Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
|Formation||21 September 1949|
|Type||Constitutional convention (Historical)|
Popular United Front
Organ for Multi-party Cooperation and Political Consultation
Construction for Socialist Modernization
|Wang Yang, CCP|
|Zhang Qingli, CCP |
Liu Qibao, CCP
Pagbalha Geleg Namgyai, Nonpartisan
Tung Chee-hwa, Nonpartisan
Wan Gang, CZGP
Edmund Ho, Nonpartisan
Lu Zhangong, CCP
Wang Zhengwei, CCP
Ma Biao, CCP
Chen Xiaoguang, CDL
Leung Chun-ying, Nonpartisan
Xia Baolong, CCP
Yang Chuantang, CCP
Li Bin, CCP
Bagatur , CCP
Wang Yongqing, CCP
He Lifeng, CCP
Su Hui, TDSGL
Zheng Jianbang, RCCKMT
Gu Shengzu, CDNCA
Liu Xincheng, CAPD
He Wei, CPWDP
Shao Hong, JS
Gao Yunlong, CDNCA
|Xia Baolong, CCP|
|Plenum of the CPPCC (Historical)|
Plenary Session & Standing Committee of National Committee, CPPCC
|Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference|
|Literal meaning||People's Political Consultation|
|Literal meaning||Political Consultation|
|Third alternative Chinese name|
|Literal meaning||New Political Consultation|
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC, Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议), also known as the People's PCC (Chinese: 人民政协, listen) or simply the PCC (政协), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China and a central part of the Chinese Communist Party's United Front system. The body traditionally consists of delegates from the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and its allied front organizations, eight legally-permitted political parties subservient to the CCP, as well as nominally independent members. The CPPCC is chaired by a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. In keeping with the United Front strategy, prominent non-CCP members have been included among the Vice Chairs, examples being Chen Shutong, Li Jishen and Soong Ching-ling.
The National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (Chinese: 中国人民政治协商会议全国委员会; pinyin: Zhōngguó Rénmín Zhèngzhì Xiéshāng Huìyì Quanguo Weiyuanhui, shortened Chinese: 全国政协; pinyin: Quánguó Zhèngxié; lit. 'National PCC') typically holds a yearly meeting at the same time as plenary sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC). The CPPCC National Committee and NPC plenary sessions are collectively called the Quanguo Lianghui ("National Two Sessions").
The organisational hierarchy of the CPPCC consists of a National Committee and regional committees. Regional committees extend to the provincial, prefecture, and county level. According to Article 19, Section 2 of the constitution of the CPPCC, the relationship between the National Committee and the regional committees is one of guidance and not direct leadership. However, an indirect leadership exists via the United Front Work Department at each level.
The CPPCC is intended to be more representative of a broader range of people than is typical of government office in the People's Republic of China. According to Sinologist Peter Mattis, the CPPCC is "the one place where all the relevant actors inside and outside the party come together: party elders, intelligence officers, diplomats, propagandists, soldiers and political commissars, united front workers, academics, and businesspeople." In practice, the CPPCC serves "the place where messages are developed and distributed among party members and the non-party faithful who shape perceptions of the CCP and China." The composition of the members of the CPPCC changes over time according to national strategic priorities. Previously dominated by senior figures in real-estate, state-owned enterprises, and "princelings", the CPPCC in 2018 was primarily composed of individuals from China's technology sector.
The Conference dated prior to the existence of the People's Republic of China. During negotiations between the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang in 1945, the two parties agreed to open multiparty talks on post-World War II political reforms via a Political Consultative Conference. This was included in the Double Tenth Agreement. This agreement was implemented by the National Government of the Republic of China, who organised the first Political Consultative Assembly from January 10–31, 1946. Representatives of the Kuomintang, CCP, Chinese Youth Party, and China Democratic League, as well as independent delegates, attended the conference in Chongqing.
In 1949, with the Communist Party having gained control of most of mainland China, they organised a "new" Political Consultative Conference in September, inviting delegates from various friendly parties to attend and discuss the establishment of a new state. This conference was then renamed the People's Political Consultative Conference. The first conference approved the Common Program, which served as the de facto constitution for the next five years. The conference approved the new national anthem, flag, capital city, and state name, and elected the first government of the People's Republic of China. In effect, the first People's Political Consultative Conference served as a constitutional convention.
From 1949 to 1954, the conference became the de facto legislature of the PRC. In 1954, the Constitution transferred this function to the National People's Congress.
The role that CPPCC plays in the Chinese government is stated in the preamble of the PRC Constitution. In practice, its role and powers are somewhat analogous to an advisory legislative upper house and there have been proposals to formalise this role in the PRC Constitution, making its National Committee a de facto national senate and its committees in all of the administrative divisions the upper chambers of their respective legislative branches.
"The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, a broadly based representative organization of the united front which has played a significant historical role, will play a still more important role in the country’s political and social life, in promoting friendship with other countries and in the struggle for socialist modernization and for the reunification and unity of the country. The system of the multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party of China will exist and develop for a long time to come."
According to state media Xinhua News Agency, it is neither a body of state power nor a policymaking organ, but a platform for participating in state affairs. In practice, CPPCC members serve as advisors for the government and legislative and judicial organs.
The CCP and the aligned "democratic parties" participate in the CPPCC. Besides political parties, CPPCC has also representatives from various sectors of society in its ranks. The parties and groups with representatives to the CPPCC are as follows:
- Chinese Communist Party
- Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang
- China Democratic League
- China Democratic National Construction Association
- China Association for Promoting Democracy
- Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party
- China Party for Public Interest
- September 3 Society
- Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League
- Communist Youth League of China
- All-China Federation of Trade Unions
- All-China Women's Federation
- All-China Youth Federation
- All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce
- China Association for Science and Technology
- All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots
- All-China Federation of Returned Overseas Chinese
- Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong
- Business and Professionals Alliance for Hong Kong
- Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions
- Liberal Party (Hong Kong)
- New Century Forum
- New Territories Association of Societies
- Macau United Citizens Association
- Macau Business Interest Union
- Macau Union of Professional Interests
- Progress Promotion Union/General Union of the Macao Residents' Associations
- Union for Development/The Women's General Association of Macau
The National Committee CPPCC is the national level organization that represents the CPPCC nationally and is made up of deputies coming from various sectors of society. Deputies of the NC-CPPCC are elected for 5 year terms.
In between plenary sessions of the National Committee the duties of the CPPCC are performed by the Standing Committee of the NC-CPPCC. It is responsible for all actions taken by the whole of the National Committee of the Conference or by individual deputies of it.
Past Chairmen of the committee and the current Chairman:
- Mao Zedong
- Zhou Enlai
- Deng Xiaoping
- Deng Yingchao (female, widow of Zhou Enlai)
- Li Xiannian
- Li Ruihuan
- Jia Qinglin
- Yu Zhengsheng
- Wang Yang (since March 2018)
- Current Vice Chairpersons
- Current Secretary-General
- Xia Baolong (2018–incumbent)
The CPPCC National Committee has 10 Special Committees:
- Committee for Handling Proposals (提案委员会)
- Committee for Economic Affairs (经济委员会)
- Committee for Agriculture and Rural Affairs (农业和农村委员会)
- Committee of Population, Resources and Environment (人口资源环境委员会)
- Committee of Education, Science, Health and Sports (教科卫体委员会)
- Committee for Social and Legal Affairs (社会和法制委员会)
- Committee for Ethnic and Religious Affairs (民族和宗教委员会)
- Committee of Culture, History and Study (文化文史和学习委员会)
- Committee for Liaison with Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Overseas Chinese (港澳台侨委员会)
- Committee of Foreign Affairs (外事委员会)
Composition of members
6512 members in the 13th National Committee of CPPCC:
- Seats for Political Parties (536 in all)
- Chinese Communist Party (97)
- Revolutionary Committee of the Kuomintang (65)
- China Democratic League (65)
- China National Democratic Construction Association (64)
- China Association for Promoting Democracy (45)
- Chinese Peasants' and Workers' Democratic Party (45)
- China Zhi Gong Party (29)
- Jiusan Society (44)
- Taiwan Democratic Self-Government League (20)
- Independents (62)
- Seats for People's organizations (307 in all)
- Communist Youth League of China (9)
- All-China Federation of Trade Unions (60)
- All-China Women's Federation (64)
- All-China Youth Federation (28)
- All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce (61)
- China Association for Science and Technology (43)
- All-China Federation of Taiwan Compatriots (15)
- All-China Federation of Returned Overseas (27)
- Seats for Sectoral representatives (1357 in all)
- Sector of Literature and Arts (142)
- Sector of Science and Technology (110)
- Sector of Social Science (71)
- Sector of Economics (149)
- Sector of Agriculture (67)
- Sector of Education (113)
- Sector of Sports (21)
- Sector of Press and Publication (44)
- Sector of Medicine and Health (88)
- Sector of International Friendship Activists (42)
- Sector of Social Welfare and Social Security (37)
- Sector of the Ethnic Minorities (101)
- Sector of Religions (65)
- Specially Invited Hong Kong Representatives (124)
- Specially Invited Macao Representatives (29)
- Other Specially Invited Dignitaries to the Conference (including service personnel of the People's Liberation Army and the People's Armed Police) (154)
The People’s Political Consultative Daily
The People’s Political Consultative Daily (《人民政协报》) is the press window of information on direct policies and viewpoints of the CPPCC. Like most of the Chinese political organs, the newspaper serves as the mouthpiece for the conference. Compared with other governmental newspapers, such as The People's Daily or The PLA Daily, The People’s Political Consultative Daily is not as hardline, but rather smooth in terms of wording.
The following regional committees are modelled after the National Committee with identical composition of deputies elected to them and are each supervised by regional level Standing Committees:
- CPPCC province-level committees
- including regional committees of the autonomous regions and city committees of directly controlled municipal governments (Beijing, Tianjin, Chongqing and Shanghai)
- CPPCC prefecture-level committees
- including autonomous prefectural committees and city committees of sub-provincial and prefectural cities
- CPPCC county-level committees
- including committees of autonomous counties and country-level cities
- Chinese Literature and History Press, the CPPCC's publishing house
- People's organization
- United Front (China)
- List of current members of CPPCC by sector
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Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference