting for 1.6% of the total population. According to the State Administration for Religious Affairs (SARA), there are more than 21 million Muslims in the country. According to SARA there are approximately 36,000 Islamic places of worship, more than 45,000 imams, and 10 Islamic schools in the country. Within the next two decades from 2011, Pew projects a slowing down of the Muslim population growth in China compared to previous years, with Muslim women in China having a 1.7 fertility rate. Many Hui Muslims voluntarily limit themselves to one child in China since their Imams preach to them about the benefits of population control, while the number of children Hui in different areas are allowed to have varies between one and three children. Chinese family planning policy allows minorities including Muslims to have up to two children in urban areas, and three to four children in rural areas.
An early historical estimate of the Muslim population of the then Qing Empire belongs to the Christian missionary Marshall Broomhall. In his book, published in 1910, he produced estimates for each province, based on the reports of missionaries working there, who had counted mosques, talked to mullahs, etc. Broomhall admits the inadequacy of the data for Xinjiang, estimating the Muslim population of Xinjiang (i.e., virtually the entire population of the province at the time) in the range from 1,000,000 (based on the total population number of 1,200,000 in the contemporary Statesman's Yearbook) to 2,400,000 (2 million "Turki", 200,000 "Hasak", and 200,000 "Tungan", as per George Hunter). He uses the estimates of 2,000,000 to 3,500,000 for Gansu (which then also included today's Ningxia and parts of Qinghai), 500,000 to 1,000,000 for Zhili (i.e., Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei), 300,000 to 1,000,000 for Yunnan, and smaller numbers for other provinces, down to 1,000 in Fujian. For Mongolia (then, part of the Qing Empire) he takes an arbitrary range of 50,000 to 100,000. Summing up, he arrives to the grand total of 4,727,000 to 9,821,000 Muslims throughout the Qing Empire of its last years, i.e. just over 1-2% of the entire country's estimated population of 426,045,305. The 1920 edition of New International Yearbook: A Compendium of the World's Progress gave the number "between 5,000,000 and 10,000,000" as the total number of Muslims in the Republic of China.
Islamic education in China
In the two decades up to 2006, a wide range of Islamic educational opportunities were developed to meet the needs of China's Muslim population. In addition to mosque schools, government Islamic colleges, and independent Islamic colleges, more students went overseas to continue their studies at international Islamic universities in Egypt, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Iran, and Malaysia. Qīngzhēn (清真) is the Chinese term for certain Islamic institutions. Its literal meaning is "pure truth."
The vast majority of China's Muslims are Sunni Muslims. A notable feature of some Muslim communities in China is the presence of female imams. Islamic scholar Ma Tong recorded that the 6,781,500 Hui in China predominately followed the Orthodox form of Islam (58.2% were Gedimu, a non-Sufi mainstream tradition that opposed unorthodoxy and religious innovation), mainly adhering to the Hanafi Madh'hab. However a large minority of Hui are members of Sufi groups. According to Tong, 21% Yihewani, 10.9% Jahriyya, 7.2% Khuffiya, 1.4% Qadariyya, and 0.7% Kubrawiyya. Shia Chinese Muslims are mostly Ismailis, including Tajiks of the Tashkurgan and Sarikul areas of Xinjiang.
Chinese Muslims and the Hajj
It is known that Admiral Zheng He (1371–1435) and his Muslim crews had made the journey to Mecca and performed the Hajj during one of the former's voyages to the western ocean between 1401-1433. Other Chinese Muslims may have made the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca in the following centuries; however, there is little information on this. General Ma Lin made a Hajj to Mecca. General Ma Fuxiang along with Ma Linyi sponsored Imam Wang Jingzhai when he went on hajj to Mecca in 1921. Yihewani Imam Hu Songshan went on Hajj in 1925. Briefly during the Cultural Revolution, Chinese Muslims were not allowed to attend the Hajj, and only did so through Pakistan, but this policy was reversed in 1979. Chinese Muslims now attend the Hajj in large numbers, typically in organized groups, with a record 10,700 Chinese Muslim pilgrims from all over the country making the Hajj in 2007.
Islamic Association of China
Established by the government, the Islamic Association of China claims to represent Chinese Muslims nationwide. At its inaugural meeting on May 11, 1953, in Beijing, representatives from 10 nationalities of the People's Republic of China were in attendance. The association was to be run by 16 Islamic religious leaders charged with making "a correct and authoritative interpretation" of Islamic creed and canon. Its brief is to compile and spread inspirational speeches and help imams "improve" themselves, and vet sermons made by clerics around the country.
Some examples of the religious concessions granted to Muslims are:
- Muslim communities are allowed separate cemeteries
- Muslim couples may have their marriage consecrated by an Imam
- Muslim workers are permitted holidays during major religious festivals
- Chinese Muslims are also allowed to make the Hajj to Mecca, and more than 45,000 Chinese Muslims have done so in recent years.
Culture and heritage
Although contacts and previous conquests have occurred before, the Mongol conquest of the greater part of Eurasia in the 13th century permanently brought the extensive cultural traditions of China, central Asia and western Asia into a single empire, albeit one of separate khanates, for the first time in history. The intimate interaction that resulted is evident in the legacy of both traditions. In China, Islam influenced technology, sciences, philosophy and the arts. In terms of material culture, one finds decorative motifs from central Asian Islamic architecture and calligraphy and the marked halal impact on northern Chinese cuisine.
Taking the Mongol Eurasian empire as a point of departure, the ethnogenesis of the Hui, or Sinophone Muslims, can also be charted through the emergence of distinctly Chinese Muslim traditions in architecture, food, epigraphy and Islamic written culture. This multifaceted cultural heritage continues to the present day.
Muslims have often filled remarkable military positions, and many Muslims have joined the Chinese army. Muslims served extensively in the Chinese military, as both officials and soldiers. It was said that the Muslim Dongxiang and Salar were given to "eating rations", a reference to military service.
Islamic architecture in China
In Chinese, a mosque is called qīngzhēn sì (清真寺) or "pure truth temple." The Great Mosque of Xi'an (first established during the Tang era) and the Great Southern Mosque in Jinan, whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, do not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, they follow traditional Chinese architecture. Mosques in western China incorporate more of the elements seen in mosques in other parts of the world. Western Chinese mosques were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques were more likely to look like pagodas.
An important feature in Chinese architecture is its emphasis on symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur; this applies to everything from palaces to mosques. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow; to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription, as in nature herself.
On the foothills of Mount Lingshan are the tombs of two of the four companions that Muhammad sent eastwards to preach Islam. Known as the "Holy Tombs," they house the companions Sa-Ke-Zu and Wu-Ko-Shun—their Chinese names, of course. The other two companions went to Guangzhou and Yangzhou.
Chinese buildings may be built with bricks, but wooden structures are the most common; these are more capable of withstanding earthquakes, but are vulnerable to fire. The roof of a typical Chinese building is curved; there are strict classifications of gable types, comparable with the classical orders of European columns.
As in all regions the Chinese Islamic architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. China is renowned for its beautiful mosques, which resemble temples. However, in western China the mosques resemble those of the middle east, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. In northwest China where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques, there is a combination of east and west. The mosques have flared Chinese-style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets. The first mosque was the Great Mosque of Xian, or the Xian Mosque, which was created in the Tang Dynasty in the 7th century.
Ningxia officials notiffed on 3 August 2018 that the Weizhou Grand Mosque will be forcibly demolished on Friday because it had not received the proper permits before construction. Officials in the town were saying the mosque had not been given proper building permits, because it is built in a Middle Eastern style and include numerous domes and minarets. The residents of Weizhou were alarmed each other by social media and finally stopped the mosque destruction by public demonstrations.
Halal food in China
Halal food has a long history in China. The arrival of Arabian and Persian merchants during the Tang and Song dynasties saw the introduction of the Muslim diet. Chinese Muslim cuisine adheres strictly to the Islamic dietary rules with mutton and lamb being the predominant ingredient. The advantage of Muslim cuisine in China is that it has inherited the diverse cooking methods of Chinese cuisine for example, braising, roasting, steaming, stewing and many more. Due to China's multicultural background Muslim cuisine retains its own style and characteristics according to regions.
Due to the large Muslim population in western China, many Chinese restaurants cater to Muslims or cater to the general public but are run by Muslims. In most major cities in China, there are small Islamic restaurants or food stalls typically run by migrants from Western China (e.g., Uyghurs), which offer inexpensive noodle soup. Lamb and mutton dishes are more commonly available than in other Chinese restaurants, due to the greater prevalence of these meats in the cuisine of western Chinese regions. Commercially prepared food can be certified Halal by approved agencies. In Chinese, halal is called qīngzhēncài (清真菜) or "pure truth food." Beef and lamb slaughtered according to Islamic rituals is also commonly available in public markets, especially in North China. Such meat is sold by Muslim butchers, who operate independent stalls next to non-Muslim butchers.
In October 2018, the government launched an official anti-halal policy, urging officials to suppress the "pan-halal tendency", seen as an encroachment by religion into secular life and a source of religious extremism.
Sini is a Chinese Islamic calligraphic form for the Arabic script. It can refer to any type of Chinese Islamic calligraphy, but is commonly used to refer to one with thick and tapered effects, much like Chinese calligraphy. It is used extensively in mosques in eastern China, and to a lesser extent in Gansu, Ningxia, and Shaanxi. A famous Sini calligrapher is Hajji Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang.
Xiao'erjing (also Xiao'erjin or Xiaojing) is the practice of writing Sinitic languages such as Mandarin (especially the Lanyin, Zhongyuan, and Northeastern dialects) or the Dungan language in the Arabic script. It is used on occasion by many ethnic minorities who adhere to the Islamic faith in China (mostly the Hui, but also the Dongxiang, and the Salar), and formerly by their Dungan descendants in Central Asia.
There is a long history of Muslim development and participation at the highest level of Chinese wushu. The Hui started and adapted many of the styles of wushu such as bajiquan, piguazhang, and liuhequan. There were specific areas that were known to be centers of Muslim wushu, such as Cang County in Hebei Province. These traditional Hui martial arts were very distinct from the Turkic styles practiced in Xinjiang.
The Han Kitab was a collection of Chinese Islamic texts written by Chinese Muslim which synthesized Islam and Confucianism. It was written in the early 18th century during the Qing dynasty. Han is Chinese for Chinese, and kitab (ketabu in Chinese) is Arabic for book. Liu Zhi wrote his Han Kitab in Nanjing in the early 18th century. The works of Wu Sunqie, Zhang Zhong, and Wang Daiyu were also included in the Han Kitab.
A lot of Chinese students including male and females join International Islamic University, Islamabad to gain Islamic knowledge. For some Muslim groups in China, such as the Hui and Salar minorities, coeducation is frowned upon; for some groups such as Uyghurs, it is not.
In October 2018, the BBC News published an investigative exposé claiming based on satellite imagery and testimony that hundreds of thousands of Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities are being held without trial in internment camps in Xinjiang. Some sources quoted in the article say “As far as I know, the Chinese government wants to delete Uighur identity from the world.”
Famous Muslims in China
- Zheng He, mariner and explorer.
- Fei Xin, Zheng He's translator.
- Ma Huan, a companion of Zheng He.
- Generals from the Qing era:
- Generals in the Republic of China:
- Warlords of the Ma clique during the Republic of China era:
- Generals from the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army):
- Du Wenxiu, Ma Hualong and Ma Zhan'ao, leaders of the Panthay Rebellion in Yunnan and the Muslim rebellion in northwestern China.
- Ma Shenglin, great-uncle of Ma Shaowu and rebel during the Panthay Rebellion.
- Liu Bin Di, Hui Kuomintang officer who died while fighting against Uyghur rebels during the Ili Rebellion.
- Ma Zhanshan, guerilla during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
- Ma Xiao, General (Liu Wenhui).
- Zuo Baogui (1837–1894), Qing Muslim general from Shandong who died while defending Pingyang, Korea, from the Japanese.
- Liu Zhi (c. 1660 – c. 1739), Islamic author (Qing dynasty).
- Qi Jingyi (1656–1719), Sufi master who introduced the Qadiriyyah school to China.
- Ma Laichi (1681?-1766?), Sufi master who brought the Khufiyya Naqshbandi movement to China.
- Ma Mingxin (1719–1781), founder of the Jahriyya Naqshbandi movement.
- Ma Wanfu, founder of the Yihewani.
- Ma Qixi (1857–1914), founder of the Xidaotang.
- Ma Yuanzhang, Jahriyya Sufi leader.
- Wang Jingzhai, one of the four famous Imams of the Republican period
- Hu Songshan (1880–1956), Yihewani reformer and Chinese nationalist.
Scholars and writers
- Bai Shouyi, historian.
- Tohti Tunyaz, historian.
- Ma Zhu, Islamic scholar and Southern Ming loyalist.
- Yusuf Ma Dexin, first translator of the Qur'an into Chinese.
- Muhammad Ma Jian, author of the most popular Chinese translation of the Qur'an.
- Wang Daiyu, Master Supervisor of the Imperial Observatory (Ming dynasty).
- Zhang Chengzhi, contemporary author.
- Pai Hsien-yung, contemporary author, son of Bai Chongxi.
- Yusuf Liu Baojun, Contemporary Author and Historian.
- Ma Xinyi, (馬新貽), official and a military general of the late Qing dynasty in China.
- Ma Linyi Gansu Minister of Education
- Tang Kesan, representative of the Kuomintang in Xikang
- Ma Xianda, martial artist.
- Wang Zi-Ping, member of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists (the "Boxers") during the Boxer Rebellion.
- Chang Dongsheng, martial artist and Shuai jiao teacher.
- Noor Deen Mi Guangjiang, calligrapher.
- Currently, "Hui" in Chinese refers to both Islamic and ethnic Hui Chinese. Previously, however, "Hui" referred to Islam and all Chinese Muslims, particularly ethnic Hui and Uyghurs.
- For China Family Panel Studies 2017 survey results see release #1 (archived) and release #2 (archived). The tables also contain the results of CFPS 2012 (sample 20,035) and Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) results for 2006, 2008 and 2010 (samples ~10.000/11,000). Also see, for comparison CFPS 2012 data in Lu 卢, Yunfeng 云峰 (2014). "卢云峰：当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS（2012）调查数据" [Report on Religions in Contemporary China – Based on CFPS (2012) Survey Data] (PDF). World Religious Cultures (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 9, 2014. p. 13, reporting the results of the CGSS 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, and their average (fifth column of the first table).
- Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
- Gladney, Dru C. (2003). "The China Quarterly - Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism? - Cambridge Journals Online". Cambridge.org. 174. doi:10.1017/S0009443903000275. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- "China halts mosque demolition due to protest". Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 10, 2018.
- Armijo 2006
- Dru C. Gladney wrote ISBN 1850653240
- Dru C. Gladney, Muslim Tombs & Ethnic Folklore-Hui Identity, in The Journal of Asian Studies, California, vol.16, No.3, Aug. 1987, p. 498, p. 498 nt.8.
- Safi-ur Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri, 2009, Ar-Raheeq al-Makhtum: The Sealed Nectar: Biography of the Noble Prophet, Madinah: Islamic University of Al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, page 72: The Prophet was entrusted to Halimah...Her husband was Al-Harith bin Abdul Uzza called Abi Kabshah, from the same tribe
- Claude Philibert Dabry de Thiersant (1878). Le mahométisme en Chine et dans le Turkestan oriental (in French). Leroux.
- Maazars in China-www.aulia-e-hind.com/dargah/Intl/Chin
- BBC 2002, Origins
- Abul-Fazl Ezzati, 1994, The Spread of Islam, Tehran: Ahlul Bayt World Assembly Publications, pp. 300,303, 333.
- Lipman 1997, p. 25
- Israeli 2002, p. 291
- Lipman 1997, pp. 26–27
- "TheHalalJournal". Archived from the original on October 6, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2010.
- Herbert Allen Giles (1926). Confucianism and its rivals. Forgotten Books. p. 139. ISBN 978-1-60680-248-9. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- Frank Brinkley (1902). China: its history, arts and literature, Volume 2. Volumes 9-12 of Trübner's oriental series. BOSTON AND TOKYO: J.B.Millet company. pp. 149, 150, 151, 152. Retrieved December 14, 2011.Original from the University of California
- Frank Brinkley (1904). Japan [and China]: China; its history, arts and literature. Volume 10 of Japan [and China]: Its History, Arts and Literature. LONDON 34 HENRIETTA STREET, W. C. AND EDINBURGH: Jack. pp. 149, 150, 151, 152. Retrieved December 14, 2011.Original from Princeton University
- Ting 1958, p. 346
- Israeli 2002, pp. 283–4
- Israeli 2002, p. 283; Tashi or Dashi is the Chinese rendering of Tazi—the name the Persians used for the Arabs
- Israeli 2002, p. 284
- Younus, Farrukh I. (February 18, 2011). "Farrukh Travels Into the Muslim History of China - ارشيف اسلام اونلاين". Islamonline.net. Archived from the original on February 18, 2011. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Imam Asim Shrine and Ancient Tomb". wikimapia.org. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
- "Niya / Minfeng". Central Asia Traveler. Archived from the original on February 3, 2015. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- Lipman 1997, p. 33
- Bulliet et al. 2005
- The Hui ethnic minority, People's Daily, archived from the original on July 6, 2010, retrieved September 19, 2010
- BUELL, PAUL D. (1979). "SINO-KHITAN ADMINISTRATION IN MONGOL BUKHARA". Journal of Asian History. 13 (No. 2): 137–8. JSTOR 41930343.
- 蕭啟慶 (June 27, 2012). 九州四海風雅同：元代多族士人圈的形成與發展. 聯經出版事業公司. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-986-03-2794-6.
- 悠悠历史网 (August 28, 2016). "蒙古族与他族通婚". 悠悠历史网--中国历史及世界历史知识百科！. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016.
- "元代内迁哈剌鲁人的文化变迁". 中国论文网. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016.
- 蔡, 春娟 (April 7, 2004). "2002年国内蒙元史研究综述". 欧亚学研究 《中国史研究动态》. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017.
- David M. Robinson (2009). Empire's Twilight: Northeast Asia Under the Mongols. Harvard University Press. pp. 315–. ISBN 978-0-674-03608-6.
- 马, 娟 (2002). "元代色目高丽通婚举例". 宁夏社会科学. Archived from the original on February 14, 2017. 马, 娟 (2002). "元代色目高丽通婚举例". 宁夏社会科学. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016.
- Angela Schottenhammer (2008). The East Asian Mediterranean: Maritime Crossroads of Culture, Commerce and Human Migration. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 138–. ISBN 978-3-447-05809-4.
- SEN, TANSEN. 2006. “The Yuan Khanate and India: Cross-cultural Diplomacy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries”. Asia Major 19 (1/2). Academia Sinica: 317. Archived 2016-01-27 at the Wayback Machine https://www.jstor.org/stable/41649921 Archived 2016-01-26 at the Wayback Machine.
- Michael Dillon (1999). China's Muslim Hui community: migration, settlement and sects. Richmond: Curzon Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7007-1026-3. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Johan Elverskog (2010). Buddhism and Islam on the Silk Road (illustrated ed.). University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8122-4237-9. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Dru C. Gladney (1991). Muslim Chinese: ethnic nationalism in the People's Republic (2nd illustrated reprint ed.). Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-674-59495-1. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Donald Daniel Leslie (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims" (PDF). The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
- "China's Islamic Communities Generate Local Histories | China Heritage Quarterly". Archived from the original on October 16, 2016. Retrieved April 18, 2016.
- Maria Jaschok; Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-7007-1302-8. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
For instance, in the early years of Emperor Hongwu's reign in the Ming Dynasty ' His Majesty ordered mosques to be built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues'. The Ming Emperor Xuanzong once issued imperial orders to build a mosque in Nanjing in response to Zheng He's request (Liu Zhi, 1984 reprint: 358-374). Mosques built by imperial decree raised the social position of Islam, and assistance from upper-class Muslims helped to sustain religious sites in certain areas.
- Ting 1958, p. 350
- Dillon 1999, p. 37
- Robinson, David M. "Eight The Ming Court and the Legacy of the Yuan Mongols" (PDF). Culture, Courtiers and Competition: The Ming Court (1368-1644). Harvard University Asia Center. p. 384. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- Chen, Da-Sheng. "CHINESE-IRANIAN RELATIONS vii. Persian Settlements in Southeastern China during the T'ang, Sung, and Yuan Dynasties". Encyclopedia Iranica. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Susan Naquin (2000). Peking: temples and city life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-520-21991-5. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- Daniel Leslie, Donald (1998). "The Integration of Religious Minorities in China: The Case of Chinese Muslims" (PDF). The Fifty-ninth George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology. p. 15. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 17, 2010. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- Maria Jaschok; Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-7007-1302-8. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Jiang Yonglin (2011). The Mandate of Heaven and the Great Ming Code. Volume 21 of Asian law series. University of Washington Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-295-99065-1. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
loose-rein (jimi) policy, 104, 124 Lord of Resplendent Heaven, 106 Lord on High, 3, 25, 82, 93, 94 loyalty, ... Donald, 36, 39, 54 Muslims, Qincha Hui, 124, 128, 131 "mutual production and mutual destruction," 79 Nanjing, 22--23
- Gek Nai Cheng (1997). Osman Bakar (ed.). Islam and Confucianism: a civilizational dialogue. Published and distributed for the Centre for Civilizational Dialogue of University of Malaya by University of Malaya Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-983-100-038-0. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Maria Jaschok; Jingjun Shui (2000). The history of women's mosques in Chinese Islam: a mosque of their own (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-7007-1302-8. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Jay A. Levenson; National Gallery of Art (U.S.) (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration. Yale University Press. pp. 477–. ISBN 978-0-300-05167-4.
- Bernard O'Kane (December 15, 2012). The Civilization of the Islamic World. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 207–. ISBN 978-1-4488-8509-1.
- "A rare blue and white screen Zhengde six-character mark and of the period". Bonhams. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Oriental Blue and White, London, 1970, p.29.
- "Crossing Culture in the Blue-and-White with Arabic or Persian inscriptions under Emperor Zhengde (r. 1506-21)" (PDF). Web.arcvhive.org. Archived from the original on March 21, 2012. Retrieved September 17, 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
- Kathleen Kuiper (2010). The Culture of China. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-140-9.
- Britannica Educational Publishing (April 1, 2010). The Culture of China. Britannica Educational Publishing. pp. 176–. ISBN 978-1-61530-183-6.
- Suzanne G. Valenstein (1988). A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 187–. ISBN 978-0-8109-1170-3.
- Susan Naquin (December 16, 2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. pp. 213–. ISBN 978-0-520-92345-4.
- Association for Asian Studies. Ming Biographical History Project Committee; Luther Carrington Goodrich; 房兆楹 (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. Columbia University Press. pp. 309–. ISBN 978-0-231-03801-0.
- B. J. ter Haar (2006). Telling Stories: Witchcraft And Scapegoating in Chinese History. BRILL. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-90-04-14844-4.
- Frank Trentmann (March 22, 2012). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption. OUP Oxford. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-19-162435-3.
- Frank Trentmann (March 22, 2012). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Consumption. OUP Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-162435-3.
- John W. Dardess (2012). Ming China, 1368-1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-4422-0491-1.
- Peter C Perdue (June 30, 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. pp. 64–. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5.
- Frederick W. Mote (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Harvard University Press. pp. 657–. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
- "Culture, Courtiers, and Competition : The Ming Court (168-1644)" (PDF). History.ubc.ca. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 6, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
- "pp. 5, 17" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved May 4, 2016.
- "澳門海洋文化的若干問題" (PDF). Ipm.edu.mo. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 2, 2014. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 298. ISBN 978-0804729338. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0295800554. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0295800554. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Millward, James A. (1998). Beyond the Pass: Economy, Ethnicity, and Empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759-1864 (illustrated ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-0804729338. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Dwyer, Arienne M. (2007). Salar: A Study in Inner Asian Language Contact Processes, Part 1 (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 8. ISBN 978-3447040914. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Lipman, Jonathan Neaman (1998). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. University of Washington Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0295800554. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- WAKEMAN JR., FREDERIC (1986). GREAT ENTERPRISE. University of California Press. p. 802. ISBN 978-0520048041. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- WAKEMAN JR., FREDERIC (1986). GREAT ENTERPRISE. University of California Press. p. 803. ISBN 978-0520048041. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Brown, Rajeswary Ampalavanar; Pierce, Justin, eds. (2013). Charities in the Non-Western World: The Development and Regulation of Indigenous and Islamic Charities. Routledge. ISBN 978-1317938521. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Michael Dillon (December 16, 2013). China's Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement and Sects. Taylor & Francis. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-1-136-80940-8.
- Ring & Salkin & La Boda 1996, p. 306.
- Jonathan N. Lipman; Jonathan Neaman Lipman; Stevan Harrell (1990). Violence in China: Essays in Culture and Counterculture. SUNY Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-7914-0113-2.
- Gernet 1996
- Hugh D. R. Baker (1990). Hong Kong images: people and animals. Hong Kong University Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-962-209-255-6.
- Allès, Elizabeth (January 17, 2007) [September–October 2003]. "Notes on some joking relationships between Hui and Han villages in Henan". China Perspectives. 2003 (49): 6. Archived from the original on June 30, 2010. Retrieved July 20, 2011.
- Dillon 1999, p. 77
- Rudelson, Justin J; Rudelson, Justin B (1997). Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism Along China's Silk Road. Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231107860.
- Lin, Hsiao-ting (September 13, 2010). "4 War and new frontier designs". Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Routledge. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-136-92393-7.
- Lin, Hsiao-ting (September 13, 2010). "4 War and new frontier designs". Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Routledge Studies in the Modern History of Asia. Routledge. p. 137. ISBN 978-1-136-92392-0.
- LEI, Wan (February 2010). "The Chinese Islamic "Goodwill Mission to the Middle East" During the Anti-Japanese War". Dîvân DİSİPLİNLERARASI ÇALIŞMALAR DERGİSİ. 15 (29): 139–141. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- LEI, Wan (2010). "The Chinese Islamic "Goodwill Mission to the Middle East" During the Anti-Japanese War". Dîvân Disiplinlerarasi Çalişmalar Dergisi. cilt 15 (sayı 29): 139–141. Archived from the original on March 18, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014.
- Central Press (July 30, 1937). "He Offers Aid to Fight Japan". Herald-Journal. Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- "让日军闻风丧胆地回族抗日名将". Chinaislam.net.cn. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "还原真实的西北群马之马步芳 骑八师中原抗日 - 历史 - 穆斯林在线-打造全球最大的伊斯兰中文门户网站". Muslimwww.com. Archived from the original on August 27, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Goldman 1986
- The conflict escalated when Communist leftists criticized the conservative Muslims, and when those Muslims took control of local PLA barracks and arsenals in several counties, they made weapons by themselves, arming themselves against perceived outside oppression.This ultimately let the central government to conclude that the movement had become militarily rebellious Antidrug crusades in twentieth century China. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. 1999. pp. 137, 162. ISBN 978-0-8476-9598-0.
- Muslim Chinese. Cambridge: Harvard East Asian Monographs. 1996. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-674-59497-5.
- Israeli (2002), pg. 253
- "ALLÈS & CHÉRIF-CHEBBI & HALFON 2003" (PDF). islamichina.com. p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 29, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2014.
- Beijing Review, Volume 32 1989, p. 13.
- Lim, Louisa (February 6, 2007). "Ban Thwarts 'Year of the Pig' Ads in China". National Public Radio. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved April 5, 2018.
- Senate (U S ) Committee on Foreign Relations (2005). State Dept (U S ) (ed.). Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004. Compiled by State Dept (U S ) (illustrated ed.). Government Printing Office. pp. 159–60. ISBN 978-0160725524. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. pp. 383–. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6.
The People's Republic, founded in 1949, banned private confessional teaching from the early 1950s to the 1980s, until a more liberal stance allowed religious mosque education to resume and private Muslim schools to open. Moreoever, except in Xinjiang for fear of secessionist feelings, the government allowed and sometimes encouraged the founding of private Muslim schools in order to provide education for people who could not attend increasingly expensive state schools or who left them early, for lack of money or lack of satisfactory achievements.
- Su Jinbao (November 8, 2015). "Chinese-Arabic School Muslim Students Graduation Ceremony 临夏中阿学校第二十二届毕业典礼 金镖阿訇讲话2007". Archived from the original on April 29, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2016 – via YouTube.
- Su Jinbao (November 8, 2015). "Chinese Muslim Makes a Speech in Islamic Girl School 老华寺女校举行演讲仪式 上集". Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2016 – via YouTube.
- nottc (September 11, 2011). "Muslim in China, Graduation ceremony of a Islamic girls' school". Archived from the original on April 1, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2016 – via YouTube.
- ALLÈS & CHÉRIF-CHEBBI & HALFON 2003 Archived 2016-04-29 at the Wayback Machine, p. 14.
- Senate (U S ) Committee on Foreign Relations (2005). Annual Report on International Religious Freedom, 2004 (illustrated ed.). Government Printing Office. p. 160. ISBN 978-0160725524. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Szadziewski, Henryk. "Religious Repression of Uyghurs in East Turkestan". Venn Institute. Archived from the original on March 27, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
- Beech, Hannah (August 12, 2014). "If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival?". TIME magazine. Archived from the original on June 13, 2015. Retrieved June 25, 2015.
- Sudworth, John (October 24, 2018). "China's hidden camps". BBC News. Retrieved February 17, 2019.
- Szadziewski, Henryk (November 10, 2018). "'Purify' or perish: the vulnerable lives of China's Uyghur scholars". Hong Kong Free Press. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Mizokami, K. (2014, March 2). China Has an ISIS Problem. The Week
- "China has an ISIS problem". Theweek.com. March 2, 2015. Archived from the original on December 11, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Islamic State executes three of its Chinese militants: China paper". Reuters. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on September 18, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Creery, Jennifer (July 25, 2018). "NGOs note 'staggering' rise in arrests as China cracks down on minorities in Muslim region". Hong Kong Free Press. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- "No place to hide: exiled Chinese Uighur Muslims feel state's long reach". August 19, 2018. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved August 20, 2018.
- Lim, Louisa (November 7, 2018). "China: re-engineering the Uighur". The Interpreter. Lowy Institute. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Mosque protest highlights China's shrinking religious spaces". Hong Kong Free Press/AFP. August 11, 2018. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- Withnall, Adam (November 30, 2018). "China sends state spies to live in Uighur Muslim homes and attend private family weddings and funerals". The Independent. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Sudworth, John (August 10, 2018). "China's hidden camps". BBC News. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
What's happened to the vanished Uighurs of Xinjiang?
- Philip Wen and Olzhas Auyezov (November 29, 2018). "Tracking China's Muslim Gulag". Reuters. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
- Shih, Gerry (May 16, 2018). "Chinese mass-indoctrination camps evoke Cultural Revolution". Associated Press. Archived from the original on May 17, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
Phillips, Tom (January 25, 2018). "China 'holding at least 120,000 Uighurs in re-education camps'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
Denyer, Simon (May 17, 2018). "Former inmates of China's Muslim 'reeducation' camps tell of brainwashing, torture". Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018.
- Thum, Rian (August 22, 2018). "China's Mass Internment Camps Have No Clear End in Sight". Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- Kuo, Lily (August 13, 2018). "China denies violating minority rights amid detention claims". The Guardian. Archived from the original on August 14, 2018. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- "UN 'alarmed' by reports of China's mass detention of Uighurs". BBC News Asia. August 31, 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
- Starr 2004, p. 311.
- Lars-Erik Nyman (1977). Great Britain and Chinese, Russian and Japanese interests in Sinkiang, 1918-1934. Stockholm: Esselte studium. p. 111. ISBN 978-91-24-27287-6. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Beech, Hannah (August 12, 2014). "If China Is Anti-Islam, Why Are These Chinese Muslims Enjoying a Faith Revival". Time magazine. TIME. Archived from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved June 17, 2017.
- Starr 2004, p. 113.
- Van Wie Davis, Elizabath. "Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China". Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. Archived from the original on June 17, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Safran, William (1998). Nationalism and ethnoregional identities in China. Psychology Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-7146-4921-4. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- Zenn, Jacob (March 17, 2011). "Jihad in China? Marketing the Turkistan Islamic Party". Terrorism Monitor. 9 (11). Archived from the original on September 30, 2015. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- Zenn, Jacob (February 2013). "Terrorism and Islamic Radicalization in Central Asia A Compendium of Recent Jamestown Analysis" (PDF): 57. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 4, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
- Safran William (May 13, 2013). Nationalism and Ethnoregional Identities in China. Routledge. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-136-32423-9.Safran William (May 13, 2013). Nationalism and Ethnoregional Identities in China. Routledge. pp. 36–. ISBN 978-1-136-32416-1.
- Huan Gao (July 15, 2011). Women and Heroin Addiction in China's Changing Society. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-136-66156-3.
- Yongming Zhou (1999). Anti-drug Crusades in Twentieth-century China: Nationalism, History, and State Building. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 128–. ISBN 978-0-8476-9598-0.
- Susan K. McCarthy (December 15, 2011). Communist multiculturalism: ethnic revival in southwest China. University of Washington Press. pp. 140–. ISBN 978-0-295-80041-7.
- "Uighurs do not face harsh oppression, Anadolu Agency reporters claim". Daily Sabah. ISTANBUL. July 8, 2015. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015.
- Demick, Barbara (June 23, 2008). "Tibetan-Muslim tensions roil China". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 22, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Mayaram, Shail (2009). The other global city. Taylor Francis US. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-415-99194-0. Retrieved July 30, 2010.
- "Police shut Muslim quarter in Lhasa". CNN. LHASA, Tibet. March 28, 2008. Archived from the original on April 4, 2008.
- Fischer, Andrew Martin (September 2005). "Close encounters of in Inner-Asian kind: Tibetan–Muslim coexistence and conflict in Tibet, past and present" (PDF). CSRC Working Paper Series (Working Paper no.68): 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 3, 2006. Retrieved September 26, 2015.
- A.A. (November 11, 2012). "The living picture of frustration". The Economist. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Barnett 1963, p. 183
- Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Bofeng; Kang, Longli; Jin, Li; Li, Hui (2016). "Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of Chinese Muslim populations Dongxiang and Hui". Scientific Reports. 6: 38656. doi:10.1038/srep38656. PMC 5141421. PMID 27924949.
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2007.
- Woodhead, Linda; Partridge, Christopher; Kawanami, Hiroko (2016). Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations (3rd ed.). Routledge. p. 145. ISBN 9780415858816.
- Counting up the number of people of traditionally Muslim nationalities who were enumerated in the 1990 census gives a total of 17.6 million, 96% of whom belong to just three nationalities: Hui 8.6 million, Uyghurs 7.2 million, and Kazakhs 1.1 million. Other nationalities that are traditionally Muslim include Kyrghyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, Tatars, Salar, Bonan, and Dongxiang. See Dru C. Gladney, "Islam in China: Accommodation or Separatism?", Paper presented at Symposium on Islam in Southeast Asia and China, Hong Kong, 2002. Available at islamsymposium.cityu.edu.hk Archived 2003-02-08 at Archive.today. The 2000 census reported a total of 20.3 million members of Muslim nationalities, of which again 96% belonged to just three groups: Hui 9.8 million, Uyghurs 8.4 million, and Kazakhs 1.25 million.
- "Mapping the Global Muslim Population." Archived 2009-11-26 at the Wayback Machine Pew Research Center. October 2009. See pages 13 and 45.
- "International Religious Freedom Report for 2011". state.gov. Archived from the original on April 12, 2014. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Region: Asia-Pacific". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. January 27, 2011. Archived from the original on October 10, 2017. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- "Exemptions in China's 'one-child policy' - iLook China". iLook China. November 5, 2010. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
- Broomhall 1910, p. 214 Quote: "No definite information has been received concerning Mongolia".
- Broomhall 1910, pp. 196–215
- Broomhall 1910, pp. 216–217
- Ferm 1976, p. 145
- New International Yearbook: A Compendium of the World's Progress. 1920. pp. 155–.
- "Chinese Muslims forge isolated path", BBC News, September 15, 2004, archived from the original on May 14, 2008, retrieved August 5, 2008
- "China: The Best and the Worst Place to Be a Muslim Woman". Foreign Policy. July 17, 2015. Archived from the original on September 9, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- Esposito 1999, p. 458
- Mohammed Rasooldeen; Ali Al-Zahrani (July 6, 2006), Legacy of Chinese Muslim Mariner Relived, archived from the original on June 11, 2013, retrieved September 19, 2010
- "His brother, Ma Lin, went to Mecca and found common cause with the Muslim modernist movements in the Middle East, in contrast to Ma Fuxiang's Confucian - Google Search". google.com.
- Dudoignon, Komatsu & Kosugi 2006, p. 315
- Lipman 1997, p. 209
- A record 10,700 Chinese Muslims to perform Hajj, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Hajj, November 15, 2007, archived from the original on August 9, 2009, retrieved September 19, 2010
- BBC 2002, China Islamic Association
- CHINA HERITAGE NEWSLETTER China Heritage Project, The Australian National University ISSN 1833-8461 No. 5, March 2006
- James Hastings; John Alexander Selbie; Louis Herbert Gray (1916). Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8. T. & T. Clark. p. 893. Retrieved November 28, 2010.
- Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation (1920). Samuel Marinus Zwemer (eds.). The Moslem World, Volume 10. Hartford Seminary Foundation. p. 379. Retrieved June 6, 2011.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- Cowen, Jill S. (July – August 1985), "Muslims in China: The Mosque", Saudi Aramco World, pp. 30–35, archived from the original on March 22, 2006, retrieved April 8, 2006
- Jiang, Shelley (December 13, 2004). Let's Go China 5th Edition. ISBN 9780312320058.
- "China mosque demolition sparks standoff in Ningxia". bbc.com. BBC News. August 10, 2018. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- Osborne, Samuel (August 10, 2018). "Thousands of Muslims protest China's plans to demolish mosque in rare demonstration against government". independent.co.uk. Independent. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- Harris, Rachel (April 7, 2019). "Bulldozing mosques: the latest tactic in China's war against Uighur culture". theguardian.com. Theguardian. Retrieved April 8, 2019.
- "Halal Food in China". Muslim2china.com. Archived from the original on August 23, 2016. Retrieved September 17, 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 21, 2006. Retrieved October 23, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Liu, Caiyu (October 9, 2018). "Officers, Party members urged to strengthen faith". Global Times. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 3, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2006.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Dillon 1999, p. 104
- Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar strangers: a history of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 79. ISBN 978-0-295-97644-0. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- Ruth Hayhoe (1996). China's universities, 1895-1995: a century of cultural conflict. Taylor & Francis. p. 202. ISBN 978-0-8153-1859-0. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
- Sherwood, Harriet. "Women lead Friday prayers at Denmark's first female-run mosque". The Guardian. Copenhagen. Archived from the original on October 17, 2016.
- "First Generation of Female Imams Emerges in W. China". People's Daily Online: English-. August 24, 2003. Archived from the original on October 2, 2016.
- A memorial to him was built.[where?] Aliya Ma Lynn (2007). Muslims in China. University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-88093-861-7. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Called "Master of the Four Religions" due to his knowledge of Islam, Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism. British and Muslim? Archived 2009-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
- ALLÈS, ÉLISABETH; CHÉRIF-CHEBBI, LEÏLA; HALFON, CONSTANCE-HÉLÈNE (2003). Translated from the French by Anne Evans. "Chinese Islam: Unity and Fragmentation" (PDF). Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions. 31 (1): 7–35. doi:10.1080/0963749032000045837. ISSN 0963-7494. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
- Broomhall, Marshall (1910), Islam in China: a neglected problem, China Inland Mission, OCLC 347514. A 1966 reprint by Paragon Book Reprint is available; written with a strong Christian missionary point of view, but contains valuable first-hand evidence and photographs.
- Keim, Jean (1954), "Les Musulmans Chinois", France-Asie, 10, OCLC 457005588
- Ting, Dawood C. M. (1958), "Chapter 9: Islamic Culture in China", in Morgan, Kenneth W. (ed.), Islam—The Straight Path: Islam Interpreted by Muslims, New York: The Ronald Press Company, pp. 344–374, OCLC 378570
- Reischauer, Edwin O.; Fairbank, John K. (1960), East Asia: The Great Tradition, Houghton Mifflin, OCLC 994133
- Barnett, A. Doak (1963), China on the Eve of Communist Takeover, Praeger publications in Russian history and world communism, 130, New York: Praeger, OCLC 412125
- Ferm, Vergilius, ed. (1976), An Encyclopedia of Religion (reprinted ed.), Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-8371-8638-2 1976 reprint is unrevised.
- American Water Works Association (1947), Journal of the American Water Works Association, Volume 39, Part 1, The Association
- Fairbank, John King; Liu, Kwang-ching; Twitchett, Denis Crispin (1980), Late Ch'ing, 1800-1911, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-22029-3
- Forbes, Andrew, Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986; republished Bangkok: White Lotus, 2010)
- Forbes, Andrew ; Henley, David (1997, 2011). Traders of the Golden Triangle. Bangkok: Teak House, 1997; republished Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books, 2011. ASIN: B006GMID5K
- Goldman, Merle (1986), "Religion in Post-Mao China", Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 483 (1): 146–156, doi:10.1177/0002716286483001013
- Gernet, Jacques (1996), A History of Chinese Civilization (2nd ed.), New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-49712-1
- Lipman, Jonathan Newman (1997), Familiar Strangers, a history of Muslims in Northwest China, Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, ISBN 978-0-295-97644-0
- Esposito, John L. (1999), The Oxford history of Islam, United States of America: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-510799-9
- Dillon, Michael (1999), China's Muslim Hui Community, Curzon, ISBN 978-0-7007-1026-3
- Gillette, Maris Boyd (2000), Between Mecca and Beijing: modernization and consumption among urban Chinese Muslims, Stanford University Press, ISBN 978-0-8047-3694-7
- Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002), Dilemmas The Mongols at China's edge: history and the politics of national unity, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0-7425-1144-6
- Rubin, Barry (2000), Guide to Islamist Movements, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 978-0-7656-1747-7
- Israeli, Raphael (2002), Islam in China, United States of America: Lexington Books, ISBN 978-0-7391-0375-3
- Islam in China (650-present), Religion and Ethics, BBC, 2002, retrieved March 15, 2010
- Bulliet, Richard; Crossley, Pamela; Headrick, Daniel; Hirsch, Steven; Johnson, Lyman; Northrup, David (2005), The Earth and Its Peoples, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN 978-0-618-42770-3
- Levene, Mark (2005), Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I. B.Tauris, ISBN 978-1-84511-057-4
- Stéphane A. Dudoignon; Hisao Komatsu; Yasushi Kosugi (2006), Intellectuals in the modern Islamic world: transmission, transformation, communication, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-0-415-36835-3
- Armijo, Jackie (2006), "Islamic Education in China", Harvard Asia Quarterly, 10 (1), archived from the original on September 28, 2007
- Giersch, Charles Patterson (2006), Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier, Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-1-84511-057-4
- Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon, eds. (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Volume 5 of International Dictionary of Historic Places (illustrated, annotated ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1884964046. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- Islam in China, Hui and Uyghurs: between modernization and sinicization, the study of the Hui and Uyghurs of China, Jean A. Berlie, White Lotus Press editor, Bangkok, Thailand, published in 2004. ISBN 974-480-062-3, ISBN 978-974-480-062-6.
- This article incorporates text from The Moslem World, Volume 10, by Christian Literature Society for India, Hartford Seminary Foundation, a publication from 1920 now in the public domain in the United States.
- This article incorporates text from Encyclopædia of religion and ethics, Volume 8, by James Hastings, John Alexander Selbie, Louis Herbert Gray, a publication from 1916 now in the public domain in the United States.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Islam in China.|