Overseas Chinese (simplified Chinese: 海外华人 / 海外中国人; traditional Chinese: 海外華人 / 海外中國人; pinyin: Hǎiwài Huárén / Hǎiwài Zhōngguórén) refers to people of Chinese birth or ethnicity who reside outside Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. As of 2011, there were over 40.3 million overseas Chinese.
Huáqiáo (simplified Chinese: 华侨; traditional Chinese: 華僑) or Hoan-kheh (Chinese: 番客; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hoan-kheh) in Hokkien, refers to people of Chinese citizenship residing outside of either the PRC or ROC (Taiwan). The government of China realized that the overseas Chinese could be an asset, a source of foreign investment and a bridge to overseas knowledge; thus, it began to recognize the use of the term Huaqiao.
Ching-Sue Kuik renders huáqiáo in English as "the Chinese sojourner" and writes that the term is "used to disseminate, reinforce, and perpetuate a monolithic and essentialist Chinese identity" by both the PRC and the ROC.
The modern informal internet term haigui (simplified Chinese: 海归; traditional Chinese: 海歸) refers to returned overseas Chinese and guīqiáo qiáojuàn (simplified Chinese: 归侨侨眷; traditional Chinese: 歸僑僑眷) to their returning relatives.[clarification needed]
Huáyì (simplified Chinese: 华裔; traditional Chinese: 華裔; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hôa-è) refers to people of Chinese origin residing outside of China, regardless of citizenship. Another often-used term is 海外華人 (Hǎiwài Huárén) or simply 華人/华人 (Huárén) in Mandarin. It is often used by the Government of the People's Republic of China to refer to people of Chinese ethnicities who live outside the PRC, regardless of citizenship (they can become citizens of the country outside China by naturalization).
Overseas Chinese who are ethnic Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hokchew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as 唐人 (Tángrén), pronounced Tòhng yàn in Cantonese, Toung ning in Hokchew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and Tong nyin in Hakka. Literally, it means Tang people, a reference to Tang dynasty China when it was ruling. This term is commonly used by the Cantonese, Hokchew, Hakka and Hokkien as a colloquial reference to the Chinese people and has little relevance to the ancient dynasty. For example, in the early 1850s when Chinese shops opened on Sacramento St. in San Francisco, California, United States, the Chinese emigrants, mainly from the Pearl River Delta west of Canton, called it Tang People Street (Chinese: 唐人街; pinyin: Tángrén Jiē): 13 and the settlement became known as Tang People Town (Chinese: 唐人埠; pinyin: Tángrén Bù) or Chinatown, which in Cantonese is Tong Yun Fow.: 9–40
The term shǎoshù mínzú (simplified Chinese: 少数民族; traditional Chinese: 少數民族) is added to the various terms for the overseas Chinese to indicate those who would be considered ethnic minorities in China. The terms shǎoshù mínzú huáqiáo huárén and shǎoshù mínzú hǎiwài qiáobāo (simplified Chinese: 少数民族海外侨胞; traditional Chinese: 少數民族海外僑胞) are all in usage. The Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the PRC does not distinguish between Han and ethnic minority populations for official policy purposes. For example, members of the Tibetan people may travel to China on passes granted to certain people of Chinese descent. Various estimates of the Chinese emigrant minority population include 3.1 million (1993), 3.4 million (2004), 5.7 million (2001, 2010), or approximately one tenth of all Chinese emigrants (2006, 2011). Cross-border ethnic groups (跨境民族, kuàjìng mínzú) are not considered Chinese emigrant minorities unless they left China after the establishment of an independent state on China's border.
Some ethnic groups who have historic connections with China, such as the Hmong, may not or may identify themselves as Chinese.
The Chinese people have a long history of migrating overseas, as far back as the 10th century. One of the migrations dates back to the Ming dynasty when Zheng He (1371–1435) became the envoy of Ming. He sent people – many of them are Cantonese and Hokkien – to explore and trade in the South China Sea and in the Indian Ocean.
Different waves of immigration led to subgroups among overseas Chinese such as the new and old immigrants in Southeast Asia, North America, Oceania, the Caribbean, South America, South Africa, and Europe. In the 19th century, the age of colonialism was at its height and the great Chinese diaspora began. Many colonies lacked a large pool of laborers. Meanwhile, in the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong in China, there was a surge in emigration as a result of the poverty and village ruin. The Qing ruler was forced to allow its subjects to work overseas under colonial powers. Many Hokkien chose to work in Southeast Asia (where they had earlier links starting from the Imperial Chinese era), as did the Cantonese. The area of Taishan, Guangdong Province was the source for many of the economic migrants. San Francisco and California was an early American destination in the mid-1800s because of the California Gold Rush. Many settled in San Francisco forming one of the earliest Chinatowns. For the countries in North America and Australia saw great numbers of Chinese gold diggers finding gold in the gold mining and railway construction. Widespread famine in Guangdong impelled many Cantonese to work in these countries to improve the living conditions of their relatives. Some overseas Chinese were sold[by whom?] to South America during the Punti–Hakka Clan Wars (1855–1867) in the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong. After World War II many people from the New Territories in Hong Kong emigrated to the UK (mainly England) and to the British Raj India to help depopulation.
During the early and mid-19th century, the anthropometric indicators, namely height of the overseas Chinese was close to the parameters of Southern Europeans. Moreover, the average height of Southern Chinese used to be relatively stable at around 161–164 cm for males. Another important fact is that the height of Chinese emigrants varied depending on the location they have chosen. Hence, emigrants from Suriname and Indonesia were shorter than some Chinese prisoners who used to live in the U.S. and Australia.
The establishment of the Lanfang Republic (Chinese: 蘭芳共和國; pinyin: Lánfāng Gònghéguó) in West Kalimantan was established by overseas Chinese.
Republic of China
Under the Republicans economic growth froze and many migrated outside the Republic of China, mostly through the coastal regions via the ports of Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Shanghai. These migrations are considered to be among the largest in China's history. Many nationals of the Republic of China fled and settled down overseas mainly between the years 1911–1949, after the Nationalist government led by Kuomintang lost the mainland to Communist revolutionaries and relocated. Most of the nationalist and neutral refugees fled Mainland China to North America while others fled to Southeast Asia (Singapore, Brunei, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines) as well as Taiwan (Republic of China).
After World War II
Those who fled during 1912–1949 and settled down in Singapore and Malaysia and automatically gained citizenship in 1957 and 1963 as these countries gained independence. Kuomintang members who settled in Malaysia and Singapore played a major role in the establishment of the Malaysian Chinese Association and their meeting hall at Sun Yat Sen Villa. There was evidence that some intended to reclaim mainland China from the CCP by funding the Kuomintang.
During the 1950s and 1960s, the ROC tended to seek the support of overseas Chinese communities through branches of the Kuomintang based on Sun Yat-sen's use of expatriate Chinese communities to raise money for his revolution. During this period, the People's Republic of China tended to view overseas Chinese with suspicion as possible capitalist infiltrators and tended to value relationships with Southeast Asian nations as more important than gaining support of overseas Chinese, and in the Bandung declaration explicitly stated[where?] that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation.[dubious ]
From the mid-20th century onward, emigration has been directed primarily to Western countries such as the United States, Australia, Canada, Brazil, The United Kingdom, New Zealand, Argentina and the nations of Western Europe; as well as to Peru, Panama, and to a lesser extent to Mexico. Many of these emigrants who entered Western countries were themselves overseas Chinese, particularly from the 1950s to the 1980s, a period during which the PRC placed severe restrictions on the movement of its citizens. In 1984, Britain agreed to transfer the sovereignty of Hong Kong to the PRC; this triggered another wave of migration to the United Kingdom (mainly England), Australia, Canada, US, South America, Europe and other parts of the world. The 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre further accelerated the migration. The wave calmed after Hong Kong's transfer of sovereignty in 1997. In addition, many citizens of Hong Kong hold citizenships or have current visas in other countries so if the need arises, they can leave Hong Kong at short notice.
In recent years, the People's Republic of China has built increasingly stronger ties with African nations. In 2014, author Howard French estimated that over one million Chinese have moved in the past 20 years to Africa.
More recent Chinese presences have developed in Europe, where they number well over 1 million, and in Russia, they number over 200,000, concentrated in the Russian Far East. Russia's main Pacific port and naval base of Vladivostok, once closed to foreigners and belonged to China until the late 19th century, as of 2010[update] bristles with Chinese markets, restaurants and trade houses. A growing Chinese community in Germany consists of around 76,000 people as of 2010[update]. An estimated 15,000 to 30,000 Chinese live in Austria.
Overseas Chinese experience
Chinese emigrants are estimated to control US$2 trillion in liquid assets and have considerable amounts of wealth to stimulate economic power in China. The Chinese business community of Southeast Asia, known as the bamboo network, has a prominent role in the region's private sectors. In Europe, North America and Oceania, occupations are diverse and impossible to generalize; ranging from catering to significant ranks in medicine, the arts and academia.
Overseas Chinese often send remittances back home to family members to help better them financially and socioeconomically. China ranks second after India of top remittance-receiving countries in 2018 with over US$67 billion sent.
Overseas Chinese communities vary widely as to their degree of assimilation, their interactions with the surrounding communities (see Chinatown), and their relationship with China.
Thailand has the largest overseas Chinese community and is also the most successful case of assimilation, with many claiming Thai identity. For over 400 years, Thai Chinese have largely intermarried and/or assimilated with their compatriots. The present royal house of Thailand, the Chakri dynasty, was founded by King Rama I who himself was partly Chinese. His predecessor, King Taksin of the Thonburi Kingdom, was the son of a Chinese immigrant from Guangdong Province and was born with a Chinese name. His mother, Lady Nok-iang (Thai: นกเอี้ยง), was Thai (and was later awarded the noble title of Somdet Krom Phra Phithak Thephamat).
In the Philippines, the Chinese, known as the Sangley, from Fujian and Guangdong were already migrating to the islands as early as 9th century, where many have largely intermarried with both native Filipinos and Spanish Filipinos (Tornatrás). Early presence of Chinatowns in overseas communities start to appear in Spanish colonial Philippines around 16th century in the form of Parians in Manila, where Chinese merchants were allowed to reside and flourish as commercial centers, thus Binondo, a historical district of Manila, has become the world's oldest Chinatown. Under Spanish colonial policy of Christianization, assimilation and intermarriage, their colonial mixed descendants would eventually form the bulk of the middle class which would later rise to the Principalía and illustrado intelligentsia, which carried over and fueled the elite ruling classes of the American period and later independent Philippines. Chinese Filipinos play a considerable role in the economy of the Philippines and descendants of Sangley compose a considerable part of the Philippine population.
In Myanmar, the Chinese rarely intermarry (even amongst different Chinese linguistic groups), but have largely adopted the Burmese culture whilst maintaining Chinese cultural affinities. In Cambodia, between 1965 and 1993, people with Chinese names were prevented from finding governmental employment, leading to a large number of people changing their names to a local, Cambodian name. Indonesia and Myanmar were among the countries that do not allow birth names to be registered in foreign languages, including Chinese. But since 2003, the Indonesian government has allowed ethnic Chinese people to use their Chinese name or using their Chinese family name on their birth certificate.
In Vietnam, all Chinese names can be pronounced by Sino-Vietnamese readings. For example, the name of the previous paramount leader Hú Jǐntāo (胡錦濤) would be spelled as "Hồ Cẩm Đào" in Vietnamese. There are also great similarities between Vietnamese and Chinese traditions such as the use Lunar New Year, philosophy such as Confucianism, Taoism and ancestor worship; leads to some Hoa people adopt easily to Vietnamese culture, however many Hoa still prefer to maintain Chinese cultural background. The official census from 2009 accounted the Hoa population at some 823,000 individuals and ranked 6th in terms of its population size. 70% of the Hoa live in cities and towns, mostly in Ho Chi Minh city while the rests live in the southern provinces.
On the other hand, in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, the ethnic Chinese have maintained a distinct communal identity.
In East Timor, a large fraction of Chinese are of Hakka descent.
In Western countries, the overseas Chinese generally use romanised versions of their Chinese names, and the use of local first names is also common.
Overseas Chinese have often experienced hostility and discrimination. In countries with small ethnic Chinese minorities, the economic disparity can be remarkable. For example, in 1998, ethnic Chinese made up just 1% of the population of the Philippines and 4% of the population in Indonesia, but have wide influence in the Philippine and Indonesian private economies. The book World on Fire, describing the Chinese as a "market-dominant minority", notes that "Chinese market dominance and intense resentment amongst the indigenous majority is characteristic of virtually every country in Southeast Asia except Thailand and Singapore".
This asymmetrical economic position has incited anti-Chinese sentiment among the poorer majorities. Sometimes the anti-Chinese attitudes turn violent, such as the 13 May Incident in Malaysia in 1969 and the Jakarta riots of May 1998 in Indonesia, in which more than 2,000 people died, mostly rioters burned to death in a shopping mall. During the colonial era, some genocides killed tens of thousands of Chinese and some genocides by the Sri Lankans killed hundreds of thousands of Tamils.
During the Indonesian killings of 1965–66, in which more than 500,000 people died, ethnic Chinese Hakkas were killed and their properties looted and burned as a result of anti-Chinese racism on the excuse that Dipa "Amat" Aidit had brought the PKI closer to China. The anti-Chinese legislation was in the Indonesian constitution until 1998.
The state of the Chinese Cambodians during the Khmer Rouge regime has been described as "the worst disaster ever to befall any ethnic Chinese community in Southeast Asia." At the beginning of the Khmer Rouge regime in 1975, there were 425,000 ethnic Chinese in Cambodia; by the end of 1979 there were just 200,000.
It is commonly held that a major point of friction is the apparent tendency of overseas Chinese to segregate themselves into a subculture. For example, the anti-Chinese Kuala Lumpur Racial Riots of 13 May 1969 and Jakarta Riots of May 1998 were believed to have been motivated by these racially biased perceptions. This analysis has been questioned by some historians, most notably Dr. Kua Kia Soong, the principal of New Era College, who has put forward the controversial argument that the 13 May Incident was a pre-meditated attempt by sections of the ruling Malay elite to incite racial hostility in preparation for a coup. In 2006, rioters damaged shops owned by Chinese-Tongans in Nukuʻalofa. Chinese migrants were evacuated from the riot-torn Solomon Islands.
Ethnic politics can be found to motivate both sides of the debate. In Malaysia, many "Bumiputra" ("native sons") Malays oppose equal or meritocratic treatment towards Chinese and anti-Indian sentiment, fearing they would dominate too many aspects of the country. The question of to what extent ethnic Malays, Chinese, or others are "native" to Malaysia is a sensitive political one. It is currently a taboo for Chinese politicians to raise the issue of Bumiputra protections in parliament, as this would be deemed ethnic incitement.
Many of the overseas Chinese emigrants who worked on railways in North America in the 19th century suffered from racial discrimination in Canada and the United States. Although discriminatory laws have been repealed or are no longer enforced today, both countries had at one time introduced statutes that barred Chinese from entering the country, for example the United States Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (repealed 1943) or the Canadian Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 (repealed 1947). In both the United States and Canada, further acts were required to fully remove immigration restrictions (namely United States' Immigration and Nationality Acts of 1952 and 1965, in addition to Canada's)
In Australia, Chinese were targeted by a system of discriminatory laws known as the 'White Australia Policy' which was enshrined in the Immigration Restriction Act of 1901. The policy was formally abolished in 1973, and in recent years Australians of Chinese background have publicly called for an apology from the Australian Federal Government similar to that given to the 'stolen generations' of indigenous people in 2007 by the then Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.
In South Korea, the relatively low social and economic statuses of ethnic Korean-Chinese have played a role in local hostility towards them. Such hatred had been formed since their early settlement years, where many racially ethnically Koreans that are Chinese of Korean ancestry hailing from rural areas were accused of misbehaviour such as spitting on streets and littering. More recently, they have also been targets of hate speech for their association with violent crime, despite the Korean Justice Ministry recording a lower crime rate for Chinese in the country compared to native South Koreans in 2010.
Relationship with China
Both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (known more commonly as Taiwan) maintain high level relationships with the overseas Chinese populations. Both maintain cabinet level ministries to deal with overseas Chinese affairs, and many local governments within the PRC have overseas Chinese bureaus.
The Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China, which does not recognise dual citizenship, provides for automatic loss of PRC citizenship when a former PRC citizen both settles in another country and acquires foreign citizenship. For children born overseas of a PRC citizen, whether the child receives PRC citizenship at birth depends on whether the PRC parent has settled overseas: "Any person born abroad whose parents are both Chinese nationals or one of whose parents is a Chinese national shall have Chinese nationality. But a person whose parents are both Chinese nationals and have both settled abroad, or one of whose parents is a Chinese national and has settled abroad, and who has acquired foreign nationality at birth shall not have Chinese nationality" (Article 5).
By contrast, the Nationality Law of the Republic of China, which both permits and recognises dual citizenship, considers such persons to be citizens of the ROC (if their parents have household registration in Taiwan).
Returning and re-emigration
With China's growing economic prospects, many of the overseas Chinese have begun to migrate back to China, even as many mainland Chinese millionaires are considering emigrating out of the nation for better opportunities.
In the case of Indonesia and Burma, political and ethnic strife has cause a significant number of people of Chinese origins to re-emigrate back to China. In other Southeast Asian countries with large Chinese communities, such as Malaysia, the economic rise of People's Republic of China has made the PRC an attractive destination for many Malaysian Chinese to re-emigrate. As the Chinese economy opens up, Malaysian Chinese act as a bridge because many Malaysian Chinese are educated in the United States or Britain but can also understand the Chinese language and culture making it easier for potential entrepreneurial and business to be done between the people among the two countries.
After the Deng Xiaoping reforms, the attitude of the PRC toward the overseas Chinese changed dramatically. Rather than being seen with suspicion, they were seen as people who could aid PRC development via their skills and capital. During the 1980s, the PRC actively attempted to court the support of overseas Chinese by among other things, returning properties that had been confiscated after the 1949 revolution. More recently PRC policy has attempted to maintain the support of recently emigrated Chinese, who consist largely of Chinese students seeking undergraduate and graduate education in the West. Many of the Chinese diaspora are now investing in People's Republic of China providing financial resources, social and cultural networks, contacts and opportunities.
The Chinese government estimates that of the 1,200,000 Chinese people who have gone overseas to study in the thirty years since China's economic reforms beginning in 1978; three-quarters of those who left have not returned to China.
Beijing is attracting overseas-trained academics back home, in an attempt to internationalise its universities. However, some professors educated to the PhD level in the West have reported feeling "marginalised" when they return to China due in large part to the country's “lack of international academic peer review and tenure track mechanisms”.
The usage of Chinese by the overseas Chinese has been determined by a large number of factors, including their ancestry, their migrant ancestors' "regime of origin", assimilation through generational changes, and official policies of their country of residence. The general trend is that more established Chinese populations in the Western world and in many regions of Asia have Cantonese as either the dominant variety or as a common community vernacular, while Standard Chinese is much more prevalent among new arrivals, making it increasingly common in many Chinatowns.
There are over 50 million overseas Chinese. Most of them are living in Southeast Asia where they make up a majority of the population of Singapore (75%) and significant minority populations in Malaysia (22.4%), Thailand (14%) and Brunei (10%).
Unknown status or number
Countries with unspecified number
The following countries have Chinese populations of uncertain number; while population figures are not known definitively, Chinese are known to be present, even if relatively few:
- Azerbaijan: "several hundred"
- Uzbekistan: "an estimated population of 1,059"
- Saudi Arabia: "about 40 families"
- Belarus: "about 95 Chinese people"
- Moldova: "a small number"
Countries with former or uncertain Chinese presence
African countries reported to have Chinese people in the 1980s:
The following countries previously had Chinese residents, but now record no Chinese population:
- Chinese folk religion & Chinese folk religion in Southeast Asia
- Chinatown, the article and Category:Chinatowns the international category list
- Chinese kin, Kongsi & Ancestral shrine
- Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association
- List of overseas Chinese
- Migration in China
- Kapitan Cina
- List of politicians of Chinese descent
- Overseas Chinese banks
- Legislation on Chinese Indonesians
- Chinese Exclusion Act (Scott Act, 1888 & Geary Act, 1892) in United States
- Chinese Immigration Act, 1885 & Chinese Immigration Act, 1923 in Canada
- Chinese head tax & 1886 Vancouver anti-Chinese riots
- Lost Years: A People's Struggle for Justice
- Overseas Chinese Affairs Office
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Poston, Dudley; Wong, Juyin (2016). "The Chinese diaspora: The current distribution of the overseas Chinese population". Chinese Journal of Sociology. 2 (3): 356–360. doi:10.1177/2057150X16655077. S2CID 157718431.
- ^ "Chinese Diaspora". Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
- ^ Department of Statistics Malaysia (2022). "Current population and estimates, Malaysia 2021 Group". Archived from the original on 1 February 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
- ^ "Chinese in the U.S. Fact Sheet". ABBY BUDIMAN. April 2021. Archived from the original on 4 December 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- ^ "Jumlah dan Persentase Penduduk menurut Kelompok Suku Bangsa" (PDF). media.neliti.com (in Indonesian). Kewarganegaraan, suku bangsa, agama dan bahasa sehari-hari penduduk Indonesia. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2018. Retrieved 30 May 2022.
- ^ "Census 2020" (PDF). Singapore Department of Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
- ^ "Profile table, Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population - Canada [Country] - Visible minority". Statistics Canada. 15 December 2022. Chinese. Archived from the original on 8 January 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2023.
- ^ a b "2021 Australian Census - Quickstats - Australia". Australian Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 29 March 2023. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
- ^ Macrohon, Pilar (21 January 2013). "Senate declares Chinese New Year as special working holiday" (Press release). PRIB, Office of the Senate Secretary, Senate of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- ^ a b "국내 체류 외국인 236만명…전년比 8.6% 증가", Yonhap News, 28 May 2019, archived from the original on 27 September 2021, retrieved 1 February 2020
- ^ a b General Statistics Office of Vietnam. "Completed results of the 2019 Viet Nam population and housing census" (PDF) (in Vietnamese). PDF frame 44/842 (within multipaged "43") Table 2 row "Hoa". Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 8 April 2023. (description page: Completed results of the 2019 Viet Nam population and housing census Archived 21 April 2021 at the Wayback Machine)
- ^ "令和４年６月末現在における在留外国人数について | 出入国在留管理庁". Archived from the original on 1 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
- ^ 2011 Census: KS201UK Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom ONS Archived 23 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine; retrieved 21 October 2013.
- ^ National Institute of Statistics (Italy): I cittadini non comunitari regolarmente soggiornanti Archived November 13, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 January 2015.17
- ^ "National ethnic population projections, by age and sex, 2018(base)-2043 Information on table". Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
- ^ Liao, Wenhui; He, Qicai (2015). "Tenth World Conference of Overseas Chinese: Annual International Symposium on Regional Academic Activities Report (translated)". The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies. 7 (2): 85–89.
- ^ a b "Han Chinese, Mandarin in Saudi Arabia". Archived from the original on 19 June 2022. Retrieved 19 June 2022.
- ^ "Population by Religion, Sex and Census Year". Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 19 December 2022.
- ^ Goodkind, Daniel. "The Chinese Diaspora: Historical Legacies and Contemporary Trends" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
- ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2012 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on 3 April 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2011 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on 8 August 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- ^ "Yearbook of Immigration Statistics: 2010 Supplemental Table 2". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Archived from the original on 12 July 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- ^ John Marzulli (9 May 2011). "Malaysian man smuggled illegal Chinese immigrants into Brooklyn using Queen Mary 2: authorities". New York: NY Daily News.com. Archived from the original on 5 May 2015. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- ^ "Chinese New Year 2012 in Flushing". QueensBuzz.com. 25 January 2012. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
- ^ "SELECTED POPULATION PROFILE IN THE UNITED STATES 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates New York-Newark, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA Chinese alone". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- ^ Wang, Gungwu (19 December 1994). "Upgrading the migrant: neither huaqiao nor huaren". Chinese America: History and Perspectives 1996. Chinese Historical Society of America. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9614198-9-9.
In its own way, it [Chinese government] has upgraded its migrants from a ragbag of malcontents, adventurers, and desperately poor laborers to the status of respectable and valued nationals whose loyalty was greatly appreciated.
- ^ Kuik, Ching-Sue (Gossamer) (2013). "Introduction" (PDF). Un/Becoming Chinese: Huaqiao, The Non-perishable Sojourner Reinvented, and Alterity of Chineseness (PhD thesis). University of Washington. p. 2. OCLC 879349650. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 October 2020. Retrieved 5 October 2020.
- ^ a b c Barabantseva, Elena (2012). "Who Are 'Overseas Chinese Ethnic Minorities'? China's Search for Transnational Ethnic Unity". Modern China. 31 (1): 78–109. doi:10.1177/0097700411424565. S2CID 145221912.
- ^ a b Pan, Lynn, ed. (April 1999). "Huaqiao". The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674252101. LCCN 98035466. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
- ^ Hoy, William J (1943). "Chinatown derives its own street names". California Folklore Quarterly. 2 (April): 71–75. doi:10.2307/1495551. JSTOR 1495551.
- ^ a b Yung, Judy and the Chinese Historical Society of America (2006). San Francisco's Chinatown. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-07385-3130-4.
- ^ Blondeau, Anne-Marie; Buffetrille, Katia; Wei Jing (2008). Authenticating Tibet: Answers to China's 100 Questions. University of California Press. p. 127.
- ^ Xiang, Biao (2003). "Emigration from China: a sending country perspective". International Migration. 41 (3): 21–48. doi:10.1111/1468-2435.00240.
- ^ Zhao, Heman (2004). 少數民族華僑華人研究 [A Study of Overseas Chinese Ethnic Minorities]. Beijing: 華僑出版社.
- ^ Li, Anshan (2001). '華人移民社群的移民身份與少數民族'研討會綜述 [Symposium on the Migrant Statuses of Chinese Migrant Communities and Ethnic Minorities]. 華僑華人歷史研究 (in Chinese). 4: 77–78.
- ^ Shi, Canjin; Yu, Linlin (2010). 少數民族華僑華人對我國構建'和諧邊疆'的影響及對策分析 [Analysis of the Influence of and Strategy Towards Overseas Chinese Ethnic Minorities in the Implementation of "Harmonious Borders"]. 甘肅社會科學 (in Chinese). 1: 136–39.
- ^ Ding, Hong (1999). 東干文化研究 [The study of Dungan culture] (in Chinese). Beijing: 中央民族學院出版社. p. 63.
- ^ 在資金和財力上支持對海外少數民族僑胞宣傳 [On finances and resources to support information dissemination towards overseas Chinese ethnic minorities] (in Chinese). 人民網. 10 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
- ^ "A study of Southeast Asian youth in Philadelphia: A final report". Oac.cdlib.org. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- ^ The Story of California From the Earliest Days to the Present, by Henry K. Norton. 7th ed. Chicago, A.C. McClurg & Co., 1924. Chapter XXIV, pp. 283–96.
- ^ Baten, Jörg (November 2008). "Anthropometric Trends in Southern China, 1830-1864". Australian Economic History Review. 43 (3): 209–226. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8446.2008.00238.x.
- ^ Pike, John. "Chinese Civil War". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on 16 September 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- ^ "Chiang Kai Shiek". Sarawakiana. Archived from the original on 6 December 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- ^ Yong, Ching Fatt. "The Kuomintang Movement in British Malaya, 1912–1949". University of Hawaii Press. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- ^ Tan, Kah Kee (2013). The Making of an Overseas Chinese Legend. World Scientific Publishing Company. doi:10.1142/8692. ISBN 978-981-4447-89-8.
- ^ Jan Voon, Cham (2002). "Kuomintang's influence on Sarawak Chinese". Sarawak Chinese political thinking : 1911–1963 (master thesis). University of Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS). Retrieved 28 August 2012.[permanent dead link]
- ^ Wong, Coleen (10 July 2013). "The KMT Soldiers Who Stayed Behind In China". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 10 November 2013. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- ^ French, Howard (November 2014). "China's Second Continent: How a Million Migrants Are Building a New Empire in Africa". Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 November 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
- ^ "Deutsch-Chinesisches Kulturnetz". De-cn.net (in German). Archived from the original on 13 April 2012. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- ^ "Heimat süßsauer" (PDF). Eu-china.net (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
- ^ Bartlett, David (1997). The Political Economy of Dual Transformations: Market Reform and Democratization in Hungary. University of Michigan Press. p. 280. ISBN 9780472107940.
- ^ Fukuda, Kazuo John (1998). Japan and China: The Meeting of Asia's Economic Giants. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7890-0417-8. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
- ^ Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1.
- ^ "The world's successful diasporas". Worldbusinesslive.com. Archived from the original on 1 April 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ "India to retain top position in remittances with $80 billion: World Bank". The Economic Times. 8 December 2018. Archived from the original on 25 April 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
- ^ See, Stanley Baldwin O. (17 November 2014). "Binondo: New discoveries in the world's oldest Chinatown". GMA News Online. Archived from the original on 18 August 2020. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- ^ Chua, Amy (2003). World On Fire. Knopf Doubleday Publishing. pp. 3, 6. ISBN 978-0385721868.
- ^ Gambe, Annabelle (2000). Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Development in Southeast Asia. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 33. ISBN 978-0312234966.
- ^ Folk, Brian (2003). Ethnic Business: Chinese Capitalism in Southeast Asia. Routledge. p. 93. ISBN 978-1138811072.
- ^ a b Chirot, Daniel; Reid, Anthony (1997). Essential Outsiders: Chinese and Jews in the Modern Transformation of Southeast Asia and Central Europe. University of Washington Press. p. 54. ISBN 9780295800264. Archived from the original on 18 February 2023. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
- ^ "Genographic Project - Reference Populations – Geno 2.0 Next Generation". National Geographic. 13 April 2005. Archived from the original on 22 May 2019.
- ^ General Statistics Office of Vietnam. "Kết quả toàn bộ Tổng điều tra Dân số và Nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009–Phần I: Biểu Tổng hợp" [The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing census: Completed results] (PDF) (in Vietnamese). p. 134/882. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 13 December 2012. (description page: The 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing census: Completed results Archived 15 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine)
- ^ Amy Chua, "World on Fire", 2003, Doubleday, pp. 3, 43.
- ^ Amy Chua, "World on Fire", 2003, Doubleday, p. 61.
- ^ Malaysia's race rules Archived 10 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine. The Economist Newspaper Limited (25 August 2005). Requires login.
- ^ 海外漢人被屠殺的血淚史大全. Po-qianjun.woku.com (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 13 February 2023. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- ^ Indonesian academics fight burning of books on 1965 coup Archived 10 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine, The Sydney Morning Herald
- ^ Vickers (2005), p. 158
- ^ "Analysis – Indonesia: Why ethnic Chinese are afraid". BBC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ Gellately, Robert; Kiernan, Ben (2003). The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–314.
- ^ Palona, Iryna (2010). "Asian Megatrends and Management Education of Overseas Chinese" (PDF). International Education Studies. United Kingdom. 3: 58–65. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 February 2017 – via Education Resources Information Center.
- ^ Wages of Hatred. Michael Shari. Business Week.
- ^ "May 13 by Kua Kia Soong". Littlespeck.com. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- ^ "Editorial: Racist moves will rebound on Tonga". The New Zealand Herald. 23 November 2001. Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- ^ Spiller, Penny: "Riots highlight Chinese tensions Archived 2 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine", BBC, 21 April 2006
- ^ Chin, James (27 August 2015). "Opinion | The Costs of Malay Supremacy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- ^ Ian Buruma (11 May 2009). "Eastern Promises". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2 November 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- ^ Vijay Joshi (31 August 2007). "Race clouds Malaysian birthday festivities". Independent Online. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ The World Today Barbara Miller (30 June 2011). "Chinese Australians want apology for discrimination". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- ^ a b Hyun-ju, Ock (24 September 2017). "[Feature] Ethnic Korean-Chinese fight 'criminal' stigma in Korea". The Korea Herald. Archived from the original on December 2020.
- ^ "Anti Chinese-Korean Sentiment on Rise in Wake of Fresh Attack". KoreaBANG. 25 April 2012. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021.
- ^ "Hate Speech against Immigrants in Korea: A Text Mining Analysis of Comments on News about Foreign Migrant Workers and Korean Chinese Residents* (page 281)" (PDF). Seoul National University. Ritsumeikan University. January 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 2020.
- ^ Ramstad, Evan (23 August 2011). "Foreigner Crime in South Korea: The Data". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022.
- ^ "Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China". china.org.cn. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ "Report: Half of China's millionaires want to leave". CNN. 1 November 2011. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012.
- ^ "Will China's rise shape Malaysian Chinese community?". BBC. 30 December 2011. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
- ^ JIEH-YUNG LO (6 March 2018). "Beijing's welcome mat for overseas Chinese". Lowy Institute. Archived from the original on 17 July 2022. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
- ^ Richard D. Lewis (2003). The Cultural Imperative. ISBN 9780585434902. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
- ^ Zhou, Wanfeng (17 December 2008). "China goes on the road to lure 'sea turtles' home". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- ^ Lau, Joyce (21 August 2020). "Returning Chinese scholars 'marginalised' at home and abroad". Times Higher Education. Archived from the original on 19 April 2022.
- ^ West (2010), pp. 289–90
- ^ Pierson, David (31 March 2006). "Dragon Roars in San Gabriel". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 13 August 2021. Retrieved 20 February 2020.
- ^ 張明愛 (11 March 2012). "Reforms urged to attract overseas Chinese". China.org.cn. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- ^ "President meets leaders of overseas Chinese organizations". English.gov.cn. 9 April 2012. Archived from the original on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- ^ Wang, Huiyao (24 May 201). "China's Competition for Global Talents: Strategy, Policy and Recommendations" (PDF). Asia Pacific. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- ^ Liao, Wenhui; He, Qicai (2015). "Tenth World Conference of Overseas Chinese: Annual International Symposium on Regional Academic Activities Report (translated)". The International Journal of Diasporic Chinese Studies. 7 (2): 85–89.
- ^ Tremann, Cornelia (December 2013). "Temporary Chinese Migration to Madagascar: Local Perceptions, Economic Impacts, and Human Capital Flows" (PDF). African Review of Economics and Finance. 5 (1). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- ^ "Zambia has 13,000 Chinese". Zambia Daily Mail News. 21 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- ^ Cook, Seth; Lu, Jixia; Tugendhat, Henry; Alemu, Dawit (May 2016). "Chinese Migrants in Africa: Facts and Fictions from the Agri-Food Sector in Ethiopia and Ghana". World Development. 81: 61–70. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.11.011.
- ^ "China empowers a million Ethiopians: ambassador". Africa News Agency. 26 January 2016. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
- ^ "Chinese Businesses Quit Angola After 'Disastrous' Currency Blow". Bloomberg. 20 April 2017. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 6 May 2017.
- ^ "China-Nigeria's trade volume declining very fast –Chinese Ambassador". The Sun. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
- ^ "Marutians of Chinese Origins". mychinaroots. Archived from the original on 17 August 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
- ^ Chinese, Algerians fight in Algiers – witnesses Archived 26 September 2021 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters. 4 August 2009.
- ^ Tagy, Mwakawago (14 January 2013). "Dar-Beijing for improved diplomatic-ties". Daily News. Dar es Salaam. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- ^ "reunion statistics". Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2021, September 22). Réunion. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2000. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
- ^ Horta, Loro. "China, Mozambique: old friends, new business". International Relations and Security Network. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- ^ Lo, Kinling (17 November 2017). "How Chinese living in Zimbabwe reacted to Mugabe's downfall: 'it's the most hopeful moment in 20 years'". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 3 October 2021. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f Sautman, Barry; Yan Hairong (December 2007). "Friends and Interests: China's Distinctive Links with Africa" (PDF). African Studies Review. 50 (3): 89. doi:10.1353/arw.2008.0014. S2CID 132593326. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2014.
- ^ Situma, Evelyn (7 November 2013). "Kenya savours, rues China moment". Business Daily. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- ^ Jaramogi, Pattrick (18 February 2013), Uganda: Chinese Investments in Uganda Now At Sh1.5 Trillion, archived from the original on 29 December 2014, retrieved 20 February 2013
- ^ 'The Oriental Post': the new China–Africa weekly, France 24, 10 July 2009, archived from the original on 15 July 2009, retrieved 26 August 2009
- ^ "Chinese Engagement In Lesotho And Potential Areas For Cooperation". Wikileaks. Archived from the original on 28 April 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
- ^ "Somalis in Soweto and Nairobi, Chinese in Congo and Zambia, local anger in Africa targets foreigners". Mail & Guardian. 25 January 2015. Archived from the original on 28 January 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- ^ a b c d e Aurégan, Xavier (February 2012). "Les "communautés" chinoises en Côte d'Ivoire". Working Papers, Working Atlas. Institut Français de Géopolitique. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "China–Mali relationship: Finding mutual benefit between unequal partners" (PDF). Centre for Chinese Studies Policy Briefing. January 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2014. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- ^ "China in Cape Verde: the Dragon's African Paradise". Online Africa Policy Forum. 2 January 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2015.
- ^ "Chinese in Rwanda". Public Radio International. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
- ^ "Chinese traders shake up Moroccan vendors". Agence France-Presse. 24 September 2004. Archived from the original on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- ^ "1999 年底非洲國家和地區華僑、華人人口數 (1999 year-end statistics on Chinese expatriate and overseas Chinese population numbers in African countries and territories)". Chinese Language Educational Foundation. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- ^ "508 Chinese evacuated from Libya". Xinhua News Agency. 2 August 2014. Archived from the original on 2 August 2014.
- ^ West, Barbara A. (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794, ISBN 978-1438119137
- ^ "Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2021". DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS MALAYSIA OFFICIAL PORTAL. 2021. Archived from the original on 1 February 2022. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
- ^ Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-hari Penduduk Indonesia Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Badan Pusat Statistik. 2011. ISBN 9789790644175. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
- ^ "Population in Brief 2015" (PDF). Singapore Government. September 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- ^ a b "International migrant stock 2019". United Nations. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2020.
- ^ "Burma". The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 10 February 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- ^ "Burma". State.gov. 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- ^ "PRIB: Senate declares Chinese New Year as special working holiday". Senate.gov.ph. 21 January 2013. Archived from the original on 9 April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- ^ "在日华人统计人口达92万创历史新高". rbzwdb.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2021. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ Nhean, Moeun. "Chinese New Year: family, food and prosperity for the year ahead". www.phnompenhpost.com. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- ^ a b "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Archived from the original on 7 March 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ "Chinese expats in Dubai". TimeOutDubai.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ "Chinese influence outpaces influx". Dawn. 22 January 2018. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
- ^ "Economic Planning And Development, Prime Minister's Office". Prime Minister's Office, Brunei Darussalam. 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- ^ "Appeal to international organisations – Stop the China-Israel migrant worker scam!" (Press release). Kav La'Oved. 21 December 2001. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2006.
- ^ "Chinese in N. Korea 'Face Repression'". Chosun Ilbo. 10 October 2009. Archived from the original on 14 October 2009. Retrieved 15 October 2009.
- ^ "僑委會全球資訊網". Archived from the original on 4 January 2011.
- ^ "Qatar´s population by nationality". Bq Magazine. 12 July 2014. Archived from the original on 22 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2014.
- ^ Huber, Juliette (1 September 2021). "Chapter 2 At the Periphery of Nanyang: The Hakka Community of Timor-Leste". Chinese Overseas. 20pages=52–90. doi:10.1163/9789004473263_004. Archived from the original on 7 January 2023. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
- ^ "Chinese population statistics – Countries compared". NationMaster. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- ^ 馬敏/Ma Min (1 April 2009), "新疆《哈薩克斯坦華僑報》通過哈方註冊 4月底創刊/Xinjiang 'Kazakhstan Overseas Chinese Newspaper' Passes Kazakhstan Registration; To Begin Publishing at Month's end", Xinhua News, archived from the original on 20 July 2011, retrieved 17 April 2009
- ^ Population and Housing Census 2009. Chapter 3.1. Resident population by nationality (PDF) (in Russian), Bishkek: National Committee on Statistics, 2010, archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2016, retrieved 14 December 2021
- ^ Ousselin, Edward, ed. (2018). La France: histoire, société, culture. Toronto: Canadian Scholars. p. 229. ISBN 9781773380643. Archived from the original on 11 April 2023. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
- ^ "Italy: foreign residents by country of origin". Statista. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- ^ "Spain: foreign population by nationality 2022". Statista. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
- ^ "Federal Statistical Office Germany - GENESIS-Online". www-genesis.destatis.de. 26 April 2021. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
- ^ "Utrikes födda efter födelseland – Hong Kong + China + Taiwan". SCB Statistikdatabasen. Archived from the original on 26 April 2023. Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- ^ "НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СОСТАВ НАСЕЛЕНИЯ" [National Composition of the Population] (PDF) (in Russian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 October 2021.
- ^ "Relatório de Imigração, Fronteiras e Asilo" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 June 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
- ^ "Ausländerstatistik Juni 2019". sem.admin.ch. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
- ^ "Census of Population 2016 – Profile 8 Irish Travellers, Ethnicity and Religion". Cso.ie. Archived from the original on 20 September 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
- ^ "Overseas Chinese Associations in Austria". Archived from the original on 30 September 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ^ "Population by nationalities in detail 2011 - 2020". Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- ^ "Η ζωή στην China Town της Θεσσαλονίκης" [Life in China Town, Thessaloniki]. 8 September 2017. Archived from the original on 27 September 2021. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
- ^ "Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности – "Остали" етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени" (PDF). Webrzs.stat.gov.rs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
- ^ Statistikaamet (31 December 2011). Population by Ethnic Nationality, Sex and Place of Residence. Statistikaamet. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- ^ "2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 27 December 1996. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
- ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity Highlight Tables". statcan.gc.ca. 25 October 2017. Archived from the original on 17 September 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
- ^ "Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity in Canada". statcan.gc.ca. 8 May 2013. Archived from the original on 22 May 2017. Retrieved 10 November 2021.
- ^ a b "La comunidad china en el país se duplicó en los últimos 5 años". www.clarin.com. 27 September 2010. Archived from the original on 3 August 2018. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ "Chinese Panamanians". Minority Rights Group. Archived from the original on 1 October 2021. Retrieved 29 July 2020.
- ^ "Chinese-Mexicans celebrate repatriation to Mexico". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 23 November 2012. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
- ^ https://www.inei.gob.pe/media/MenuRecursivo/publicaciones_digitales/Est/Lib1539/libro.pdf Archived 11 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine[bare URL PDF]
- ^ S.A.P, El Mercurio (9 April 2018). "Extranjeros en Chile superan el millón 110 mil y el 72% se concentra en dos regiones: Antofagasta y Metropolitana | Emol.com". Emol. Archived from the original on 4 November 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
- ^ "The Chinese Community and Santo Domingo's Barrio Chino". Archived from the original on 7 August 2017. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ "Nicaragua: People groups". Joshua Project. Archived from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2022.
- ^ Demographics of Costa Rica#Ethnic groups
- ^ "Censusstatistieken 2012" (PDF). Algemeen Bureau voor de Statistiek in Suriname (General Statistics Bureau of Suriname). p. 76. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- ^ "Presencia de chinos en Colombia se ha duplicado en ocho años". UNIMEDIOS. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- ^ "Redatam: CEPAL/CELADE". Celade.cepal.org. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2012.
- ^ CIA World Factbook. Cuba. Archived 12 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine 15 May 2008.
- ^ "National ethnic population projections, by age and sex, 2018(base)-2043". Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2021.
- ^ Fiji Archived 27 August 2021 at the Wayback Machine, The World Factbook. Retrieved 23 March 2012
- ^ "Tonga announces the expulsion of hundreds of Chinese immigrants" Archived 16 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine, John Braddock, wsws.org, 18 December 2001
- ^ Paul Raffaele and Mathew Dearnaley (22 November 2001). "Tonga to expel race-hate victims". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 1 November 2011.
- ^ Palau Archived 3 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine, The World Factbook. Retrieved 23 March 2012
- ^ Chinese in Samoa
|Library resources about |
- Barabantseva, Elena. Overseas Chinese, Ethnic Minorities and Nationalism: De-centering China, Oxon/New York: Routledge, 2011.
- Brauner, Susana, and Rayén Torres. "Identity Diversity among Chinese Immigrants and Their Descendants in Buenos Aires." in Migrants, Refugees, and Asylum Seekers in Latin America (Brill, 2020) pp. 291–308.
- Chin, Ung Ho. The Chinese of South East Asia (London: Minority Rights Group, 2000). ISBN 1-897693-28-1
- Chuah, Swee Hoon, et al. "Is there a spirit of overseas Chinese capitalism?." Small Business Economics 47.4 (2016): 1095-1118 online
- Fitzgerald, John. Big White Lie: Chinese Australians in White Australia, (UNSW Press, Sydney, 2007). ISBN 978-0-86840-870-5
- Gambe, Annabelle R. (2000). Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Development in Southeast Asia (illustrated ed.). LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 978-3825843861. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Kuhn, Philip A. Chinese Among Others: Emigration in Modern Times, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2008).
- Le, Anh Sy Huy. "The Studies of Chinese Diasporas in Colonial Southeast Asia: Theories, Concepts, and Histories." China and Asia 1.2 (2019): 225–263.
- López-Calvo, Ignacio. Imaging the Chinese in Cuban Literature and Culture, Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida, 2008. ISBN 0-8130-3240-7
- Ngai, Mae. The Chinese Question: The Gold Rushes and Global Politics (2021), Mid 19c in California, Australia and South Africa excerpt
- Ngai, Pun; Chan, Jenny (2012). "Global capital, the state, and Chinese workers: The Foxconn experience". Modern China. 38 (4): 383–410. doi:10.1177/0097700412447164. S2CID 151168599.
- Pan, Lynn. The Encyclopedia of the Chinese Overseas, (Harvard University press, 1998). ISBN 981-4155-90-X
- Reid, Anthony; Alilunas-Rodgers, Kristine, eds. (1996). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast China and the Chinese. Contributor Kristine Alilunas-Rodgers (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824824464. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
- Sai, Siew-Min. "Mandarin lessons: modernity, colonialism and Chinese cultural nationalism in the Dutch East Indies, c. 1900s." Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 17.3 (2016): 375–394. online Archived 27 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Sai, Siew-Min. "Dressing Up Subjecthood: Straits Chinese, the Queue, and Contested Citizenship in Colonial Singapore." Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 47.3 (2019): 446–473. online Archived 27 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine
- Tan, Chee-Beng. Chinese Overseas: Comparative Cultural Issues, Hong Kong University Press, 2004.
- Taylor, Jeremy E. ""Not a Particularly Happy Expression":"Malayanization" and the China Threat in Britain's Late-Colonial Southeast Asian Territories." Journal of Asian Studies 78.4 (2019): 789-808. online
- Van Dongen, Els, and Hong Liu. "The Chinese in Southeast Asia." in Routledge Handbook of Asian Migrations (2018). online
- Media related to Chinese expatriates at Wikimedia Commons