Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
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The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) (traditional Chinese: 中華會館; simplified Chinese: 中华会馆; pinyin: zhōnghuá huìguǎn; Jyutping: zung1wa4 wui6gun2 in the Western United States, Midwest, and Western Canada; 中華公所 (中华公所) zhōnghuá gōngsuǒ (Jyutping: zung1wa4 gung1so2) in the East) is a historical Chinese Association established in various parts of the United States and Canada with large populations of Chinese. It is also known by other names such as Chong Wa Benevolent Association in Seattle, Washington and United Chinese Society in Honolulu, Hawaii.
The six original Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Associations in San Francisco were already operating as separate entities with some degree of mutual coordination before the first Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association was formally established in 1882.
The Six Companies consisted of the six most important Chinese district associations of California at that time: the Sam Yup Company, Yeong Wo Company, Kong Chow Company, Ning Yung Company, Hop Wo Company, and Yan Wo Company. Among their early efforts, they attempted to deter prostitution in the Chinese community, to encourage Chinese immigrants to lead moral lives, and to discourage what they described as excessive continuing Chinese immigration creating hostility toward Chinese already in America. In 1875, they endorsed the position that continued Chinese immigration was resulting in a general lowering of wages, both for whites and for Chinese already in America.
New York City
In New York City, the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) was established in 1883. The parent organization of the Chinese Community Centre, the CCBA was founded in 1883 and has represented and served the needs of Chinese Americans in New York City ever since. Historically it has performed a quasi-governmental role in the Chinese community. Throughout its history, business ownership has been a goal of many residents of Chinatown, and has been supported both financially, and through training, by the CCBA. Today there are local CCBA agencies in 26 cities with substantial Chinese populations across North America.
Currently, the CCBA represents the Chinese Americans living in the Greater New York Metro area. Internally, the CCBA is the hinge that keeps the Chinese American community intact and vigorous. Specifically, the CCBA:
- Provides social services
- Provides personal and commercial conflict resolution and mediations
- Promotes Chinese traditions and cultural heritage
- Serves as a bridge between Chinese American immigrants and the mainstream groups
- Promotes Chinese American interests
- Engages in charitable activities
- Sponsors educational and recreational activities
- Sponsors and promotes youth services
- Provides and advocates for small businesses
In New York City, the CCBA is an umbrella organization of 60 member organizations representing a cross-section of New York’s Chinese community. They include professional and trade organizations such as the Chinese Chamber of Commerce and the Chinese American Restaurant Association; civic organizations such as the American Legion, Lt. Lam Lau Post; religious, cultural and women’s organizations; fellow-provincial organization such as the Hoy Sun Ning Yung Association and the Lin Sing Association; and family organizations such as the Lee, Eng, and Chan Family Association.
CCBA spearheaded the move to form the Chinese Voters Federation in May 2004 to encourage qualified Chinese American citizens to register and vote in the 2004 Presidential election, a community-wide effort that produced an increase of 24.2% in the number of Chinese American voters in Chinatown. It strongly supported the formation of the Chinatown Partnership Local Development Corporation, the Asian Job Service Employer Committee and the Greater New York Chinese Community Dollars for Scholars program, all of which benefit the Chinese communities in many important ways.
Immediately following the earthquake and tsunami disasters in south Asia, CCBA led an emergency community-wide campaign to raise much-needed funds for the victims, a drive that raised more than $500,000 for the American Red Cross Emergency Response Fund. In September 2005, right after the Hurricane Katrina disaster, CCBA and Sing Tao Daily joined together and raised $170,000 for the victims.
Recently, CCBA solidified the relations with different City departments and agencies to solve many on-going problems in Chinatown, including insufficient parking spaces, illegal enforcement of parking regulations, confusing sanitation enforcement regulations, etc. Working closely with the NYPD, the NYPD community affairs bureau now hosts monthly seminars on different safety topics at the CCBA. Its efforts have resulted in the establishment of a direct channel to the government without language barriers.
The CCBA also works with many mainstream organizations to provide services to the Chinese American community, such as the Visiting Nurse Service of New York and the American Cancer Society. In December 2006, CCBA and the American Red Cross of Greater New York signed a Memorandum of Understanding to coordinate programs in Chinatown that will help prepare and train the Chinese community for any kind of emergency.
The CCBA fulfills its functions by working closely with local businesses and residents as well as by maintaining close contact with Chinese American organizations located throughout North America and integration into the mainstream of American society.
Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of New England
The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of New England, popularly known as CCBA, is a tax-exempt organization established in 1923. Currently with 35 members consisting of family associations and community organizations, CCBA serves as the umbrella organization for the Chinese communities of New England. Originally located at 14 Oxford Street, it relocated to its current address at 90 Tyler Street in the 1980s when the City of Boston sold the building that was the Quincy Elementary School to CCBA for one dollar.
A president, an English secretary, a Chinese secretary, a treasurer, and an auditor complete the executive board of directors who manage the daily affairs of CCBA with the help of several office workers. Unlike the 43 members of the board of directors who are delegate representatives from member organizations, the 5 members of the executive board is elected by the board of directors biennially.
CCBA is also home to two family associations, a federal credit union, Chinese and English classes, a magazine and media services group, and the well-known Chinatown Crime Watch program, where volunteers patrol the streets of Chinatown daily to provide the ever-present vigilance needed to keep crime rate at a minimum around the neighborhood.
Besides sponsoring activities, CCBA manages Tai Tung Village and Waterford Place, apartment complexes that provide the much needed affordable housing to the Chinese community. Partnering with Chinatown Main Street and other organizations, CCBA coordinates activities such as the lion dance celebration for the Lunar New Year, the annual August Moon Festival to attract visitors to Chinatown to further economic growth in Chinatown, and hosts dignitary visits to the Chinatown community.
In Seattle, Washington, the Chong Wa Association was established around 1915. New information however shows that it was already in existence in 1892. (see link below: Chinese in Northwest America Research Committee).
The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association has several branches in the United States and Canada including in:
- Augusta, Georgia - 548 Walker Street
- Bakersfield, California - 2128 N Street
- Boston, Massachusetts - 90 Tyler Street
- Chicago, Illinois - 250 West 22nd Place
- Cleveland, Ohio - 2154 Rockwell Avenue
- Detroit, Michigan - 415 Peterboro Street
- Edmonton, Alberta - 9645 101A Avenue NW
- Fresno, California - 949 Waterman Avenue
- Honolulu, Hawaii - 42 North King Street
- Houston, Texas - 10303 Westoffice Drive
- Littleton, Colorado - 1100 West Littleton Boulevard
- Los Angeles, California - 925 North Broadway
- Marysville, California - 226 1st Street
- Montreal, Quebec - 112 La Gauchetiere West
- New York City, New York - 62 Mott Street
- Oakland, California - 373 9th Street
- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - 930 Race Street
- Portland, Oregon - 315 NW Davis Street
- Regina, Saskatchewan - 1817 Osler Street
- Sacramento, California - 915 Fourth Street
- Salinas, California - 1 California Street
- San Diego, California - 428 3rd Avenue
- San Francisco, California - 843 Stockton Street
- Seattle, Washington - 522 Seventh Avenue South
- Stockton, California - 212 East Lafayette Street
- Toronto, Ontario - 84 Augusta Avenue
- Vancouver, British Columbia - 108 East Pender Street
- Victoria, British Columbia - 636 Fisgard Street
- Washington, D.C. - 510 I (Eye) Street NW
- Windsor, Ontario - 436 Wyandotte Street West
- Chinatown, San Francisco, California
- Chinese Clan Association
- List of Chinese American Associations
- Tong (organization)
- "The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huiguan System", p. 62 in Him Mark Lai, Becoming Chinese American, Rowman Altamira (2004). ISBN 0-7591-0458-1.
- "A Memorial…", p. 18–23 in [Yung et al. 2006], is an example of a document jointly issued by the Six Companies as early as 1876.
- Lai, Him Mark. "Historical Development of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association/Huiguan System" (PDF). The Him Mark Lai Digital Archive. Chinese Historical Society of America. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- [Yung et al. 2006] p. 23.
- [Yung et al. 2006] p. 20 et. seq.
- [Yung et al. 2006] p. 25.
- CCBA (New York) official site.
- Chong Wa Association (Seattle) on vrseattle.com
- The C.C.B.A. in North America
- Randolph Delehanty, Chinatown Introduction: a Tale of Four Cities, Chronicle Books, sfgate.com. Undated, accessed online 17 October 2007.
- Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association and Chinese Community Center, Inc (New York City), official site. Accessed online 17 October 2007.
- Chong Wa Association[permanent dead link] (Seattle) on vrseattle.com. Accessed online 17 October 2007.
- http://www.zsnews.cn/zt/zsofa/2006/07/25/581713.shtml (In Simplified Chinese)
- "Documents of the Chinese Six Companies Pertaining to Immigration", p. 17–25 (especially "A Memorial from Representative Chinamen in America", p. 18–23) in Judy Yung, Gordon H. Chang, and Him Mark Lai (compilers and editors), Chinese American Voices, University of California Press (2006). ISBN 0-520-24310-2.