Chinese South Africans
|Regions with significant populations|
|Durban · Johannesburg · Port Elizabeth.|
|English · Cantonese · Mandarin · Taiwanese|
|Related ethnic groups|
Chinese South Africans (simplified Chinese: 华裔南非人; traditional Chinese: 華裔南非人) are overseas Chinese who reside in South Africa—both those whose ancestors came to South Africa in the early 20th century, until Chinese immigration was banned under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904, Taiwanese industrialists who arrived in the 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s, and post-apartheid immigrants (predominantly from mainland China) to South Africa, who now outnumber locally-born Chinese South Africans.
- 1 History
- 2 Immigration of Mainland Chinese
- 3 Notable Chinese South Africans
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
|South African Chinese Population, 1904 - 1936:177|
The first Chinese to settle in South Africa were prisoners, usually debtors, exiled from Batavia by the Dutch to their then newly founded colony at Cape Town in 1660. Originally the Dutch wanted to recruit Chinese settlers to settle in the colony as farmers, thereby helping establish the colony and create a tax base so the colony would be less of a drain on Dutch coffers. However the Dutch failed to find anyone in the Chinese community in Batavia who was prepared to volunteer to go to such a far off place. The first Chinese person recorded by the Dutch to arrive in the Cape was a convict by the name of Ytcho Wancho (almost certainly a Dutch version of his original Chinese name). There were also some free Chinese in the Dutch Cape Colony. They made a living through fishing and farming and traded their produce for other required goods. From 1660 until the late 19th century the number of Chinese people in the Cape Colony never exceeded 100.:5–6
Chinese people began arriving in large numbers in South Africa in the 1870s through to the early 20th century initially in hopes of making their fortune on the diamond and gold mines in Kimberley and the Witwatersrand respectively. Most were independent immigrants mostly coming from Guangdong Province then known as Canton. Due to anti-Chinese feeling and racial discrimination at the time they were prevented from obtaining mining contracts and so became entrepreneurs and small business owners instead.
The Chinese community in South Africa grew steadily throughout the remainder of the 19th century, bolstered by new arrivals from China. The Anglo-Boer War, fought between 1898 and 1902, pushed some Chinese South Africans out of the Witwatersrand and into areas such as Port Elizabeth and East London in the Eastern Cape. Areas recorded to have Chinese populations moving in to settle at the time include Pageview in Johannesburg that was declared a non-white area in the late 1800s and known as the "Malay Location" Large-scale immigration into South Africa during this time was prohibited by the Transvaal Immigration Restriction Act of 1902 and the Cape Chinese Exclusion Act of 1904. A host of discriminatory laws similar to the anti-Chinese laws that sought to restrict trade, land ownership and citizenship were also enacted during this time. These laws were largely made popular by a general anti-Chinese feeling across the western world during the early 1900s and the arrival of over 60,000 indentured Chinese miners after the second Anglo-Boer War.
These early immigrants arriving between the 1870s and early 1900s are the ancestors of most of South Africa's first Chinese community and number some 10,000 individuals today.
Contracted gold miners (1904-1910)
There were many complicated reasons why the British chose to import Chinese labour to use on the mines. After the Anglo-Boer War, production on the gold mines of the Witwatersrand was very low due to a lack of labour. The British government was eager to get these mines back online as quickly as possible as part of their overall effort to rebuild the war-torn country.
Because of the war, unskilled black laborers had returned to rural areas and were more inclined to work on rebuilding infrastructure as mining was more dangerous. Unskilled white labour was being phased out because it was deemed too expensive. The British found recruiting and importing labour from east Asia the most expedient way to solve this problem.:104
Between 1904 and 1910, over 63,000 contracted miners were brought in to work the mines of the Witwatersrand. Most of these contractors were recruited from the provinces of Chihli (Zhili), Shantung (Shandong) and Honan (Henan) in China.:105 They were repatriated after 1910, because of strong White opposition to their presence, similar to anti-Asian sentiments in the western United States, particularly California at the same time. It is a myth that the contracted miners brought into South Africa at this time are the forefathers of much of South Africa's Chinese population.:103–104
Herbert Hoover, who would become the 31st U.S. President, was a director of Chinese Engineering and Mining Corporation (CEMC) when it became a supplier of coolie (Asian) labor for South African mines. The first shipment of 2,000 coolies arrived in Durban from Qinhuangdao in July 1904. By 1906, the total number of Chinese coolies increased to 50,000, almost entirely recruited and shipped by CEMC. When the living and working conditions of the laborers became known, public opposition to the scheme grew and questions were asked in the British Parliament. The scheme was abandoned in 1911.
The mass importation of Chinese labourers to work on the gold mines contributed to the fall from power of the conservative government in the United Kingdom. However, it did stimulate to the economic recovery of South Africa after the Anglo-Boer War by once again making the mines of the Witwatersrand the most productive gold mines in the world.:103
Passive resistance campaign (1906-1913)
In 1906, about 1000 Chinese joined Indian protesters led by Mahatma Gandhi to march against laws barring Asians in the Transvaal Colony from purchasing land. In 1907, the government of the Transvaal Colony passed the Transvaal Asiatic Registration Act that required the Indian and Chinese populations in the Transvaal to be registered and for males to be fingerprinted and carry pass books. The Chinese Association made a written declaration saying that the Chinese would not register for passes and would not interact with those that did. Mahatma Gandhi started a campaign of passive resistance to protest the legislation that was supported by the Indian and Chinese communities. The secretary of the Chinese Association informed Gandhi that the Chinese were prepared to be jailed alongside Indians in support of this cause. On 16 August 1908, members of the movement gathered outside Hamidia Mosque where they burnt 1200 registration certificates.
Apartheid Era (1948-1994)
As with other non-White South Africans, the Chinese suffered from discrimination during apartheid, and were often classified as Coloureds, but sometimes as Asians, a category that was generally reserved for Indian South Africans. Today this segment of the South African Chinese population numbers some 10,000 individuals.
the Chinese Group, which shall consist of persons who in fact are, or who, except in the case of persons who in fact are members of a race or class or tribe referred to in paragraph (1), (2), (3), (5) or (6) are generally accepted as members of a race or tribe whose national home is in China.
Chinese South Africans, along with Black, Coloured and Indian South Africans were forcefully removed from areas declared "Whites only" areas by the government under the Group Areas Act in 1950. Suburbs in Johannesburg with Chinese South African populations that were subject to forced removals include Sophiatown starting in 1955, Marabastad in 1969 and the adjacent suburbs of Pageview and Vrededorp, known colloquially as 'Fietas', in 1968. Chinese South Africans were also among those removed from the South End district of Port Elizabeth beginning in 1965. These removals resulted in the formation of a Chinese township in Port Elizabeth.
No group is treated so inconsistently under South Africa's race legislation. Under the Immorality Act they are Non-White. The Group Areas Act says they are Coloured, subsection Chinese ... They are frequently mistaken for Japanese in public and have generally used White buses, hotels, cinemas and restaurants. But in Pretoria, only the consul-general's staff may use White buses .. Their future appears insecure and unstable. Because of past and present misery under South African laws, and what seems like more to come in the future, many Chinese are emigrating. Like many Coloured people who are leaving the country, they seem to favour Canada. Through humiliation and statutory discrimination South Africa is frustrating and alienating what should be a prized community.:389–390
In 1928, the liquor legislation was amended to allow Indian South Africans to purchase liquor. Following an amendment in 1962, other non-white South Africans could purchase alcohol, but not drink in white areas. In 1976, the law was amended to allow Chinese South Africans to drink alcohol in white areas.
In 1984, the Tricameral Parliament was established by the government to give Coloured and Indian South Africans a limited influence on South African politics. The Tricameral Parliament was criticised by anti-apartheid groups including the United Democratic Front, who promoted a boycott of the Tricameral Parliament elections, as it still excluded black people and had very little political power in South Africa. The Chinese South African community refused to participate in this parliament.
Immigration from Taiwan
|Number of Chinese granted
in South Africa
1985 - 1995:419
|By citizenship 1994 - 1995:419|
|People's Republic of China||252||102|
With the establishment of ties between apartheid South Africa and Taiwan (officially the Republic of China), Taiwanese (as well as some Hong Kong Chinese) started migrating to South Africa from the late 1970s onwards. Due to apartheid South Africa's desire to attract their investment in South Africa and the many poorer Bantustans within the country they were exempt from many apartheid laws and regulations. This created an odd situation whereby South Africans of Chinese descent continued to be classified as Coloureds or Asians, whereas the Taiwanese Chinese and certain other east Asian expatriates (esp. South Koreans and Japanese) were considered "honorary whites" and enjoyed most, if not all, of the rights accorded to White South Africans.
The South African government also offered a number of economic incentives to investors from Taiwan seeking to set up factories and businesses in the country. These generous incentives ranged from "paying for relocation costs, subsidized wages for seven years, subsidized commercial rent for ten years, housing loans, cheap transport of goods to urban areas, and favorable exchange rates".
In 1984, South African Chinese, now increased to about 10,000, finally obtained the same official rights as the Japanese in South Africa, that is, to be treated as whites in terms of the Group Areas Act. The arrival of the Taiwanese resulted in a surge of the ethnic Chinese population of South Africa, which climbed from around 10,000 in the early 1980s to at least 20,000 in the early 1990s. Many Taiwanese were entrepreneurs who set up small companies, particularly in the textile sector, across South Africa. It is estimated that by the end of the early 1990s Taiwanese industrialists had invested $2 billion (or $2.94 billion in 2011 dollars) in South Africa and employed roughly 50,000 people.:427
In the late 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century many of the Taiwanese left South Africa partly due to official recognition of the Peoples Republic of China and a post apartheid crime wave that swept the country. Numbers dropped from a high of around 30,000 Taiwanese citizens in the mid-1990s to the current population of approximately 6,000 today.
Following the end of apartheid in 1994, impressive numbers of Chinese from mainland China began immigrating to South Africa, increasing the Chinese population in South Africa to 200,000 to 350,000 people, including illegal immigrants. In Johannesburg, in particular, a new Chinatown has emerged in the eastern suburbs of Cyrildene and Bruma Lake, replacing the declining one in the city centre. A Chinese housing development has also been established in the small town of Bronkhorstspruit, east of Pretoria.[full citation needed]
Black Economic Empowerment ruling
Under apartheid, some Chinese South Africans were discriminated against in various forms by the apartheid government. However, they were originally excluded from benefiting under the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) programmes of the new South African government. This changed in mid-2008 when, in a case brought by the Chinese Association of South Africa, the Pretoria division of the High Court of South Africa ruled that Chinese South Africans who were South African citizens before 1994, as well as their descendants, qualify as previously disadvantaged individuals as Coloureds, and therefore are eligible to benefit under BEE and other affirmative action policies and programmes. The Chinese Association of South Africa was represented by human rights lawyer George Bizos in court during the case. However, Chinese South Africans who immigrated to the country after 1994 will be ineligible to benefit under the policies. This means that out of a community numbering possibly as many as 300,000, only about 12-15,000 will directly benefit from the ruling.
Shortly after the court ruling, then Minister of Labour, Membathisi Mdladlana said that Chinese were unable to communicate with Department of Labour officials as they were unable to speak a South African language. The minister said that now that Chinese were classified as "coloured", they should be able to communicate sufficiently with Department of Labour workers during inspections. He also claimed that Chinese factory owners abused workers and were using the BEE ruling to avoid arousing suspicion towards their business practices. Chairman of the Chinese Association of South Africa, Patrick Chong responded by saying that if the minister was grouping South African Chinese with recent Chinese immigrants, he did not understand which group of people the ruling of the court case affected. He said that Chinese South Africans are as much South African as other citizens and that they spoke English and Afrikaans fluently.
In September 2015, Department of Trade and Industry deputy director general Sipho Zikode clarified who the ruling was meant to benefit. He said that not all Chinese in South Africa were eligible for BEE. He confirmed that only Chinese who were South African citizens prior to 1994, numbering "about 10,000" were eligible.
Immigration of Mainland Chinese
The immigration of mainland Chinese, by far the largest group of Chinese in South Africa, can be divided into three periods. The first group arrived in the late 1980s and early 1990s along with the Taiwanese immigrants. Unlike the Taiwanese immigrants, lacking the capital to start larger firms, most established small businesses. Although becoming relatively prosperous a large number of this group left South Africa, either back to China or to more developed Western countries, around the same time and for much the same reason as the Taiwanese immigrants left. The second group, arriving mostly from Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces in the 1990s, were wealthier, better educated, and very entrepreneurial. The latest and ongoing group began arriving after 2000 and primarily made up of small traders and peasants from Fujian province. There are also many Chinese from other regions in China. As of 2013, there were 57 different regional Chinese associations operating in the Cyrildene Chinatown.
Although the Chinese South African community is a law-abiding community that has maintained a low profile in modern South Africa; there is speculation that local criminal gangs in South Africa barter abalone illegally with Chinese nationals and triad societies in exchange for chemicals used in the production of drugs, reducing the need for the use of money and hence avoiding difficulties associated with money laundering.
Chain store conspiracy
In 2012, Hannes Engelbrecht, leader of political party Front National claimed in an article that the BEE ruling was made by the ANC as part of an orchestrated plot, funded by the South African government to generate money for politicians using a chain of small, unregistered shops run by Chinese brought in to South Africa by the government for this purpose, even though BEE laws do not benefit foreigners. He said that all Chinese shops in South Africa were linked and made more money than Pick n Pay Stores and Edgars. He cited Prof. Colin McCarthy of the University of Stellenbosch as the source of this information. Dan Roodt, activist for Afrikaner rights, re-published the article in 2014. 
Notable Chinese South Africans
- Patrick Soon-Shiong (黃馨祥), surgeon and billionaire
- Chad Ho, six-time titleholder for the Midmar Mile
- Chris Wang (王翊儒), former member of the National Assembly, originally an MP for the ID, now a member of the ANC
- Eugenia Chang, member of the National Assembly, for the Inkatha Freedom Party
- Ina Lu (呂怡慧), Miss Chinese International 2006
- Sherry Chen (陈阡蕙), former Member of Parliament in South Africa, member of the Democratic Alliance
- Shiaan-Bin Huang (黄士豪), Member of Parliament of South Africa, member of the African National Congress
- Park, Yoon Jung (2009). Recent Chinese Migrations to South Africa - New Intersections of Race, Class and Ethnicity (PDF). Representation, Expression and Identity. Interdisciplinary Perspectives. ISBN 978-1-904710-81-3. Retrieved 20 September 2010.
- "What color are Chinese South Africans?". Archived from the original on 1 May 2014.
- Lin, Edwin (Spring 2014). ""Big Fish in a Small Pond": Chinese Migrant Shopkeepers in South Africa". International Migration Review. 48 (1): 181–215. doi:10.1111/imre.12074.
- Yap, Melanie; Leong Man, Dainne (1996). Colour, Confusion and Concessions: The History of the Chinese in South Africa. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. p. 510. ISBN 962-209-423-6.
- Elphick, Richard; Giliomee, Hermann (1979). The Shaping of South African Society, 1652–1840. Wesleyan University Press. p. 223. ISBN 9780819562111. Retrieved 1 January 2016.
- Clayton, Jonathan (19 June 2008). "We agree that you are black South African court tells Chinese". The Times. London. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- Park, Yoon Jung (January 2012). "Living In Between: The Chinese in South Africa". Immigration Information Source. Retrieved 12 January 2012.
- Mapungubwe Institute for Strategic Reflection (2015). Nation Formation and Social Cohesion: An Enquiry into the Hopes and Aspirations of South Africans. Real African Publishers. p. 148. ISBN 9781920655747. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "In South Africa, Chinese is the New Black". The Wall Street Journal. 19 June 2008.
- Nativism (politics)#Anti-Chinese nativism
- Walter Liggett, The Rise of Herbert Hoover (New York, 1932)
- Mr Winston Churchill: speeches in 1906 (Hansard). Hansard.millbanksystems.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-14.
- Jain, Ankur (1 February 2014). "Why Mahatma Gandhi is becoming popular in China - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
Some 1,000 Chinese supporters joined Indians to take part in Gandhi's first peaceful protest in Transvaal province in 1906 to protest against a law that barred Asians from owning property and made it mandatory to carry identity cards, among other things.
- "Chinese had joined Mahatma Gandhi's South Africa struggle - Times of India". The Times of India. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- "Asiatic Law Amendment Act is passed in Transvaal parliament leading to increased Indian protest under MK Gandhi". South African History Online. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
- Bhattacharjea, Mira Sinha (2005). "Gandhi and the Chinese Community". In Thampi, Madhavi. India and China in the colonial world. New Delhi: Social Science Press. p. 160. ISBN 8187358203.
- "city of Johannesburg". www.joburg.org.za. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2016.
It was outside the Hamidia Mosque on 16 August 1908 that Indians and Chinese set alight more than 1 200 registration certificates...
- "S Africa Chinese 'become black'". BBC News. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "A Chinese Color War",TIME, 1 August 2008
- Ansell, Gwen (28 September 2004). Soweto Blues: Jazz, Popular Music, and Politics in South Africa. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 67. ISBN 978-0826416629. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Otzen, Ellen (11 February 2015). "The town destroyed to stop black and white people mixing". BBC News. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Accone, Darryl (2004). All under heaven : the story of a Chinese family in South Africa (2. impr. ed.). Claremont, South Africa: David Philip. p. 251. ISBN 9780864866486. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Masilela, Johnny (1 January 2015). "The broken miracle of Marabastad". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Mamdoo, Feizel (24 September 2015). "Fietas streets by any other name are not as sweet". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- Ho, Ufrieda (14 August 2012). "Fietas vanished like dream". IOL. The Star. Retrieved 17 December 2015.
- "South End Museum, Port Elizabeth". www.southafrica.net. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Saff, Grant R. (1998). Changing Cape Town : urban dynamics, policy and planning during the political transition in South Africa. Lanham, Md: University Press of America. p. 60. ISBN 978-0761811992. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- "Apartheid Legislation 1850s-1970s". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
The Liquor Bill Section 104 of the Liquor Bill of 1928 Prohibiting Indians from entering licensed premises is withdrawn.
- "The Liquor Laws Amendment Bill comes into effect". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
Section 104 of the liquor bill was withdrawn, and Indians were once again allowed to enter licensed premises. Despite this, Africans were still not allowed to buy beer legally
- Naidoo, Aneshree (12 August 2014). "Long reign of the South African shebeen queen". Media Club South Africa. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
The Act had restricted profits for commercial brewers, and in 1962 the apartheid government caved under pressure from the industry and opened up sales to black South Africans. They could not drink in town – white areas – but they could now buy commercial beer at off-sales.
- Osada, Masako (2002). Sanctions and honorary whites : diplomatic policies and economic realities in relations between Japan and South Africa. Westport, Conn. [u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 163. ISBN 0313318778.
As of 14 May 1976, Chinese were treated as whites in terms of the Liquor Act.
- Brooks Spector, J. "The UDF at 30: An organisation that shook Apartheid's foundation". Daily Maverick. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- Dubin, Steven C. (2012). Spearheading debate : culture wars & uneasy truces. Auckland Park, South Africa: Jacana. p. 225. ISBN 978-1431407378. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
...and the refusal of the Chinese to participate in the Tricameral Parliament.
- Taiwan Review (Taiwan State Information Service, Premier Sun Yun-suan visit to South Africa 1980)
- Measuring Worth, Relative Value of a U.S. Dollar Amount - Consumer Price Index, retrieved on the 26 January 2011
- "Chinese qualify for BEE". News24. 18 June 2008. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- Rondganger, Lee; South African Press Association (25 June 2008). "Coloureds don't speak Chinese". IOL. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Mashego, Penelope (18 September 2015). "State defends BEE benefits for Chinese". BdLive. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- Y. J. Park and A. Y. Chen, "Intersections of race, class and power: Chinese in post-apartheid Free State", unpublished paper presented at the South African Sociological Association Congress, Stellenbosch, July 2008.
- Ho, Ufrieda (12 July 2013). "The arch angle on booming Chinatown". The M&G Online. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Cape Argus". Cape Argus. 11 April 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Triad Societies and Chinese Organised Crime in South Africa". SAIIA. 2001. Retrieved 2011-02-26.
- "Hannes Engelbrecht". Front Nasionaal. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- "The new SA colonials have arrived". Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- Yap, Melanie; Man, Dianne (1996). Colour, Confusion & Concessions: The History of the Chinese in South Africa. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-209-424-4.
- Park, Yoon Jung (2008). A Matter of Honour: Being Chinese in South Africa (Paperback ed.). Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd. ISBN 978-1-77009-568-7.
- Bright, Rachel (2013). Chinese Labour in South Africa, 1902-10: Race, Violence, and Global Spectacle. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-230-30377-5.