Chinese Red Army

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Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
red army flag with Hammer and sickle on a white star over a red background
Flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Country China
Allegiance Chinese Communist Party
BranchCentral Military Commission
RoleLand warfare
HeadquartersChingkang Mountains (1928-1929)
Juichin (1929-1934)
Yenan (1935-1937)
PatronMao Tse-tung
EngagementsChinese Civil War
Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Traditional Chinese中國工農紅軍
Simplified Chinese中国工农红军
Chinese People's Red Army
Traditional Chinese中國人民紅軍
Simplified Chinese中国人民红军
Abbreviation: Red Army
Traditional Chinese紅軍
Simplified Chinese红军

The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Chinese: 中国工农红军) or Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Chinese Communist Party from 1928 to 1937. It was formed when Communist elements of the National Revolutionary Army splintered and mutinied in the Nanchang Uprising. The Red Army was reincorporated into the National Revolutionary Army as part of the Second United Front with the Kuomintang to fight against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937–1945. In the later stages of the Chinese Civil War they splintered off once again and renamed the People's Liberation Army.


Formation (late 1920s)[edit]

In the summer of 1926, the CCP took over the two divisions of the Chinese Nationalist Party forces and led a military mutiny. Nationalist forces General He Long commanded the 20th Corps to join them. They had a total of 20,000 soldiers and planned to occupy Guangzhou. However, they were defeated before they reached Guangzhou with only a few thousand men surviving the battle. Zhu De led a column of survivors to Hunan Province to fight in the Autumn Harvest Uprising where they were defeated again.[1] After the failed uprisings, Mao Zedong took over command of the 1,000 survivors and established a revolutionary base area in the Jinggang Mountains. The two armies joined forces in the following year. In the winter of 1927, the CCP planned to conquer Guangzhou; however, the uprising failed and thousands of insurgents were killed by the Nationalist forces of General Li Jishen.[2]

Between 1928 and 1929, the CCP launched multiple uprisings. Although most of them failed, several small-scale units were created, such as Mao Zedong and Zhu De's Fourth Army, which totaled about 6,000 men in the summer of 1928 and fought in Jiangxi Province. Also in the summer of 1928, Peng Dehuai, the Nationalist forces Regimental Commander, led a military mutiny. A Nanchang Uprising survivor, He Long, also created an army in his hometown, with former government soldiers as the main fighting force.

Early success (early 1930s)[edit]

In early 1930, more red armies were created and the number of red soldiers grew rapidly. By the summer of 1930, the Chinese Red Army had grown to more than 100,000 soldiers and had several base areas, such as in southern and northern Jiangxi Province, western Hubei Province, and eastern Hunan Province, among others. Peng Dehuai's Fifth Army attacked and occupied Changsha, the capital of Hunan Province. After the attack, Jiangxi Province became the largest base area of the Chinese Red Army. In the autumn of 1930, Deng Xiaoping's Seventh Army left its base area in Guangxi Province.

In 1931, the Chinese Red Army defeated the Nationalist forces three times with a large-scale attack, causing the Nationalist forces to lose nearly 100,000 soldiers. Several smaller red armies came together and formed a group army. In the summer of 1931, General Zhang Guotao arrived at the Fourth Red Army's base area and took over the army. Most of the Fourth Red Army's senior officers were killed by him, including Xu Jishen, Zhou Weijiong, and Xiaofang. Similar movements also occurred in western Hubei Province; in the spring of 1931, Xia Xi took over He Long's army and killed most of his senior officers including Duan Dechang.

In the fall of 1932, the Nationalist forces gathered 300,000 soldiers to attack the Fourth Red Army. Most of the Nationalist forces' future generals participated in this battle such as Huang Wei, Du Yuming, Sun Li-jen, and others. Having lost more than half of its soldiers, the Fourth Red Army was defeated and had to retreat from its base area. He Long's Third Army also sustained significant loses, with more than 10,000 soldiers losing their lives after leaving western Hubei Province. During this time, there were also several battles between the Nationalist forces and Jiangxi Province's First Red Army.

In the spring of 1933, the First Red Army defeated the Nationalist forces' fourth large-scale attack and eliminated two and a half of its elite divisions. Several of the Nationalist forces' generals were also captured. In 1933, the Fourth Red Army arrived at Sichuan Province and recruited more than 80,000 soldiers. This caused Sichuan Province's warlord Liu Xiang to gather 200,000 troops to attack the Fourth Red Army in autumn.

Defeats (mid 1930s)[edit]

In 1934, the Nationalist forces purchased new German weapons and launched a fifth large-scale attack on the Red Army's base area in Jiangxi Province. The First Red Army lost more than 50,000 soldiers in this battle and had to leave Jiangxi Province to establish a new base. This was the beginning of the Long March. About 30,000 soldiers were left to defend the base areas in southern China. During the same time, the Fourth Red Army defeated Liu Xiang's attacks, who lost more than 80,000 soldiers in battle. Before the First Red Army began the Long March, Xiao Ke's Sixth Legion arrived at eastern Guizhou Province and joined forces with He Long's Third Army. After this, the Third Army changed its designation to Second Legion.

In the autumn of 1935, the First Red Army arrived in northern Shaanxi Province with only 6,000 soldiers after losing more than 80,000 along the way. During this same time, the Fourth Red Army moved to northern Sichuan Province and planned to attack Chengdu. By the end of 1935, they had lost more than 40,000 soldiers and were defeated. Therefore, they were forced to move to southern Gansu Province and wait for He Long's Second Legion and Sixth Legion to arrive.

Formation of a new Army (late 1930s)[edit]

In the summer of 1936, the Second Legion, the Sixth Legion and the Thirty-Second Army formed a new group army. It was named the Second Red Army and He Long was tasked with being its commander. The Second Red Army and Fourth Red Army arrived in north Shaanxi Province in the autumn of 1936. Around the same time, roughly 21,000 soldiers from the Fourth Red Army attacked Gansu Province, wanting to find a way to the Soviet Union. By the end of 1936, they were defeated by the Nationalist forces' General Ma Bufang, with more than 6,000 soldiers being captured. Only Xu Xiangqian and other senior officers survived. Because of this great failure, the Fourth Red Army's Commander in Chief Zhang Guotao was stripped of his military power.

When the anti-Japanese war broke out on July 7, 1937, the communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units. The First Red Army was integrated into the 115th Division of the Nationalist forces. The Second Red Army was integrated into the 120th Division of the Nationalist forces. The Fourth Red Army was integrated into the 129th Division of the Nationalist forces. These three divisions had 45,000 soldiers in all. 10,000 soldiers were left to defend the base areas in northern Shaanxi. In southern China, the New Fourth Army's 10,000 soldiers acted as a guerrilla force. At the time of the Second Sino-Japanese War, these two armies contained one million armed men.

After the Communist Party assumed power in 1949, veterans of the Red Army were venerated in mainland Chinese culture and are distinguished from those who joined to fight with the Communist Party after the integration with the Nationalists, or during the second civil war.

Flag of Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army after January, 1934.

Major events[edit]

Main leadership[edit]

Main leadership of the Red Army headquarters[edit]

In May 1933, the Chinese Red Army began to build a military regularization system. They established the Red Army headquarters on the front line to command operations.

Military Posts First Term Second Term Third Term
Chairman of the Military Commission Zhu De(朱德, 1933.5 - 1936.12) Mao Zedong(毛泽东, 1936.12 - 1937.7)
Commander in Chief Zhu De(朱德, 1933.5 - 1937.7)
Chief Political Commissar Zhou Enlai(周恩来, 1933.5 - 1935.6) Zhang Guotao(张国焘, 1935.6 - 1937.7)
Chief of the General Staff Liu Bocheng(刘伯承, 1933.5 - 1937.7)
Deputy Chief of the General Staff Zhang Yunyi(张云逸, 1933.5 - 1934.10) Ye Jianying(叶剑英, 1934.10 - 1937.7)
Director of the General Political Department Wang Jiaxiang(王稼祥, 1933.5 - 1935.6) Cheng Changhao(陈昌浩, 1935.6 - 1936.12) Wang Jiaxiang(王稼祥, 1936.12 - 1937.7)
Deputy Director of the General Political Department He Chang(贺昌, 1933.5 - 1934.10) Yuan Guoping(袁国平, 1934.10 - 1936.12) Yang Shangkun(杨尚昆, 1936.12 - 1937.7)
Director of Security Li Kenong(李克农, 1933.5 - 1935.12) Luo Ruiqing(罗瑞卿, 1935.12 - 1937.7)
Minister of Supply Ye Jizhuang(叶季壮, 1933.5 - 1937.7)
Minister of Public Health Peng Longbo(彭龙伯, 1933.5 - 1933.12) He Cheng(贺诚, 1933.12 - 1937.7)
Minister of Military Station Yang Lisan(杨立三, 1933.5 - 1937.7)

Commanders of group armies[edit]

The Chinese Red Army often claimed they had three group armies, although, by 1931, the Second Red Army was much smaller than the other two.

Army Military Posts First Term Second Term Third Term
First Red Army Commander Zhu De(朱德, 1930.8 - 1935.10) Peng Dehuai(彭德怀, 1935.10 - 1937.8)
Political Commissar Mao Zedong(毛泽东, 1930.8 - 1933.5) Zhou Enlai(周恩来, 1933.5 - 1935.10) Mao Zedong(毛泽东, 1935.10 - 1937.8)
Chief of Staff Zhu Yunqing(朱云卿, 1930.8 - 1931.6) Ye Jianying(叶剑英, 1931.6 - 1937.8)
Director of Political Department Yang Yuebin(杨岳彬, 1930.8 - 1932.6) Yang Shangkun(杨尚昆, 1932.6- 1935.10) Wang Jiaxiang(王稼祥, 1935.10 - 1937.8)
Second Red Army Commander He Long(贺龙, 1936.7 - 1937.8)
Political Commissar Ren Bishi(任弼时, 1936.7 - 1936.10) Guan Xiangying(关向应, 1936.10 - 1937.8)
Chief of Staff Li Da(李达, 1936.7 - 1936.10) Zhou Shidi(周士第, 1936.10 - 1937.8)
Director of Political Department Gan Siqi(甘泗淇, 1936.7 - 1936.10) Zhu Rui(朱瑞, 1936.10 - 1937.8)
Fourth Red Army Commander Xu Xiangqian(徐向前, 1931.11 - 1937.8)
Political Commissar Cheng Changhao(陈昌浩, 1931.11 - 1937.8)
Chief of Staff Zeng Zhongsheng(曾中生, 1931.11 - 1933.10) Ni Zhiliang(倪志亮, 1933.10 - 1936.4) Li Te(李特, 1936.4 - 1937.8)
Director of Political Department Liu Shiqi(刘士奇, 1931.11 - 1932.11) Cheng Changhao(陈昌浩, 1932.11 - 1936.4) Li Zhuoran(李卓然, 1936.4 - 1937.8)

Main leadership of base areas[edit]

In 1930, the Chinese Red Army had established several base areas. Though the designations of the Red Army changed frequently, the main leadership of base areas did not change significantly.

Base Area Duration Main Leadership Remarks
Jiangxi 1929 - 1934 Mao Zedong(毛泽东)
Zhu De(朱德)
Bo Gu(博古)
Zhou Enlai(周恩来)
Northern Jiangxi 1929 - 1934 Kong Hechong(孔荷宠) Betrayed in 1934
Fu Qiutao(傅秋涛)
Fang Buzhou(方步舟) Betrayed in 1937
Eastern Jiangxi 1929 - 1935 Fang Zhimin(方志敏) Died in 1935
Zhou Jianping(周建屏)
Shao Shiping(邵式平)
Northern Fujian 1929 - 1934 Huang Dao(黄道)
Huang Ligui(黄立贵) Died in 1937
Wu Xianxi(吴先喜) Died in 1937
Western Jiangxi and Eastern Hunan 1930 - 1934 Ren Bishi(任弼时)
Wang Zhen(王震)
Xiao Ke(萧克)
Cai Huiwen(蔡会文) Died in 1936
Western Anhui, Eastern Hubei, and Southern Henan 1930 - 1932 Zhang Guotao(张国焘)
Xu Jishen(许继慎) Died in 1931
Xu Xiangqian(徐向前)
Chen Changhao(陈昌浩)
Shen Zemin(沈泽民) Died in 1933
Western Hubei 1930 - 1932 He Long(贺龙)
Zhou Yiqun(周逸群) Died in 1931
Guan Xiangying(关向应)
Xia xi(夏曦) Died in 1936
Northern Sichuan 1933 - 1935 Zhang Guotao(张国焘)
Xu Xiangqian(徐向前)
Chen Changhao(陈昌浩)
Wang Weizhou(王维舟)
Northern Shaanxi 1932 - 1937 Liu Zhidan(刘志丹) Died in 1936
Xie Zichang(谢子长) Died in 1935
Xi Zhongxun(习仲勋)
Eastern Guangdong 1930 - 1931 Gu Dacun(古大存)
Guangxi 1930 - 1932 Deng Xiaoping(邓小平)
Li Mingrui(李明瑞) Died in 1931
Yu Zuoyu(俞作豫) Died in 1930
Wei Baqun(韦拔群) Died in 1932
Hainan 1930 - 1932 Wang Wenming(王文明) Died in 1930
Feng Baiju(冯白驹)


Military rebellion[edit]

In the early phases of its establishment, most of the Chinese Red Army's military officers were made up of former officers of the Nationalist forces, with most of them joining the Red Army secretly between 1925 and 1928. Many of these officers were killed in the first years of the war. The largest rebellion was the Ningdu Uprising which occurred in the winter of 1931. General Dong Zhentang, head of the 26th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army and his 17,000 soldiers were the first to join the First Red Army. After the uprising, the Nationalist Party strengthened its control over the army, making launching a military rebellion more difficult. Despite this, General Zhang Guotao, who regarded the former officers of the Nationalist forces with disdain, lead an attack in the summer of 1931 which killed more than 2,500 of the Fourth Red Army's middle and senior officers who originated from the Nationalist forces.

Ranks and titles[edit]

The Chinese Red Army had no ranks. Officers and soldiers were considered equal. Early on, the officers were elected by the soldiers; however, during the later parts of the war this system was eliminated. From regiment to army, the command system at each level had four commanders: commander, political commissar, chief of staff, and director of political department, with the political commissar holding the most power.

Military education[edit]

As the number of former officers of the Nationalist forces that made up the Red Army decreased throughout the war, the Red Army began to develop military education for the new officers who were formerly farmers. Each base area established its own military academies, usually using captured enemy officers as teachers. The enterprise was very successful, and by 1936 most of the Red Army's military officers were former farmers.


In 1931, commanders determined that there were a number of spies in the Red Army. This issue became particularly prevalent when the First Red Army's Chief of Staff Zhu Yunqing was assassinated by a spy in a hospital. After this, each Red Army began to judge and execute the officers and soldiers who were suspected. In 1931, the First Red Army executed about 4,000 men. The Fourth Red Army and Third Red Army also executed thousands of officers, especially senior officers. These purges were likely one of the reasons why the Third and Fourth Armies were rapidly defeated in 1932.


Typically a Red Army's base area was surrounded by enemy forces. To protect the base area from enemy attack, the Red Army recruited red guards. The red guards were commanded by officers of the local soviet. When large-scale war broke out, the red guards were responsible for the logistical support of the Red Army and supplied new soldiers for the Red Army. For example, in the winter of 1932, Xiao Ke's Eighth Army had 2,200 red soldiers and 10,000 red guards. The red guards' officers were not always loyal. In the spring of 1933, one of the red guards' officers killed 29th Army's commander Chen Qianlun and surrendered to the Nationalist forces.


Usually each Chinese Red Army's army or legion had three or two infantry divisions. Each division has three infantry regiments and one mortar company. In different time the number of one division's soldiers is different. In the beginning every division had about 1000 or 2000 men. From 1933 to 1936, one division usually had about 5000 or 6000 men.


After several uprisings, the Chinese Red Army had several armies in the summer of 1928.

Province Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi 4th Army Zhu De(朱德) 6000
Hunan 5th Army Peng Dehuai(彭德怀) 2000
Hubei 2nd Army He Long(贺龙) 1500
Anhui 11th Army Wu Guanghao(吴光浩) 300


The Chinese Red Army became stronger than before during the summer of 1930.

Province Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi 4th Army Lin Biao(林彪) 5000
6th Army Huang Gonglue(黄公略) 5000
10th Army Fang Zhimin(方志敏) 2000
12th Army Deng Yigang(邓毅刚) 3000
20th Army Hu Shaohai(胡少海) 1500
Hunan 5th Army Peng Dehuai(彭德怀) 4000
8th Army He Zhanggong(何长工) 5000
16th Army Hu Yiming(胡一鸣) 2000
Hubei 4th Army He Long(贺龙) 2000
6th Army Duan Dechang(段德昌) 8000
Anhui 1st Army Xu Jishen(许继慎) 2100
Zhejiang 13th Army Hu Gongmian(胡公冕) 3000
Jiangsu 14th Army He Kun(何昆) 700
Guangxi 7th Army Li Mingrui(李明瑞) 6000
8th Army Yu Zuoyu(俞作豫) 1000


In the summer of 1932, the Chinese Red Army had formed three main forces before the Fourth Encirclement Campaign.

Province Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi 1st Legion Lin Biao(林彪) 20000
3rd Legion Peng Dehuai(彭德怀) 18000
5th Legion Dong Zhentang(董振堂) 17000
12th Army Luo Binghui(罗炳辉) 7400
22nd Army Xiao Ke(萧克) 2000
Northern Jiangxi 16th Army Kong Hechong(孔荷宠) 17000
Eastern Hunan 8th Army Wang Zhen(王震) 2200
12th Division Ye Changgeng(叶长庚) 1200
Eastern Jiangxi 10th Army Zhou Jianping(周建屏) 4000
Western Hubei 3rd Army He Long(贺龙) 14000
Western Anhui and Eastern Hubei 4th Army Xu Xiangqian(徐向前) 30000
25th Army Kuang Jixun(旷继勋) 12000
1st Division Zeng Zhongsheng(曾中生) 3000
Northern Shaanxi 42nd Division Liu Zhidan(刘志丹) 200
Guangxi 21st Division Wei Baqun(韦拔群) 1000


The Chinese Red Army had nearly 200,000 men in the winter of 1934.

Province Army Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi First Red Army 1st Legion Lin Biao(林彪) 22400
3rd Legion Peng Dehuai(彭德怀) 19800
5th Legion Dong Zhentang(董振堂) 12000
8th Legion Zhou Kun(周昆) 10900
9th Legion Luo Binghui(罗炳辉) 11500
Eastern Guizhou Second Red Army 2nd Legion He Long(贺龙) 4400
6th Legion Xiao Ke(萧克) 3300
Sichuan Fourth Red Army 4th Army Wang Hongkun(王宏坤) 20000
9th Army He Wei(何畏) 18000
30th Army Yu Tianyun(余天云) 16000
31st Army Sun Yuqing(孙玉清) 16000
33rd Army luo Nanhui (罗南辉) 10000
Fujian 7nd Army 7th Legion Xun Huaizhou (寻淮洲) 6000
Eastern Jiangxi New 10th Army New 10th Army Liu Chouxi (刘畴西) 4000
Northern Jiangxi 16th Division 47th regiment Xu Yangang (徐彦刚) 1500
Eastern Hubei 25th Army 25th Army Xu Haidong (徐海东) 3100
Northern Shaanxi 26th Army 78th Division Liu Zhidan (刘志丹) 2000
Western Anhui 28th Army 82nd Division Gao Jingting (高敬亭) 1000


Most of Chinese Red Army had arrived in northern Shaanxi Province by autumn 1936. Only a minority of them stayed in southern China.

Province Army Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Northern Shaanxi First Red Army 1st Legion Zuo Quan(左权) 10000
15th Legion Xu Haidong(徐海东) 7000
28th Army Song Shilun (宋时轮) 1500
Second Red Army 2nd Legion He Long (贺龙) 6000
6th Legion Xiao Ke (萧克) 5000
32nd Army Luo Binghui (罗炳辉) 2000
Fourth Red Army 4th Army Chen Zaidao (陈再道) 9000
31st Army Wang Shusheng (王树声) 7000
Gansu Western Route Army 5th Army Dong Zhentang(董振堂) 3000
9th Army Sun Yuqing (孙玉清) 6500
30th Army Cheng Shicai (程世才) 7000
Southern Shaanxi 25th Army 74th Division Chen Xianrui(陈先瑞) 1400
Western Anhui and Eastern Hubei 28th Army 82nd Division Gao Jingting (高敬亭) 2500
Northern Jiangxi 16th Division 47th regiment Fang Buzhou(方步舟) 1200
Eastern Fujian Eastern Fujian Military Command Independent Division Ye Fei(叶飞) 1000
Northern Fujian Northern Fujian Military Command Independent Division Huang ligui(黄立贵) 3000
Southern Zhejiang Southern Zhejiang Military Command Independent Division Su Yu(粟裕) 1600



The Chinese Red Army's weapons were all captured from the enemy army, with the most important and useful weapon being the rifle. In the winter of 1934, the First Red Army's twelve divisions had 72,300 soldiers and 25,300 rifles. Compared to the First Red Army, the Fourth Red Army had more rifles which allowed it to recruit many new soldiers in Sichuan Province. However, the local forces lacked rifles. In the summer of 1934, Xun Huaizhou's Seventh Legion had 6,000 soldiers but only 1,200 rifles, which lead to the Seventh Legion's quick defeat when they attempted to attack Fuzhou.

Machine guns[edit]

Typically every Chinese Red Army's regiment had one machine gun company, with every company having six or more machine guns. The machine gun equipment rate of the Red Army was no less than that of the Nationalist forces' elite troops. This was one of the important reasons why the Red Army was able to defeat the Nationalist forces on many occasions. The most common machine guns were the MG08, ZB vz. 26, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, and Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun.

Chinese Red Army's machine guns in 1936.

Cold weapons[edit]

Due to the lack of rifles, the Chinese Red Army was forced to use cold weapons such as broadswords, spears, sabres, and so on. In particular, most of the soldiers from the Red Army's militia troops were armed with cold weapons at all times. In the autumn of 1930, Zeng Zhongsheng commanded 30,000 red guards who were armed with cold weapons. Despite the overwhelming numbers of red soldiers, 1,000 opposing troops armed with rifles were able to defeat Zeng Zhongsheng's forces.

Submachine guns[edit]

The submachine gun used by the Chinese Red Army was the MP 18. The MP 18s were captured from the Nationalist forces which had purchased them from Germany. The Red Army's elite troops often used these weapons in order to rapidly defeat the enemy forces.


The Chinese Red Army made use of artillery seized from the enemy forces. Most of the time the Red Armies only had mortars, with typically every army having three to five mortars. During the summer of 1930, Peng Dehuai's Fifth Army captured two 75mm mountain guns in Yuezhou, but they lacked the required ammunition.


In the spring of 1931, the Fourth Red Army captured a Nationalist forces' reconnaissance aircraft in eastern Hubei Province. The pilot, Long Wenguang, joined the Red Army and assisted them in attacking the enemy army. Before the Fourth Red Army retreated from its base area, the aircraft was concealed by local farmers and was found again in 1951. The First Red Army also captured two reconnaissance aircraft in 1932.


  1. ^ "PLA History".
  2. ^ Rhoads, Edward J. M.; Friedman, Edward; Joffe, Ellis; Powell, Ralph L. (1964). The Chinese Red Army, 1927–1963: An Annotated Bibliography. Vol. 16 (1 ed.). Harvard University Asia Center. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1tg5nnd. ISBN 978-0-674-12500-1. JSTOR j.ctt1tg5nnd.
  3. ^ a b c d e f 李涛 (2012-11-01). 《湘江血泪:中央红军长征突破四道封锁线纪实》 (in Chinese). 长征出版社. ISBN 9787802047488.
  4. ^ 《中國國民黨史》:“赤匪自稱這次流竄為長征。這次長征開始於民國二十三年十月,到二十四年一月,紅軍主力已到達貴州的遵義。”
Preceded by Armed Wing of the Chinese Communist Party
25 May 1928 – 25 August 1937
Succeeded by