Chinese Red Army

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
red army flag with Hammer and sickle on a white star over a red background
Flag of the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Country China
Allegiance Chinese Communist Party
BranchCentral Military Commission
RoleLand warfare
HeadquartersJinggang Mountains (1928-1929)
Ruijin, Jiangxi Soviet (1929-1934)
Yan'an, Yan'an Soviet (1935-1937)
EngagementsChinese Civil War
Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai, Zhu De
Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Traditional Chinese中國工農紅軍
Simplified Chinese中国工农红军
Chinese People's Red Army
Traditional Chinese中國人民紅軍
Simplified Chinese中国人民红军
Abbreviation: Red Army
Traditional Chinese紅軍
Simplified Chinese红军

The Chinese Red Army, formally the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army[a] or just the Red Army, was the military wing of the Chinese Communist Party from 1928 to 1937. It was formed when Communist elements of the National Revolutionary Army splintered and mutinied in the Nanchang Uprising. The Red Army was reincorporated into the National Revolutionary Army as part of the Second United Front with the Kuomintang to fight against the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937–1945. In the later stages of the Chinese Civil War they splintered off once again and renamed the People's Liberation Army.


Formation (late 1920s)[edit]

Flag of Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army before January 1934.

In the summer of 1926, the CCP took over the two divisions of the Chinese Nationalist Party forces and led a military mutiny. Nationalist forces General He Long commanded the 20th Corps to join them. They had a total of 20,000 soldiers and planned to occupy Guangzhou. However, they were defeated before they reached Guangzhou with only a few thousand men surviving the battle. Zhu De led a column of survivors to Hunan to fight in the Autumn Harvest Uprising where they were defeated again.[1] After the revolt, Mao Zedong organized the rebels into a guerilla army, establishing a revolutionary base area in the Jinggang Mountains.[2]: 40  The two armies joined forces in the following year. In the winter of 1927, the CCP planned to conquer Guangzhou; however, the uprising failed and thousands of insurgents were killed by the Nationalist forces of General Li Jishen.[3]

Between 1928 and 1929, the CCP launched multiple uprisings. Although most of them failed, several small-scale units were created, such as Mao Zedong and Zhu De's Fourth Army, which totaled about 6,000 men in the summer of 1928 and fought in Jiangxi. Also in the summer of 1928, Peng Dehuai, the Nationalist forces Regimental Commander, led a military mutiny. A Nanchang uprising survivor, He Long, also created an army in his hometown, with former government soldiers as the main fighting force.

Early success (early 1930s)[edit]

In early 1930, more red armies were created and the number of red soldiers grew rapidly. By the summer of 1930, the Chinese Red Army had grown to more than 100,000 soldiers and had several base areas, such as in southern and northern Jiangxi, western Hubei, and eastern Hunan, among others. Peng Dehuai's Fifth Army attacked and occupied Changsha, the capital of Hunan. After the attack, Jiangxi became the largest base area of the Chinese Red Army. In the autumn of 1930, Deng Xiaoping's Seventh Army left its base area in Guangxi.

In 1931, the Chinese Red Army defeated the Nationalist forces three times with a large-scale attack, causing the Nationalist forces to lose nearly 100,000 soldiers. Several smaller red armies came together and formed a group army. In the summer of 1931, General Zhang Guotao arrived at the Fourth Red Army's base area and took over the army. Most of the Fourth Red Army's senior officers were killed by him, including Xu Jishen, Zhou Weijiong, and Xiaofang. Similar movements also occurred in western Hubei; in the spring of 1931, Xia Xi took over He Long's army and killed most of his senior officers including Duan Dechang.

In the fall of 1932, the Nationalist forces gathered 300,000 soldiers to attack the Fourth Red Army. Most of the Nationalist forces' future generals participated in this battle such as Huang Wei, Du Yuming, Sun Li-jen, and others. Having lost more than half of its soldiers, the Fourth Red Army was defeated and had to retreat from its base area. He Long's Third Army also sustained significant loses, with more than 10,000 soldiers losing their lives after leaving western Hubei. During this time, there were also several battles between the Nationalist forces and Jiangxi's First Red Army.

In the spring of 1933, the First Red Army defeated the Nationalist forces' fourth large-scale attack and eliminated two and a half of its elite divisions. Several of the Nationalist forces' generals were also captured. In 1933, the Fourth Red Army arrived at Sichuan and recruited more than 80,000 soldiers. This caused Sichuan's warlord Liu Xiang to gather 200,000 troops to attack the Fourth Red Army in autumn.

Defeats (mid 1930s)[edit]

In 1934, the Nationalist forces purchased new German weapons and launched a fifth large-scale attack on the Red Army's base area in Jiangxi. The First Red Army lost more than 50,000 soldiers in this battle and had to leave Jiangxi to establish a new base. This was the beginning of the Long March. About 30,000 soldiers were left to defend the base areas in southern China. During the same time, the Fourth Red Army defeated Liu Xiang's attacks, who lost more than 80,000 soldiers in battle. Before the First Red Army began the Long March, Xiao Ke's Sixth Legion arrived at eastern Guizhou and joined forces with He Long's Third Army. After this, the Third Army changed its designation to Second Legion.

In the autumn of 1935, the First Red Army arrived in northern Shaanxi with only 6,000 soldiers after losing more than 80,000 along the way. During this same time, the Fourth Red Army moved to northern Sichuan and planned to attack Chengdu. By the end of 1935, they had lost more than 40,000 soldiers and were defeated. Therefore, they were forced to move to southern Gansu and wait for He Long's Second Legion and Sixth Legion to arrive.

Formation of a new Army (late 1930s)[edit]

In the summer of 1936, the Second Legion, the Sixth Legion and the Thirty-Second Army formed a new group army. It was named the Second Red Army and He Long was tasked with being its commander. The Second Red Army and Fourth Red Army arrived in north Shaanxi in the autumn of 1936. Around the same time, roughly 21,000 soldiers from the Fourth Red Army attacked Gansu, wanting to find a way to the Soviet Union. By the end of 1936, they were defeated by the Nationalist forces' General Ma Bufang, with more than 6,000 soldiers being captured. Only Xu Xiangqian and other senior officers survived. Because of this great failure, the Fourth Red Army's Commander in Chief Zhang Guotao was stripped of his military power.

When the anti-Japanese war broke out on 7 July 1937, the communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army units. The First Red Army was integrated into the 115th Division of the Nationalist forces. The Second Red Army was integrated into the 120th Division of the Nationalist forces. The Fourth Red Army was integrated into the 129th Division of the Nationalist forces. These three divisions had 45,000 soldiers in all. 10,000 soldiers were left to defend the base areas in northern Shaanxi. In southern China, the New Fourth Army's 10,000 soldiers acted as a guerrilla force. At the time of the Second Sino-Japanese War, these two armies contained one million armed men.

After the Communist Party assumed power in 1949, veterans of the Red Army were venerated in mainland Chinese culture and are distinguished from those who joined to fight with the Communist Party after the integration with the Nationalists, or during the second civil war.

Major events[edit]

Political and ideological roles[edit]

In the view of the Communist Party, participation of the masses in the Red Army was significant beyond the direct concerns of manpower and material support.[6]: 88  It was also viewed as a political process through which the masses would evolve into "masters of the state."[6]: 88  According to Mao, "[T]he Red Army is not an entity for fighting only. Its major task (or function) is to mobilize the masses. Fighting is only a means."[6]: 88  This process involved the Red Army's significant responsibility for educating, organizing, and mobilizing the masses, functioning like the mobile embodiment of the Communist Party in addition to its military roles.[6]: 365  Academic Cai Xiang writes that the Red Army's ability to function in this way helps explain why despite the weak industrial base in revolutionary China, a proletarian party nonetheless successfully developed.[6]: 355 

Main leadership[edit]

Main leadership of the Red Army headquarters[edit]

In May 1933, the Chinese Red Army began to build a military regularization system. They established the Red Army headquarters on the front line to command operations.

Military Posts First Term Second Term Third Term
Chairman of the Military Commission Zhu De (May 1933 to December 1936) Mao Zedong (December 1936 to July 1937)
Commander in Chief Zhu De (May 1933 to July 1937)
Chief Political Commissar Zhou Enlai (1933.5 - 1935.6) Zhang Guotao (1935.6 to July 1937)
Chief of the General Staff Liu Bocheng (1933.5 to July 1937)
Deputy Chief of the General Staff Zhang Yunyi (1933.5 - 1934.10) Ye Jianying (1934.10 to July 1937)
Director of the General Political Department Wang Jiaxiang (1933.5 - 1935.6) Cheng Changhao (1935.6 - 1936.12) Wang Jiaxiang (1936.12 to July 1937)
Deputy Director of the General Political Department He Chang [zh] (1933.5 - 1934.10) Yuan Guoping (1934.10 - 1936.12) Yang Shangkun (1936.12 to July 1937)
Director of Security Li Kenong (1933.5 - 1935.12) Luo Ruiqing (1935.12 to July 1937)
Minister of Supply Ye Jizhuang (1933.5 to July 1937)
Minister of Public Health Peng Longbo (彭龙伯, 1933.5 - 1933.12) He Cheng (1933.12 to July 1937)
Minister of Military Station Yang Lisan [zh] (1933.5 to July 1937)

Commanders of group armies[edit]

The Chinese Red Army often claimed they had three group armies, although, by 1931, the Second Red Army was much smaller than the other two.

Army Military Posts First Term Second Term Third Term
First Red Army Commander Zhu De (1930.8 - 1935.10) Peng Dehuai (1935.10 - 1937.8)
Political Commissar Mao Zedong (1930.8 - 1933.5) Zhou Enlai (1933.5 - 1935.10) Mao Zedong (1935.10 - 1937.8)
Chief of Staff Zhu Yunqing [zh] (1930.8 - 1931.6) Ye Jianying (1931.6 - 1937.8)
Director of Political Department Yang Yuebin [zh] (1930.8 - 1932.6) Yang Shangkun (1932.6- 1935.10) Wang Jiaxiang (1935.10 - 1937.8)
Second Red Army Commander He Long (1936.7 - 1937.8)
Political Commissar Ren Bishi (1936.7 - 1936.10) Guan Xiangying (1936.10 - 1937.8)
Chief of Staff Li Da (1936.7 - 1936.10) Zhou Shidi (1936.10 - 1937.8)
Director of Political Department Gan Siqi (1936.7 - 1936.10) Zhu Rui (1936.10 - 1937.8)
Fourth Red Army Commander Xu Xiangqian (1931.11 - 1937.8)
Political Commissar Cheng Changhao (1931.11 - 1937.8)
Chief of Staff Zeng Zhongsheng [zh] (1931.11 - 1933.10) Ni Zhiliang (1933.10 - 1936.4) Li Te (李特, 1936.4 - 1937.8)
Director of Political Department Liu Shiqi (刘士奇, 1931.11 - 1932.11) Cheng Changhao (1932.11 - 1936.4) Li Zhuoran (1936.4 - 1937.8)

Main leadership of base areas[edit]

In 1930, the Chinese Red Army had established several base areas. Though the designations of the Red Army changed frequently, the main leadership of base areas did not change significantly.

Base Area Duration Main Leadership Remarks
Jiangxi 1929 - 1934 Mao Zedong
Zhu De
Bo Gu
Zhou Enlai
Northern Jiangxi 1929 - 1934 Kong Hechong [zh] Betrayed in 1934
Fu Qiutao
Fang Buzhou (方步舟) Betrayed in 1937
Eastern Jiangxi 1929 - 1935 Fang Zhimin Died in 1935
Shao Shiping
Northern Fujian 1929 - 1934 Huang Dao
Huang Ligui (黄立贵) Died in 1937
Wu Xianxi (吴先喜) Died in 1937
Western Jiangxi and Eastern Hunan 1930 - 1934 Ren Bishi
Wang Zhen
Xiao Ke
Cai Huiwen [zh] Died in 1936
Western Anhui, Eastern Hubei, and Southern Henan 1930 - 1932 Zhang Guotao
Xu Jishen Died in 1931
Xu Xiangqian
Chen Changhao
Shen Zemin Died in 1933
Western Hubei 1930 - 1932 He Long
Zhou Yiqun Died in 1931
Guan Xiangying [zh]
Xia Xi Died in 1936
Northern Sichuan 1933 - 1935 Zhang Guotao
Xu Xiangqian
Chen Changhao
Wang Weizhou [zh]
Northern Shaanxi 1932 - 1937 Liu Zhidan Died in 1936
Xie Zichang [zh] Died in 1935
Xi Zhongxun
Eastern Guangdong 1930 - 1931 Gu Dacun [zh]
Guangxi[7] 1930 - 1932 Deng Xiaoping
Zhang Yunyi
Li Mingrui [zh] Died in 1931
Yu Zuoyu [zh] Died in 1930
Wei Baqun [zh] Died in 1932
Hainan 1930 - 1932 Wang Wenming (王文明) Died in 1930
Feng Baiju


Military rebellion[edit]

In the early phases of its establishment, most of the Chinese Red Army's military officers were made up of former officers of the Nationalist forces, with most of them joining the Red Army secretly between 1925 and 1928. Many of these officers were killed in the first years of the war. The largest rebellion was the Ningdu Uprising which occurred in the winter of 1931. General Dong Zhentang [zh], head of the 26th Route Army of the National Revolutionary Army and his 17,000 soldiers were the first to join the First Red Army. After the uprising, the Nationalist Party strengthened its control over the army, making launching a military rebellion more difficult. Despite this, General Zhang Guotao, who regarded the former officers of the Nationalist forces with disdain, lead an attack in the summer of 1931 which killed more than 2,500 of the Fourth Red Army's middle and senior officers who originated from the Nationalist forces.

Ranks and titles[edit]

The Chinese Red Army had no ranks. Officers and soldiers were considered equal. Early on, the officers were elected by the soldiers; however, during the later parts of the war this system was eliminated. From regiment to army, the command system at each level had four commanders: commander, political commissar, chief of staff, and director of political department, with the political commissar holding the most power.


Red Army recruitment efforts often involved mass meetings and competitions between different villages, counties, or mass organizations on the basis of which could supply the most recruits.[8]: 158  Women's Organizations were mobilized to provided support to the dependents of Red Army soldiers and to prevent women from "pulling on [their menfolk's] tails" to forestall their enlistment.[8]: 157–158 

Coerced recruiting was explicitly forbidden.[8]: 158 

Military education[edit]

As the number of former officers of the Nationalist forces that made up the Red Army decreased throughout the war, the Red Army began to develop military education for the new officers who were formerly farmers. Each base area established its own military academies, usually using captured enemy officers as teachers. The enterprise was very successful, and by 1936 most of the Red Army's military officers were former farmers.


In 1931, commanders determined that there were a number of spies in the Red Army. This issue became particularly prevalent when the First Red Army's Chief of Staff Zhu Yunqing was assassinated by a spy in a hospital. After this, each Red Army began to judge and execute the officers and soldiers who were suspected. In 1931, the First Red Army executed about 4,000 men. The Fourth Red Army and Third Red Army also executed thousands of officers, especially senior officers.


Typically a Red Army's base area was surrounded by enemy forces. To protect the base area from enemy attack, the Red Army recruited red guards. The red guards were commanded by officers of the local soviet. When large-scale war broke out, the red guards were responsible for the logistical support of the Red Army and supplied new soldiers for the Red Army. For example, in the winter of 1932, Xiao Ke's Eighth Army had 2,200 red soldiers and 10,000 red guards. The red guards' officers were not always loyal. In the spring of 1933, one of the red guards' officers killed 29th Army's commander Chen Qianlun and surrendered to the Nationalist forces.


Usually each Chinese Red Army's army or legion had three or two infantry divisions. Each division has three infantry regiments and one mortar company. In different time the number of one division's soldiers is different. In the beginning every division had about 1000 or 2000 men. From 1933 to 1936, one division usually had about 5000 or 6000 men.


After several uprisings, the Chinese Red Army had several armies in the summer of 1928.

Province Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi 4th Army Zhu De 6000
Hunan 5th Army Peng Dehuai 2000
Hubei 2nd Army He Long 1500
Anhui 11th Army Wu Guanghao [zh] 300


The Chinese Red Army became stronger than before and during the summer of 1930.

Province Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi 4th Army Lin Biao 5000
6th Army Huang Gonglue [zh] 5000
10th Army Fang Zhimin 2000
12th Army Deng Yigang (邓毅刚) 3000
20th Army Hu Shaohai (胡少海) 1500
Hunan 5th Army Peng Dehuai 4000
8th Army He Changgong 5000
16th Army Hu Yiming (胡一鸣) 2000
Hubei 4th Army He Long 2000
6th Army Duan Dechang 8000
Anhui 1st Army Xu Jishen 2100
Zhejiang 13th Army Hu Gongmian [zh] 3000
Jiangsu 14th Army He Kun [zh] 700
Guangxi[7] 7th Army Zhang Yunyi 6000
8th Army Yu Zuoyu [zh] 1000


In the summer of 1932, the Chinese Red Army had formed three main forces before the Fourth Encirclement Campaign.

Province Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi 1st Legion Lin Biao 20000
3rd Legion Peng Dehuai 18000
5th Legion Dong Zhentang [zh] 17000
12th Army Luo Binghui [zh] 7400
22nd Army Xiao Ke 2000
Northern Jiangxi 16th Army Kong Hechong 17000
Eastern Hunan 8th Army Wang Zhen 2200
12th Division Ye Changgeng [zh] 1200
Eastern Jiangxi 10th Army Zhou Jianping 4000
Western Hubei 3rd Army He Long 14000
Western Anhui and Eastern Hubei 4th Army Xu Xiangqian 30000
25th Army Kuang Jixun [zh] 12000
1st Division Zeng Zhongsheng [zh] 3000
Northern Shaanxi 42nd Division Liu Zhidan 200
Guangxi 21st Division Wei Baqun [zh] 1000


The Chinese Red Army had nearly 200,000 men in the winter of 1934.

Province Army Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Jiangxi First Red Army 1st Legion Lin Biao 22400
3rd Legion Peng Dehuai 19800
5th Legion Dong Zhentang [zh] 12000
8th Legion Zhou Kun [zh] 10900
9th Legion Luo Binghui [zh] 11500
Eastern Guizhou Second Red Army 2nd Legion He Long 4400
6th Legion Xiao Ke 3300
Sichuan Fourth Red Army 4th Army Wang Hongkun 20000
9th Army He Wei 18000
30th Army Yu Tianyun [zh] 16000
31st Army Sun Yuqing [zh] 16000
33rd Army Luo Nanhui [zh] 10000
Fujian 7nd Army 7th Legion Xun Huaizhou [zh] 6000
Eastern Jiangxi New 10th Army New 10th Army Liu Chouxi [zh] 4000
Northern Jiangxi 16th Division 47th regiment Xu Yangang [zh] 1500
Eastern Hubei 25th Army 25th Army Xu Haidong 3100
Northern Shaanxi 26th Army 78th Division Liu Zhidan 2000
Western Anhui 28th Army 82nd Division Gao Jingting [zh] 1000


Most of Chinese Red Army had arrived in northern Shaanxi by autumn 1936. Only a minority of them stayed in southern China.

Province Army Order of battle Commander Troop strength
Northern Shaanxi First Red Army 1st Legion Zuo Quan 10000
15th Legion Xu Haidong 7000
28th Army Song Shilun 1500
Second Red Army 2nd Legion He Long 6000
6th Legion Xiao Ke 5000
32nd Army Luo Binghui [zh] 2000
Fourth Red Army 4th Army Chen Zaidao 9000
31st Army Wang Shusheng 7000
Gansu Western Route Army 5th Army Dong Zhentang [zh] 3000
9th Army Sun Yuqing [zh] 6500
30th Army Cheng Shicai 7000
Southern Shaanxi 25th Army 74th Division Chen Xianrui 1400
Western Anhui and Eastern Hubei 28th Army 82nd Division Gao Jingting [zh] 2500
Northern Jiangxi 16th Division 47th regiment Fang Buzhou (方步舟) 1200
Eastern Fujian Eastern Fujian Military Command Independent Division Ye Fei 1000
Northern Fujian Northern Fujian Military Command Independent Division Huang Ligui (黄立贵) 3000
Southern Zhejiang Southern Zhejiang Military Command Independent Division Su Yu 1600



The Chinese Red Army's weapons were all captured from the enemy army, with the most important and useful weapon being the rifle.[9] In the winter of 1934, the First Red Army's twelve divisions had 72,300 soldiers and 25,300 rifles. Compared to the First Red Army, the Fourth Red Army had more rifles which allowed it to recruit many new soldiers in Sichuan. However, the local forces lacked rifles. [10] In the summer of 1934, Xun Huaizhou [zh]'s Seventh Legion had 6,000 soldiers but only 1,200 rifles, which lead to the Seventh Legion's quick defeat when they attempted to attack Fuzhou.[11]

Machine guns[edit]

Every Red Army regiment typically had one machine gun company, with every company having six or more machine guns. The machine gun equipment rate of the Red Army was no less than that of the Nationalist forces' elite troops. This was one of the important reasons why the Red Army was able to defeat the Nationalist forces on many occasions. The most common machine guns were the MG08,[12] ZB vz. 26, M1918 Browning Automatic Rifle, and Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun.

Chinese Red Army's machine guns in 1936.

Cold weapons[edit]

Due to the lack of rifles, the Chinese Red Army was forced to use cold weapons such as broadswords, spears, sabres, and other melee implements. [13] In particular, most of the soldiers from the Red Army's militia troops were armed with cold weapons at all times. In the autumn of 1930, Zeng Zhongsheng commanded 30,000 red guards who were armed with cold weapons. Despite the overwhelming numbers of red soldiers, 1,000 opposing troops armed with rifles were able to defeat Zeng Zhongsheng's forces.[citation needed]

Submachine guns[edit]

The Chinese Red Army used various types of submachine guns from Thompsons to MP 18s.[14] [15] They were captured from the Nationalist forces.[citation needed]


The Chinese Red Army made use of artillery seized from the enemy forces.[16] Most of the time the Red Armies only had mortars, with typically every army having three to five mortars. During the summer of 1930, Peng Dehuai's Fifth Army captured four 75mm mountain guns in Yuezhou, but they lacked the required ammunition.[17]


In the spring of 1931, the Fourth Red Army captured a Nationalist forces' reconnaissance aircraft in eastern Hubei. The pilot, Long Wenguang, joined the Red Army and assisted them in attacking the enemy army. Before the Fourth Red Army retreated from its base area, the aircraft was concealed by local farmers and was found again in 1951. The First Red Army also captured two reconnaissance aircraft in 1932.[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Alternatively, the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Revolutionary Army


  1. ^ "PLA History". Archived from the original on 7 April 2023.
  2. ^ Li, David Daokui (2024). China's World View: Demystifying China to Prevent Global Conflict. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393292398.
  3. ^ Rhoads, Edward J. M.; Friedman, Edward; Joffe, Ellis; Powell, Ralph L. (1964). The Chinese Red Army, 1927–1963: An Annotated Bibliography. Vol. 16 (1 ed.). Harvard University Asia Center. doi:10.2307/j.ctt1tg5nnd. ISBN 978-0-674-12500-1. JSTOR j.ctt1tg5nnd.
  4. ^ a b c d e f 李涛 (1 November 2012). 《湘江血泪:中央红军长征突破四道封锁线纪实》 (in Chinese). 长征出版社. ISBN 9787802047488.
  5. ^ 《中國國民黨史》:“赤匪自稱這次流竄為長征。這次長征開始於民國二十三年十月,到二十四年一月,紅軍主力已到達貴州的遵義。”
  6. ^ a b c d e Cai, Xiang; 蔡翔 (2016). Revolution and its narratives : China's socialist literary and cultural imaginaries (1949-1966). Rebecca E. Karl, Xueping Zhong, 钟雪萍. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-7461-9. OCLC 932368688.
  7. ^ a b Han, Xiaorong (2014). Red God: Wei Baqun and His Peasant Revolution in Southern China. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. pp. 147–149. ISBN 978-1-4384-5385-9.
  8. ^ a b c Opper, Marc (2020). People's Wars in China, Malaya, and Vietnam. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. doi:10.3998/mpub.11413902. ISBN 978-0-472-90125-8. JSTOR 10.3998/mpub.11413902.
  9. ^ Peng, Dehuai (1984). "Finding the Communist Party of China (1926-April 1928)". In Grimes, Sarah (ed.). Memoirs of a Chinese Marshal: The Autobiographical Notes of Peng Dehuai (1898-1974). Translated by Zheng, Longpu. Foreign Languages Press Beijing. p. 136. ISBN 0-8351-1052-4. I suggested that the [rifles] be taken out in so many batches as might be decided in a discussion with the County Party Committee, adding that they must be handed over to very reliable persons. Weapons had no class nature in themselves, I said, and they could be used by anybody who possessed them. I stressed the need to ensure secrecy.
  10. ^ Jowett, Philip S. (2013). China's Wars. Rousing the Dragon 1894–1949. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-782-00407-3.
  11. ^ 寻淮洲将军传 (Biography of General Huaizhou) 解放军出版社 (People's Liberation Army Publishing House), 1991
  12. ^ Shaanxi, Chinese Red Army soldiers with machine guns. Harrison Forman. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
  13. ^ From peasant guerrillas to high-tech troops: 80 years of the PLA Chang Ai'ling. China Features. Embassy of the People's Republic of China in the Hellenic Republic.Archived July 5, 2022, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Shaanxi, Chinese Red Army soldiers holding submachine guns. Harrison Forman. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Libraries
  15. ^ Print 1723 c1: 1935/1937. The Long March. Chinese Red Army troopers with German Bergmann sub-machine guns. Print 1723 c2: Chinese Reds (note sickle-and-hammer and red star in flag) with German-made Bergmann submachine guns. Yun Yang, Shensi (Shaanxi). Harrison Forman. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Libraries
  16. ^ Shaanxi, Chinese Red Army soldiers in the field with cannon. Harrison Forman. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Libraries
  17. ^ Peng, Dehuai (1984). "Storming Changsha City (June-September 1930)". In Grimes, Sarah (ed.). Memoirs of a Chinese Marshal: The Autobiographical Notes of Peng Dehuai (1898-1974). Translated by Zheng, Longpu. Foreign Languages Press Beijing. p. 291. ISBN 0-8351-1052-4. There were four 75 mm. field artillery pieces and several howitzers, and the Red Army began to have an artillery unit. After we had taken Yuezhou, British, U.S. and Japanese warships carried out reckless provocations against us as they did at Huangshigang port. They wantonly bombarded the city walls. We mounted our artillery pieces under cover. (Only Wu Ting, a Korean comrade, and I knew how to fire artillery shells then.) When the warships sailed close, we hurled dozens of shells at them. A dozen shells hit home, and they dared not come near the banks. At Huangshigang port we had not been able to shell them because we had no artillery pieces.
Preceded by Armed Wing of the Chinese Communist Party
25 May 1928 – 25 August 1937
Succeeded by