Chinese intelligence activity abroad
The government of China is engaged in espionage overseas, directed through diverse methods via the Ministry of State Security, the United Front Work Department, and People's Liberation Army intelligence as well as their various front organizations. It is employs a variety of tactics including cyber spying to gain access to sensitive information remotely, Signals intelligence (SIGINT), Electronic intelligence (ELINT) and Human agents (HUMINT). China is also engaged in industrial espionage aimed at gathering information to bolster its economy, as well as monitoring dissidents abroad such as supporters of the Tibetan independence movement, Uyghurs, the Taiwan independence movement, Falun Gong, and democracy activists.
- 1 Method of operation
- 2 Intelligence activity worldwide
- 2.1 Africa
- 2.2 Asia
- 2.3 Europe
- 2.4 North America
- 2.5 Oceania
- 2.6 South America
- 3 See also
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Method of operation
It is believed that Chinese espionage is aimed at the preservation of China's national security through gaining commercial, technological, and military secrets. It is generally believed that Chinese intelligence agencies operate differently from other espionage organizations by employing primarily academics or students who will be in their host country only a short time, rather than spending years cultivating a few high-level sources or double agents. The use of non-traditional intelligence assets is codified in Chinese law. Article 14 of China's 2017 National Intelligence Law mandates that Chinese intelligence agencies "may ask relevant institutions, organizations and citizens to provide necessary support, assistance and cooperation."
Much information about the Chinese intelligence services comes from defectors, whom the PRC accuses of lying to promote an anti-PRC agenda. One known exception to this rule is the case of Katrina Leung, who was accused of starting an affair with an FBI agent to gain sensitive documents from him. A U.S. judge dismissed all charges against her due to prosecutorial misconduct.
The United States believes the Chinese military has been developing network technology in recent years in order to perform espionage on other nations. Several cases of computer intrusions suspected of Chinese involvement have been found in various countries including Australia, New Zealand, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, India and the United States.
In the aftermath of the Shadow Network computer espionage operation security experts claimed "targeting Tibetan activists is a strong indicator of official Chinese government involvement" since private Chinese hackers pursue economic information only. In 2009, Canadian researchers at the Munk Center for International Studies at the University of Toronto examined the computers at the personal office of the Dalai Lama. Evidence led to the discovery of GhostNet, a large cyber-spy network. Chinese hackers had gained access to computers possessed by government and private organizations in 103 countries, although researchers say there is no conclusive evidence China's government was behind it. Computers penetrated include those of the Dalai Lama, Tibetan exiles, organizations affiliated with the Dalai Lama in India, Brussels, London and New York, embassies, foreign ministries and other government offices, and focus was believed to be on the governments of South Asian and Southeast Asian countries. The same researchers discovered a second cyberspy network in 2010. They were able to see some of the stolen documents which included classified material about Indian missile systems, security in several Indian states, confidential embassy documents about India's relationships in West Africa, Russia and the Middle East, NATO forces travel in Afghanistan, and a years worth of the Dalai Lama's personal email. The "sophisticated" hackers were linked to universities in China. Beijing again denied involvement. In 2019 Chinese hackers posing as New York Times, Amnesty International and other organization's reporters targeted the private office of the Dalai Lama, Tibetan Parliament members, and Tibetan nongovernmental organizations, among others. Facebook and Twitter took down down a large network of Chinese bots that was spreading disinformation about the 2019 Hong Kong protests and a months long attack on Hong Kong media companies was traced to Chinese hackers.
Facial recognition and surveillance artificial intelligence (AI) technology developed inside China to identify Uighurs, a Muslim minority, is now used throughout China, and despite security concerns over Chinese involvement in 5G wireless networks, is manufactured and exported worldwide by state owned China National Electronics Import & Export and Huawei to many countries, including Ecuador, Zimbabwe, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Kenya, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela, Bolivia, Angola and Germany. American companies and universities such as MIT are partnering with, and Princeton, the Rockefeller Foundation and the California Public Employees' Retirement System are backing, Chinese surveillance and AI start-ups such as Hikvision, SenseTime and Megvii, which sell less expensive versions of Chinese state developed artificial intelligence surveillance systems, although this is being curtailed somewhat due to the companies being declared national security threats and human rights violators by the US, and US-China trade concerns. China invests in American AI startups and is starting to overtake the US in AI investment.
Intelligence activity worldwide
In January 2018, Le Monde reported that the headquarters of the African Union, which had been constructed by the China State Construction Engineering Corporation, had had its computer systems compromised between 2012 and 2017, with data from AU servers being forwarded to Shanghai. The building's computer system was subsequently removed and the AU refused a Chinese offer to configure the replacement system. Le Monde alleged that the AU had then covered up the hack to protect Chinese interests in the continent.
China and the African Union have rejected the allegations. Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn rejected the French media report, saying that he doesn't believe it. Moussa Faki Mahamat, head of the African Union Commission, said the allegations in the Le Monde's report were false. "These are totally false allegations and I believe that we are completely disregarding them."
Since at least April 2017, TEMP.Periscope, an advanced persistent threat based in China, has been hacking Cambodian organizations related to the 2018 general election. Targets included the National Election Commission, the Ministry of Interior, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, the Senate of Cambodia, and the Ministry of Economy and Finance. The APT engaged in spear phishing against Monovithya Kem of the Cambodia National Rescue Party, sending messages which impersonated the Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights.
According to Falun Gong media The Epoch Times and Pan-democracy political groups, China has been sending spies into Hong Kong harassing dissents and Falun Gong practitioners. In 2012, according to Oriental Daily, a Chinese security ministry official has been arrested in Hong Kong for suspicion of acting as a double agent for the United States.
India has quietly informed companies to avoid using Chinese-made telecommunications equipment, fearing that it may have spy capabilities embedded within it. Also, India's intelligence service, Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) believes that China is using dozens of study centers that it has set up in Nepal near the Indian border in part for the purposes of spying on India.
The "Luckycat" hacking campaign that targeted Japan and Tibet also targeted India. A Trojan horse was inserted into a Microsoft Word file ostensibly about India's ballistic missile defense program, allowing for the command and control servers to connect and extract information. The attacks were subsequently traced back to a Chinese graduate student from Sichuan and the Chinese government is suspected of planning the attacks.
Chinese hackers linked to the Third Technical Department of the People's Liberation Army have launched extensive and sustained hacking campaigns against the Central Tibetan Administration, based in Dharamshala.
In March 2019, Indian intelligence agencies, told news services that China was trying to spy on Indian Naval bases, located in southern India and Integrated Test Range missile testing facility located at Abdul Kalam Island. It was doing this by establishing Chinese business around these areas.
According to a report by Trend Micro the "Luckycat" hacker group is engaged in cyber-espionage on targets in Japan, India and Tibet. During the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami and nuclear meltdowns at Fukushima, the hackers inserted a Trojan virus into PDF attachments to emails being circulated containing information about radiation dosage measurements. Investigation into ownership of the command and control servers by Trend Micro and The New York Times linked the malware to Gu Kaiyuan, through QQ numbers and the alias "scuhkr". Mr. Gu is a former graduate student of the Information Security Institute of Sichuan University in Chengdu and wrote his master's thesis on computer hacking. James A. Lewis of the Center for Strategic and International Studies, believes the attacks were state-sponsored.
FireEye President Travis Reese has stated that the Chinese-sponsored Conference Crew, founded in 2016, has engaged in cyber-espionage against the Philippines, targeting diplomatic and national security information.
FireEye claims that two hacker operations tied to the Chinese military, dubbed Tonto Team and Stone Panda/APT10, have attempted to hack the South Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs and other targets related to the deployment of THAAD.
In 2010, Jayalalithaa Jayaram – head of the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam – stated that Chinese workers, working in parts of the country devastated by the Sri Lankan Civil War were infiltrated with Chinese spies on surveillance missions targeted at India.
In May 2019, Sri Lankan authorities caught former chief of Military intelligence, for allegedly acting as a Chinese mole and trying to obstruct a probe by Indian and American agencies into the Easter bombings.
Presidential aide Wang Jen-ping was found in 2009 to have sold nearly 100 confidential documents to China since 2007; Military intelligence officer Lo Chi-cheng was found to have been acting as a double agent in 2010 for China since 2007; Maj. Gen. Lo Hsien-che, electronic communications and information bureau chief during the administration of former President Chen Shui-bian, has been suspected of selling military secrets to Mainland China since 2004.
In 2007 the Ministry of Justice Investigation Bureau stated that 500 gigabyte Maxtor Basics Personal Storage 3200 hard drives produced by Seagate Technology and manufactured in Thailand may have been modified by a Chinese subcontractor and shipped with the Virus.Win32.AutoRun.ah virus. As many as 1,800 drives sold in the Netherlands and Taiwan after August 2007 were reportedly infected with the virus, which scanned for passwords for products such as World of Warcraft and QQ and uploading them to a website in Beijing.
Army Major General Hsieh Chia-kang, deputy commander of Matsu Defense Command, has been accused of providing intelligence to China, having been recruited by retired army colonel Hsin Peng-sheng.
Zhou Hongxu (周泓旭), a graduate of National Chengchi University's MBA program, has been accused of attempting to recruit an official from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for the purposes of providing intelligence to China. Zhou was reportedly instructed by China's Taiwan Affairs Office to enroll in the university in order to make friends and develop a spy ring. Zhou reportedly solicited classified documents, offering trips to Japan and United States dollars in payment.
In January 2018, it was reported that the Taipei District Prosecutors' Office is investigating if classified information regarding the Airborne Special Service Company was passed on to Zhou Hongxu (周泓旭), who was already convicted for violating the National Security Act. In March 2018, a retired colonel was charged with breaching the National Security Act by the Kaohsiung District Prosecutors' Office, which alleged that the colonel shared classified personal information and planned to develop a spy ring in Taiwan. In April 2018, Hung Chin-hsi (洪金錫), a Macau-born businssman, was accused of developing a spy ring in the Ministry of Justice, on behalf of China. Captain Zhen Xiaojiang (鎮小江) was convicted in 2015 of recruiting Taiwanese military officers as part of a spy ring on behalf of China, including Army Major-General Hsu Nai-chuan (許乃權). Zhen sent intelligence regarding Taiwan's radar installations and Dassault Mirage 2000 fighters to China. He was deported to Hong Kong in July 2018.
The Wall Street Journal reported that Taiwan has been "ground zero" for economic espionage related to integrated circuit fabrication. In a review of ten prosecutions for technology-related thefts in Taiwan, WSJ found that nine of those cases involved technology transfer to China. An employee of Nanya Technology Corp. allegedly stole designs for dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) on behalf of Tsinghua Holdings. Hsu Chih-Peng, an engineer for Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., allegedly stole microchip designs after being solicited by the Chinese government-owned Shanghai Huali Microelectronics Coration.
According to Taiwanese prosecutors, engineer Wang Yongming (on behalf of Fujian Jinhua Integrated Circuit) engaged in espionage to steal Micron Technology microchip designs via the Taiwanese company UMC. Micron alleges that UMC hired Micron's engineers, asking them to steal files on advanced memory chips. The files Wang allegedly stole were said to be production secrets, including testing procedures related to metallization, and the DR25nmS design protocol.
According to the security research firm FireEye, Chinese hackers are suspected of targeting Vietnamese government and corporate targets. The hacking group, designated Conimes, phished the targets and delivered malware via a pre-2012 version of Microsoft Word.
According to the cyber-security firm Area 1, hackers working for the People's Liberation Army Strategic Support Force compromised the COREU network used for communication by the European Union, allowing for the theft of thousands of low-classified documents and diplomatic cables.
In 2019, According to a report released by European External Action Service. There were an estimated 250 Chinese MSS spies operating in capital of European Union.
Belgian Justice Minister Jo Vandeurzen accused the Chinese government of electronic espionage against the government of Belgium, while Foreign Minister Karel De Gucht informed the Belgian Federal Parliament that his ministry was hacked by Chinese agents. The espionage is possibly linked to Belgium hosting the headquarters of NATO and the European Union.
The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Leuven was also believed to be the center for a group of Chinese students in Europe conducting industrial espionage, operating under a front organization called the Chinese Students' and Scholars' Association of Leuven. In 2005 a leading figure of the Association defected to Belgium, providing information to the Sûreté de l’Etat on hundreds of spies engaged in economic espionage across Europe. The group had no obvious links to Chinese diplomats and was focused on getting moles into laboratories and universities in the Netherlands, Britain, Germany, France and Belgium. The People's Daily, an organ of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, dismissed the reports as fabrications triggered by fears of China's economic development.
In February 2019, According to a report released by European External Action Service. There were an estimated 250 Chinese MSS spies operating in Brussels, the capital of European Union.
According to the security research firm F5, Chinese hackers launched widespread attacks against Finnish Internet of things computers prior to the 2018 Russia–United States summit in Helsinki.
There have been several incidents of suspected Chinese spies in France. This includes Shi Pei Pu, a Chinese opera singer from Beijing who convinced a French diplomat that he was a woman, and spied on France.
French media also portrayed Li Li Whuang (李李), a 22-year-old Chinese intern at car parts maker Valeo, as an industrial spy. Both the French prosecution and Valeo refuted media claims of spying and the case was later considered to be a psychosis. Li Li was ultimately convicted of violating the confidentiality clause of her contract and served two months in prison, but was allowed to continue her doctoral studies at the University of Technology of Compiègne.
Two French intelligence operatives, identified only as Henri M and Pierre-Marie H, were accused of communicating classified information to China. Henri M was reportedly the Beijing station chief for the Directorate-General for External Security.
According to reporting by Le Figaro, the General Directorate for Internal Security and Directorate-General for External Security believe that Chinese spies have used LinkedIn to target thousands of business and government officials as potential sources of information.
Between August and September 2007 Chinese hackers were suspected of using Trojan horse spyware on various government computers, including those of the Chancellory, the Ministry of Economics and Technology, and the Ministry of Education and Research. Germans officials believe Trojan viruses were inserted in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint files, and approximately 160 gigabytes of data were siphoned to Canton, Lanzhou and Beijing via South Korea, on instructions from the People's Liberation Army.
The Federal Ministry of the Interior estimates that Chinese economic espionage could be costing Germany between 20 and 50 billion euros annually. Spies are reportedly targeting mid- and small-scale companies that do not have as strong security regimens as larger corporations. Berthold Stoppelkamp, head of the Working Group for Economic Security (ASW), stated that German companies had a poor security culture making espionage easier, exacerbated by the absence of a "strong, centralized" police command. Walter Opfermann, a counter-intelligence expert for the state of Baden-Württemberg, claimed that China is using extremely sophisticated electronic attacks capable of endangering portions of critical German infrastructure, having gathered sensitive information through techniques such as phone hacking and Trojan emails. In November 2018, German prosecutors in Cologne charged a former employee of Lanxess for engaging in industrial espionage on behalf of a Chinese copycat company.
Germany suspects China of spying both on German corporations and on Uyghur expatriates living in the country. In 2011, a 64-year-old German man was charged with spying on Uighurs in Munich between April 2008 and October 2009. Munich is a center for expatriate Uyghurs, and in November 2009 members of the Federal Criminal Police Office arrested four Chinese nationals on charges of spying on Uyghurs. In 2007 Chinese diplomat Ji Wumin left Germany after being observed meeting with individuals engaged in surveillance of Munich Uyghurs, and German investigators suspect China is coordinating espionage activities out of its Munich consulate in the Neuhausen district.
In 2017, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV) published information alleging that Chinese intelligence services had created fake social media profiles on sites such as LinkedIn, using them to gather information on German politicians and government officials. The Verfassungsschutz had previously warned that Chinese intelligence officers are making use of social networking sites such as LinkedIn and XING to recruit informants. Lu Kang of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs denied the allegations.
Lithuanian intelligence agencies have claimed that China is engaged in an "increasingly aggressive" campaign of espionage, which includes "attempts to recruit Lithuanian citizens". Darius Jauniskis, Director of the State Security Department of Lithuania, has cautioned against a potential threat posed by Huawei telecommunications equipment.
Hackers working as part of APT 10, on behalf of the Chinese government, hacked Norwegian business software provider Visma, reportedly to gain access to the information on the company's customers. Beginning on 30 August 2018, APT10 used a malware program dubbed Trochilus and accessed a backdoor, and then proceeded to use WinRAR and cURL to exfiltrate data from Visma to a Dropbox account.
In May 2009, Stefan Zielonka, a Polish cipher officer working for the Military Information Services, disappeared. He is suspected of providing the Chinese or Russian governments with Polish and NATO cryptography information. Zielonka's body was later retrieved from the Vistula river, although investigators remain uncertain as to whether Zielonka was attempting to defect or committed suicide, or whether the body retrieved actually was Zielonka's.
In January 2019, the Huawei sales director for Poland, identified as Weijing Wang (a.k.a "Stanislaw Wang") was arrested, along with a former senior agent of the Agencja Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego (ISA) named Piotr Durbajlo, on suspicion of espionage. Wang was educated at the Beijing Foreign Studies University and studied Polish in Łódź, and subsequently worked as a cultural attaché at the Chinese consulate in Gdańsk. Wang joined Huawei's Enterprise Business Group in 2017. Durbajlo worked at the Military University of Technology, working on telecommunications security projects. After retiring from the ISA, he began working as a consultant for Orange Polska.
In December 2007, Igor Reshetin, the Chief Executive of Tsniimash-Export, and three researchers were sentenced to prison for passing on dual-purpose technology to the Chinese. Analysts speculated that the leaked technology could help China develop improved missiles and accelerate the Chinese space program. In September 2010, the Russian Federal Security Service detained two scientists working at the Baltic State Technical University in Saint Petersburg. The two are charged with passing on classified information to China, possibly through the Harbin Engineering University.
Babur Maihesuti, a Chinese Uighur who became a Swedish citizen was arrested for spying on the Uighur refugee communities in Sweden, Norway, Germany and the United States, and ultimately sentenced for illegal espionage activity. In April 2018 Sweden charged Dorjee Gyantsan, a 49-year-old Tibetan refugee, with spying on Tibetan dissidents and refugees in Sweden between July 2015 and February 2017. Gyantsan is accused of collecting information on Tibetan refugees in Sweden, and then pass that information on to Chinese officials in Finland and Poland. Gyantsan was arrested upon returning from Warsaw, carrying $6,000 in cash.
UK officials, including experts at its MI5 intelligence agency, are fearful that China could shut down businesses in the nation with Chinese cyberattacks and spy equipment embedded in computer and telecommunications equipment. MI5 has reportedly monitored Chinese espionage against Rio Tinto Group computers.
According to Robert Hannigan, former Director of the Government Communications Headquarters, Chinese hackers have engaged in economic espionage against British universities and engineering companies, on behalf of the Chinese government.
Newspapers have estimated that China may have up to 1,000 spies in Canada. The head of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service Richard Fadden in a television interview was assumed to have implied that various Canadian politicians at provincial and municipal levels had ties to Chinese intelligence. In an interview, he claimed that some politicians were under the influence of a foreign government, but he withdrew the statement a few days later. It was assumed by Chinese groups in Canada, and others, that he was referring to China because in the same interview he stressed the high level of Chinese spying in Canada, however Fadden did not say specifically which country these politicians were under the influence of. His statement was withdrawn a few days later.
In 2005, Canadian businessman Joe Wang stated his belief that threatening letters he received after broadcasting programs about alleged human rights abuses in China were from the Chinese consulate; one of the envelopes contained boric acid.
In 2012 Mark Bourrie, an Ottawa-based freelance journalist, stated that the State Council-run Xinhua News Agency asked him to collect information on the Dalai Lama through their Ottawa bureau chief, Dacheng Zhang, by exploiting his journalistic access to the Parliament of Canada. Bourrie stated that he was asked to write for Xinhua in 2009 and sought advice from the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), but was ignored. Bourrie was asked to collect information on the Sixth World Parliamentarians' Convention on Tibet at the Ottawa Convention Centre, although Xinhua had no intention of writing a story on the proceedings. Bourrie stated that at that point "We were there under false pretenses, pretending to be journalists but acting as government agents." Xinhua collects extensive information on Tibetan and Falun Gong dissidents in Canada, and is accused of being engaged in espionage by Chinese defector Chen Yonglin and Reporters Without Borders.
On 1 December 2013, Lloyd's Register employee Qing Quentin Huang was arrested and charged with violating the Security of Information Act, for allegedly communicating classified information on the federal shipbuilding strategy to China. Huang reportedly contacted the Chinese Embassy in Ottawa in an attempt to pass on secrets, which was detected by the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, who in turn alerted the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
China is suspected of having a long history of espionage in the United States against military and industrial secrets, often resorting to direct espionage, exploitation of commercial entities, and a network of scientific, academic, and business contacts. Several U.S. citizens have been convicted for spying for China. Naturalized citizen Dongfan Chung, an engineer working with Boeing, was the first person convicted under the Economic Espionage Act of 1996. Chung is suspected of having passed on classified information on designs including the Delta IV rocket, F-15 Eagle, B-52 Stratofortress and the CH-46 and CH-47 helicopters.
The U.S. Department of Justice investigation into the fund-raising activities had uncovered evidence that Chinese agents sought to direct contributions from foreign sources to the Democratic National Committee (DNC) before the 1996 presidential campaign. The Chinese embassy in Washington, D.C. was used for coordinating contributions to the DNC.
China's espionage and cyberattacks against the US government and business organizations are a major concern, according to the seventh annual report (issued September 2009) to the US Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. "Although attribution is a problem in cyber attacks, the scale and coordination of the attacks strongly indicates Chinese state involvement," said commission vice chairman Larry Wortzel. "In addition to harming U.S. interests, Chinese human and cyber espionage activities provide China with a method for leaping forward in economic, technological, and military development." The report cited that the number of cyberattacks from China against the US Department of Defense computer systems had grown from 43,880 in 2007 to 54,640 in 2008, a nearly 20 percent increase. Reuters reported that the Commission found that the Chinese government has placed many of its computer network responsibilities under the direction of the People's Liberation Army, and was using the data mostly for military purposes. In response, China slammed the report as "full of prejudice," and warning it could damage China-US relations. "We advise this so-called commission not to always view China through tinted glasses," Foreign Ministry spokesman Qin Gang said.
In 2008 the Chinese government was accused of secretly copying information from the laptop of Commerce Secretary Carlos Gutierrez during a trade mission to Beijing in order to gain information on American corporations. The allegations were subsequently dismissed by Qin Gang, a spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China.
In November 2005 the United States arrested four people in Los Angeles on suspicion of being involved in a Chinese spy ring.
Taiwanese-American scientist Wen Ho Lee (born in Nantou, Taiwan 21 December 1939) was accused and investigated on the grounds of espionage in 1999 but was acquitted of all charges except for mishandling classified data.
In response to these and other reports of cyberattacks by China against the United States, Amitai Etzioni of the Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies has suggested that the United States and China should agree to a policy of mutually assured restraint with respect to cyberspace. This would involve allowing both states to take the measures they deem necessary for their self-defense while simultaneously agreeing to refrain from taking offensive steps; it would also entail vetting these commitments.
In June 2015, the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) announced that it had been the target of a data breach targeting the records of as many as four million people. Later, FBI Director James Comey put the number at 18 million. The Washington Post has reported that the attack originated in China, citing unnamed government officials. James Comey said: "It is a very big deal from a national security perspective and from a counterintelligence perspective. It's a treasure trove of information about everybody who has worked for, tried to work for, or works for the United States government."
Defence Secretary Dennis Richardson has stated that China is engaged in extensive espionage against Australia, and included surveillance of Chinese Australian communities. Australia believes that the Chinese government have been spying on Australian businesses. A male Chinese student from Fujian was granted a protection visa by the Refugee Review Tribunal of Australia after revealing that he had been instructed to spy on Australian targets in exchange for an overseas scholarship, reporting to the Ministry of State Security. Reported targets included Chinese students with anti-Communist sentiments and Falun Gong practitioners.
Nicola Roxon, the Attorney-General of Australia, blocked the Shenzhen-based corporation Huawei from seeking a supply contract for the National Broadband Network, on the advice of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. The Australian government feared Huawei would provide backdoor access for Chinese cyber espionage.
The Chinese government is suspected of orchestrating an attack on the email network used by the Parliament of Australia, allowing unauthorized access to thousands of emails and compromising the computers of several senior Australian politicians including Prime Minister Julia Gillard, Foreign Minister Kevin Rudd, and Minister of Defense Stephen Smith.
Sheri Yan and Roger Uren were investigated by the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation on suspicion of spying for China. Oren, former Assistant Secretary responsible for the Asia section of the Office of National Assessments, was found to have removed documents pertaining to Chinese intelligence operations in Australia, and kept them in his apartment. Yan was suspected of undertaking influence operations on behalf of the Chinese Communist Party, and introducing Colonel Liu Chaoying, a military intelligence officer, to Australian contacts.
Hackers either working for or on behalf of the government of China are suspected as being responsible for a cyber-espionage attack against an Australian defense company. Designated APT Alf by the Australian Signals Directorate, the hackers stole approximately 30 gigabytes of data on projects including the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, the P-8 Poseidon, the C-130 Hercules and the Joint Direct Attack Munition. APT Alf used a remote access tool dubbed "China Chopper".
In 2017, Chinese hackers infiltrated the computers of Australian National University, potentially compromising national security research conducted at the university. In 2015, Chinese hackers infiltrated the Bureau of Meteorology.
Jian Yang, a member of the New Zealand House of Representatives, was investigated by the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service as a possibly spy due to his links to Chinese military and intelligence schools. Yang reportedly failed to declare that he had taught at the Air Force Engineering University or the Luoyang People's Liberation Army University of Foreign Languages, which are commonly used as training grounds for Chinese intelligence officers. Yang has denied the allegations that he is a spy.
The computer security firm ESET reported that tens of thousands of blueprints were stolen from Peruvian corporations through malware, which were traced to Chinese e-mail accounts. This was done through an AutoCAD worm called ACAD/Medre.A, written in AutoLISP, which located AutoCAD files, at which point they were sent to QQ and 163.com email accounts in China. ESET researcher Righard Zwienenberg claimed this was Chinese industrial espionage. The virus was mostly localized to Peru but spread to a few neighboring countries before being contained.
- Cyber threat intelligence
- Death of Shane Todd
- Economic and Industrial Espionage
- Concerns over Chinese involvement in 5G wireless networks
- China–United States trade war
- Huawei controversies and response to criticism
- Ministry of State Security of the People's Republic of China
- Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present)
- China–United States trade war
- Criticism of Huawei#Espionage and security concerns
- "Decoding MSS: Ministry of State Security – China". Asian Warrior. 5 September 2016. Archived from the original on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Drohan, Brig. Gen. USAF, Ret., Dr. Thomas A. (14 October 2019). "China's All-Effects All-Domain Strategy in an All-Encompassing Information Environment". Small Wars Journal. Retrieved 22 October 2019.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Perlroth, Nicole; Conger, Kate; Mozur, Paul (22 October 2019). "China Sharpens Hacking to Hound Its Minorities, Far and Wide". New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- McElroy, Damien (3 July 2005). "China aims spy network at trade secrets in Europe". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- "Report: China spies threaten U.S. technology". CNN. 15 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 January 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- "US man jailed in China 'spy' case". Al Jazeera. 24 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- Ward, Olivia (6 June 2007). "Ex-envoy warns of Chinese spies". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- Geis, Sonya (25 May 2006). "FBI Officials Are Faulted in Chinese Spying Case". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Racino, Brad; Castellano, Jill (6 July 2019). "UCSD doctor resigns amid questions about undisclosed Chinese businesses". Investigative Newsource, d.b.a. inewsource. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Redden, Elizabeth (23 August 2019). "Professor Indicted for Alleged Undisclosed Chinese Links". Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Kolata, Gina (4 November 2019). "Scientists With Links to China May Be Stealing Biomedical Research, U.S. Says". New York Times. Retrieved 4 November 2019.
- Johnston, David (23 May 1999). "The Nation; Finding Spies Is the Easy Part". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Shulsky, Abram N.; Schmitt, Gary J. (22 April 2004). "Son of Al Qaeda: Human Intelligence Collection". PBS. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Warrick, Joby; Johnson, Carrie (3 April 2008). "Chinese Spy 'Slept' In U.S. for 2 Decades". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Spalding, Robert (2019). Stealth war: how China took over while America's elite slept. Kaufman, Seth. Penguin Random House. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-593-08434-2. OCLC 1102323878.
- "Downer can grant defector political asylum: lawyer". 4=ABC News. 6 June 2005. Archived from the original on 12 September 2005. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- "Defectors say China running 1,000 spies in Canada". CBC News. 15 June 2005. Archived from the original on 6 February 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Jeldres, Julio A. (17 June 2005). "Canberra wakes up to China 'spies'". 5=Asia Times. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- "Beijing Denies Involvement in China Spy Case". VOA. 1 April 2008. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- "From China With Love". Frontline. PBS. 15 January 2004. Archived from the original on 13 August 2017. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Macartney, Jane (5 December 2007). "China hits back at 'slanderous and prejudiced' alert over cyber spies". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Barnes, Julian E. (4 March 2008). "China's computer hacking worries Pentagon". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 4 March 2008.
- Brookes, Peter (13 March 2008). "Flashpoint: The Cyber Challenge: Cyber attacks are growing in number and sophistication". Family Security Matters. Archived from the original on 29 March 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
- Perlroth, Nicole (29 March 2012). "Case Based in China Puts a Face on Persistent Hacking". New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Markoff, John (28 March 2009). "Vast Spy System Loots Computers in 103 Countries". New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- Markoff, John (11 May 2009). "Tracking Cyberspies Through the Web Wilderness". New York Times. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
- "Major cyber spy network uncovered". BBC News. 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- "Western spies vs. Chinese spies". Press TV. 29 March 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- Branigan, Tania (6 April 2010). "Cyber-spies based in China target Indian government and Dalai Lama". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Markoff, John; Barboza, David (5 April 2010). "Researchers Trace Data Theft to Intruders in China". New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- McMillan, Robert; Armental, Maria (19 August 2019). "Twitter, Facebook Target Accounts Spreading Misinformation on Hong Kong Protests". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Mozur, Paul (14 April 2019). "One Month, 500,000 Face Scans: How China Is Using A.I. to Profile a Minority". New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Mozur, Paul; Kessel, Jonah M.; Chan, Melissa (24 April 2019). "Made in China, Exported to the World: The Surveillance State". New York Times. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Shepardson, David; Horwitz, Josh (7 October 2019). "U.S. expands blacklist to include China's top AI startups ahead of trade talks". Reuters. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Mac, Ryan; Adams, Rosalind; Rajagopalan, Megha (5 June 2019). "US Universities And Retirees Are Funding The Technology Behind China's Surveillance State". Buzz Feed. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Mac, Ryan (8 October 2019). "The US Just Blacklisted China's Most Valuable Facial Recognition Startups Over Human Rights Abuses". Buzz Feed. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Cao, Sissi (10 October 2019). "US Blacklists China's Most Valuable AI Startup, Puts MIT Research at Risk". Observer. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- "Research Brief: China Is Starting To Edge Out The US in AI Investment". CB Insights. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 23 October 2019.
- Tilouine, oan; Kadiri, Ghalia (26 January 2018). "A Addis-Abeba, le siège de l'Union africaine espionné par Pékin". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 4 February 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
- Cave, Danielle (13 July 2018). "The African Union headquarters hack and Australia's 5G network". Australian Strategic Policy Institute.
- Aglionby, John; Feng, Emily; Yang, Yuan (29 January 2018). "African Union accuses China of hacking headquarters". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 30 January 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
- Sherman, Justin (28 May 2019). "What's the Deal with Huawei and This African Union Headquarters Hack?". New America. Archived from the original on 29 May 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2019.
"China rejects claim it bugged headquarters it built for African Union". The Guardian. Reuters. 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 1 February 2018. Retrieved 5 February 2018.
China and the African Union dismissed on Monday a report that Beijing had bugged the regional bloc’s headquarters, which it built and paid for in the Ethiopian capital.
- "AU spying report absurd: China". enca.com. Archived from the original on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- "African Union says has no secret dossiers after China spying report". Reuters. 8 February 2018. Archived from the original on 10 September 2018. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Henderson, Scott; Miller, Steve; Perez, Dan; Siedlarz, Marcin; Wilson, Ben; Read, Ben (10 July 2018). "Chinese Espionage Group TEMP.Periscope Targets Cambodia Ahead of July 2018 Elections and Reveals Broad Operations Globally". FireEye. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- Wu, Annie (15 July 2013). "Hong Kong Residents Defend Falun Gong From Harassment". epochtimes. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "團體促查國安跨境執法". Oriental Daily. 22 January 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "China 'arrests high-level US spy' in Hong Kong – reports". BBC. 1 June 2012. Archived from the original on 14 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- "UPI Asia, Indias telecom agency raises china spy scare, 8 October 2009". Upiasia.com. 22 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Times of India, China using Nepal study centres for spying, 1 October 2009". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 1 October 2009. Archived from the original on 18 October 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Chinese ship caught spying on India". Zee News. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Chinese spy ship docked at Colombo Port, says Indian media". News First. 31 August 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Trend Micro (2012). "Luckycat Redux: Inside an APT Campaign with Multiple Targets in India and Japan" (PDF). MalwareLab. p. 6.
- "Security firm links cyber spy campaign to Chinese hacker". Agence France-Presse. 30 March 2012. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Perlroth, Nicole (29 March 2012). "Case Based in China Puts a Face on Persistent Hacking". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Griffiths, James (10 January 2019). "When Chinese hackers declared war on the rest of us". MIT Technology Review.
- "DNA EXCLUSIVE: Chinese ship spied off Andaman". DNA India. 2 September 2019.
- "China Spying on Indian Military Establishments: Intelligence". India.com. 26 March 2019.
- "China is using hi-tech balloons to spy on India from Tibet". ThePrint. 18 June 2019.
- Gonsalves, Antone (30 March 2012). "Hackers Linked To Cyber-Espionage in Japan, India, Tibet". CRN Magazine. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Hopkins, Curt (30 March 2012). "Reports identify Chinese grad student in hacks against Tibetans, others". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Brown, Mark (30 March 2012). "Global cyberattacks linked to Chinese LuckyCat hacker group". 4=Wired. Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Grove, Thomas (10 July 2019). "A Spy Case Exposes China's Power Play in Central Asia". The Wall Street Journal.
- Badilla, Nelson (25 May 2017). "China, Vietnam behind cyber attacks on PH, Asia". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017.
He cited as an example the Conference Crew, which was founded in 2016 and has since expanded its operations early this year against critics of public and private institutions in seven countries, including the Philippines, where it collected important and strategic information that it will use for the interest and advantage of China. Boland said the Conference Crew sponsored by the Chinese government has increased its attacks on the defense and banking industries, financial services, telecommunications, consulting and media. The Conference Crew attack on the government is "predominantly [focused]on national security and diplomacy".
Agence France-Presse and Kristin Huang (24 August 2017). "Chinese-American academic loses appeal against Singapore expulsion". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
A prominent Chinese-born academic has lost an appeal against Singapore’s decision to expel him for allegedly being an "agent of influence" for a foreign government, the interior ministry said on Wednesday.
Ibrahim, Zuraidah (15 August 2017). "What Singapore is saying by expelling China hand Huang Jing". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 29 August 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
On 4 August, Singapore announced it was expelling a China-born American professor for trying to influence the city state’s foreign policy on behalf of an unnamed foreign government
Lee, Justina (21 August 2018). "Suspected China cyberhack on Singapore is a wake-up call for Asia". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
Without naming names, Singapore's government said state actors were behind the attack that saw thieves take information such as names, identification numbers, and outpatient prescription details. Experts are pointing fingers at China.
- Gallagher, Sean (21 April 2017). "Researchers claim China trying to hack South Korea missile defense efforts". Archived from the original on 13 May 2017.
FireEye claims to have found evidence that the attacks were staged by two groups connected to the Chinese military. One, dubbed Tonto Team by FireEye, operates from the same region of China as previous North Korean hacking operations. The other is known among threat researchers as APT10, or "Stone Panda"—the same group believed to be behind recent espionage efforts against US companies lobbying the Trump administration on global trade. These groups have also been joined in attacks by two "patriotic hacking" groups not directly tied to the Chinese government, Hultquist told the Journal—including one calling itself "Denounce Lotte Group" targeting the South Korean conglomerate Lotte. Lotte made the THAAD deployment possible through a land swap with the South Korean government.
- Berlinger, Joshua; Perry, Juliet (27 April 2017). "China tried to hack group linked to controversial missile defense system, US cybersecurity firm says". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017.
A cybersecurity firm in the United States believes state-sponsored Chinese hackers were trying to infiltrate an organization with connections to a US-built missile system in South Korea that Beijing firmly opposes. [...] When asked if the group could be North Koreans posing as Chinese hackers, Hultquist said his team has gathered plenty of evidence to prove the group's origins, including their use of the Chinese language.
Kim, Yoo-chul (5 July 2018). "China suspected of stealing Samsung, SK patents". Korea Times. Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
Chinese companies are suspected of stealing the intellectual property of Samsung Electronics and SK hynix to obtain advanced technological knowhow from them, sources familiar with the matter said Wednesday.
- "Jayalalithaa alleges Chinese espionage in Lanka". Press Trust of India via The Daily Mirror. 19 June 2010. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- "Sri Lanka ex-military intelligence head a 'Chinese spy' who was 'blocking' bombings probe". ThePrint. 6 May 2019. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- "Taiwan Readies for Fresh Wave of Espionage by China". Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Taiwan President Sounds Warning on Future of China Ties". Archived from the original on 28 January 2016. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- United Daily News (11 February 2011). "The lost military soul" Archived 14 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine, FocusTaiwan
- Watts, Steve (13 November 2007). "Some Seagate Hard Drives Virus-Infected". 1UP.com. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013.
The company is warning users today that a small percentage of Maxtor Basics Personal Storage 3200 hard drives purchased after August 2007 were shipped with a virus called "virus.win32.autorun.ah."
- McMillan, Robert (13 November 2007). "Seagate Ships Virus-Laden Hard Drives". PC World. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- Hill, Brandon (14 November 2007). "Seagate Serves External HDDs with a Side of Virus". DailyTech. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- "Retired military police officer indicted for spying". Taipei Times. 13 May 2017. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017. Retrieved 13 May 2017.
A retired military police officer who was on the security detail of former vice president Annette Lu (呂秀蓮) was yesterday indicted for spying for China, the Taoyuan District Prosecutors' Office said. The office said it had charged Major Wang Hung-ju (王鴻儒), 46, with violating the National Security Act (國家安全法) after he was found to be involved in espionage.
- Pan, Jason (11 May 2017). "Second suspect investigated in spy case". Archived from the original on 14 May 2017.
Army Major General Hsieh Chia-kang (謝嘉康), who is being investigated over allegations he leaked classified information on Taiwan’s missile defense systems to China, was released late on Tuesday after posting bail, prosecutors said.
Wu, J.R.; Lee, Carol (10 March 2017). Macfie, Nick (ed.). "Taiwan detains Chinese student in unusual suspected spying case". Reuters. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
"A man named Zhou Hongxu has been detained," Liao Chien-yu, a judge and spokesman for the Taipei District Court, told Reuters. Liao said the named suspect was the same individual being cited in local media reports. Prosecutors asked that Zhou be taken into custody on suspicion of violating national security laws and the request was approved by the court, Liao said, adding that Zhou could be held for at least two months.
- "China suspects graduate of Taiwan university of espionage". The Japan Times. 12 March 2017. Archived from the original on 2 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
Hsu, Elizabeth (8 May 2017). "Suspected Chinese spy to be held in Taiwan for another 2 months". 3=Central News Agency. Archived from the original on 11 May 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
Zhou Hongxu (周泓旭), 29, from Liaoning Province in China, was enrolled in an MBA program at National Chengchi University in Taipei 2012–2016 [...] Investigators said that Zhou allegedly was in contact with a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official, whom he had met while studying in Taiwan, and was trying to persuade the contact to hand over classified information in exchange for free trips abroad.
Pan, Jason (6 January 2018). "Spy possibly targeted top secret army unit: reports". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
The Taipei District Prosecutors' Office is looking into allegations that New Party Youth Corps member Lin Ming-cheng (林明正) passed on personal information and contact details of soldiers in the Army Aviation and Special Forces Command’s secretive Airborne Special Service Company (高空特種勤務中隊), also known as the "Liang Shan Special Operations Company" (涼山特勤隊) to former Chinese student Zhou Hongxu (周泓旭), who has been convicted of doing intelligence work for China, the newspaper said yesterday.
Pan, Jason (8 March 2018). "Retired colonel arrested over espionage charges". The Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 7 March 2018. Retrieved 8 March 2018.
Investigators said that documents show Lan passed on the personal information of six colonels and lieutenant colonels, as well as other university officers and military unit members, to China. Lan allegedly also passed on other classified military materials provided by his former colleagues, and that he had agreed to develop a spy network in Taiwan to conduct espionage for China.
- Pan, Jason (20 April 2018). "Man charged with espionage detained". The Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
- Strong, Matthew (18 July 2018). "Taiwan has deported Chinese spy to Hong Kong: reports". Taipei Times. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
- Yap, Chuin-Wei (1 July 2018). "Taiwan's Technology Secrets Come Under Assault From China". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 1 July 2018.
- Mozur, Paul; Zhang, Carolyn (22 June 2018). "Inside a Heist of American Chip Designs, as China Bids for Tech Power". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
- "Chinese cyber spies broaden attacks in Vietnam, security firm says". The Straits Times. Reuters. 31 August 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
Collier, Kevin (22 August 2017). "China Is Boosting Its Phishing Attacks – Against Vietnam". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
Both the lures, as well as others Read said his team has seen, contain malware exploits of Microsoft Word, a common tactic against computers that either run pirated versions of Microsoft Office or versions that haven’t been updated.
- Sanger, David E.; Erlanger, Steven (18 December 2018). "Hacked European Cables Reveal a World of Anxiety About Trump, Russia and Iran". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 December 2018. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
- "Hundreds of Russian and Chinese spies in Brussels – report". Deutsche Welle. 9 February 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "Belgium accuses Chinese government of cyber-espionage". Sophos. 7 May 2008. Archived from the original on 15 May 2017. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
According to media reports, Justice Minister Jo Vandeurzen has claimed that hacking attacks against the Belgian Federal Government have originated in China, and are likely to have been at the bequest of the Beijing government. Separately, Belgian minister of foreign affairs Karel De Gucht has told parliament that his ministry was the subject of cyberespionage by Chinese agents several weeks ago. [...] There has been speculation that China may be interested in spying on Belgium because NATO and the European Union have headquarters in the country. It has also been suggested that China may be interested in exploring Belgium's historical connections with Central Africa.
- Luard, Tim (22 July 2005). "China's spies come out from the cold". BBC. Archived from the original on 18 February 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Chinese Students Running Industrial 'Spy Network' Across Europe: Report". Agence France-Presse via spacedaily.com. 11 May 2005. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- McElroy, Damien (5 July 2005). "Chinese defector's spy claim". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Federal Bureau of Investigations (April 2011). "Higher Education and National Security: The Targeting of Sensitive, Proprietary, and Classified Information on Campuses of Higher Education". Federal Bureau of Investigations. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Chinese students running 'spy network' in EU". China Post. Agence France-Presse. 12 May 2005. Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "European media repeatedly fabricate 'Chinese espionage'". People's Daily. 1 July 2005. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
Some European countries deliberately sensationalized the so-called "Chinese espionage" in the past half a month. At the end of April, France set off a new upsurge of "Chinese girl student as industrial espionage"; on 9 May, various leading media in Sweden followed suit by creating the Karolinska "Chinese scholar espionage"; on 11 May, L'Agence France-Presse and a Belgian news website concocted a "Chinese economic espionage website" at Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. For a second, the "Chinese espionage" incidents had spread like wildfire in the European continent. [...] When asked the reason for these false reports, Sun Ling, Counselor for Education of Chinese Embassy in Sweden, noted that the fast development of China's economy made a few people who hold biased attitude towards China feel ill at ease. They think that China's rapid development was achieved through illegal means such as grabbing advanced techniques from the Western countries. If we have a look at the latest development of such incidents, the truth will be clear that such moves are a vicious undercurrent discriminating and demonizing China.
- "Hundreds of Russian and Chinese spies in Brussels – report". DW. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
- Boylan, Dan. "Chinese hackers struck days before Helsinki summit". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018.
The attacks on Finnish internet-connected devices originating from ChinaNet, China’s largest internet backbone, began spiking 12 July, just four days before Mr. Trump and Mr. Putin met in Helsinki, claimed the analysis by the Seattle-based cybersecurity firm F5.
- Boddy, Sara; Shattuck, Justin (19 July 2018). "Cyber Attacks Spike in Finland Before Trump-Putin Meeting". F5 Networks, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018.
- "Shi pei pu, singer spy and m butterfly, dies at 70, 1 July 2009" Archived 1 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
- "Space Daily, Chinese students running industrial spy network across Europe: report, 11 May 2005". Spacedaily.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Mata Hari chez Valeo". Le Nouvel Observateur. 19 May 2005. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- "Espionnage industriel : de la faute professionnelle à la psychose". Le Point. 21 November 2007. Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 28 January 2010.
- Garwood, Jeremy (2008). "Live and Let Spy?" (PDF). Lab Times. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Chazan, David (28 May 2018). "French spy charged with treason fell for Chinese 'honeytrap'". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "Un des espions mis en examen était soupçonné depuis 20 ans" (in French). Le Journal du Dimanche. 26 May 2018. Archived from the original on 29 May 2018. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- Samuel, Henry (23 October 2018). "Chinese spies fooled 'hundreds' of civil servants and executives, France reveals". 3=The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
- "China tried to spy on German parliament – report". Deutsche Welle. 6 July 2018. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- Northrop Grumman (9 October 2009). "Capability of the People's Republic of China to Conduct Cyber Warfare and Computer Network Exploitation" (PDF). United States – China Economic and Security Review Commission. p. 72. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Chinese spying on German government computer: report". IRNA via GlobalSecurity.org. 25 August 2007. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- "Merkel's China Visit Marred by Hacking Allegations". Der Spiegel. 27 August 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Press Trust of India (13 March 2012). "The Economic Times". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Weiss, Richard (3 April 2012). "Chinese Espionage Targets Small German Companies, Die Welt Says". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Gerlach, Marilyn (13 March 2012). "Insight: How German history helps modern spies". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Connolly, Kate (22 July 2009). "Germany accuses China of industrial espionage". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Weiss, Patricia; Burger, Ludwig; Barkin, Noah (16 November 2018). Collett-White, Mike (ed.). "Exclusive: German prosecutors charge Chinese-born engineer in industrial espionage case". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
- "The Local, Russia and China spying on German firms". Thelocal.de. 20 May 2009. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Stark, Holger (24 November 2009). "Spiegel, Germany suspects China of spying on Uighur expatriates, 24 November 2009". Spiegel Online. Spiegel.de. Archived from the original on 27 November 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "German man charged with spying on exiles for China". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "German man charged with spying on exiles for Chinay". 8 April 2011. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2011.
- Stark, Holger (24 November 2009). "Germany Suspects China of Spying on Uighur Expatriates". Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
Bigg, Matthew Mpoke, ed. (10 December 2017). "German intelligence unmasks alleged covert Chinese social media profiles". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
Germany’s intelligence service has published the details of social network profiles which it says are fronts faked by Chinese intelligence to gather personal information about German officials and politicians [...] Among the faked profiles whose details were published were that of "Rachel Li", identified as a "headhunter" at "RiseHR", and an "Alex Li", a "Project Manager at Center for Sino-Europe Development Studies".
Grieshaber, Kirsten (10 December 2017). "Germany's intelligence head warns of increased cyberspying from China". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 11 December 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
Hans-Georg Maassen said his agency, known by its German acronym BfV, believes more than 10,000 Germans have been targeted by Chinese intelligence agents posing as consultants, headhunters or researchers, primarily on the social networking site LinkedIn.
Ramthun, Christian (3 February 2017). "German Intelligence Agency Warns of Chinese Espionage". Handelsblatt. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
Germany’s domestic intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, is warning of increasing Chinese espionage all the way up to the German chancellery, according to an intelligence report obtained by weekly business magazine WirtschaftsWoche, a sister publication of Handelsblatt Global. The report states that Chinese spies are increasingly utilizing social networks such as Facebook or the business networking site Xing to recruit informants.
Hernández, Javier C.; Eddy, Melissa; Zhao, Iris (11 December 2017). "China Denies Using LinkedIn to Recruit German Informants". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
In Beijing on Monday, Lu Kang, a spokesman for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, called the investigation "complete hearsay and groundless". He urged German officials to "speak and act more responsibly".
- Agence France-Presse (9 February 2019). "China denies 'ridiculous' spying allegations by Lithuania". The South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 17 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- Stubbs, Jack (6 February 2019). Maclean, William (ed.). "China hacked Norway's Visma to steal client secrets: investigators". Reuters. Archived from the original on 15 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- Insikt Group (6 February 2019). "APT10 Targeted Norwegian MSP and US Companies in Sustained Campaign". Recorded Future. Archived from the original on 15 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
- "Military coder confirmed dead?". Warsaw Business Journal. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Polish cipher officer worked for Chinese intelligence?". Polskie Radio. 22 December 2009. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- "Body found in Vistula is missing signals officer". thenews.pl. 5 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
- Baran, oprac Violetta (3 April 2018). "Były polityk Samoobrony z zarzutami szpiegostwa na rzecz Rosji i Chin". wiadomosci.wp.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
- "Former Polish MP charged with spying for Russia, China: report". Radio Poland. 23 April 2018. Archived from the original on 25 April 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
Mateusz P., who was once an MP for Poland’s Samoobrona (Self-Defence) party and headed the Zmiana (Change) grouping, has been charged with working for the Russian and Chinese intelligence services and against Poland’s national interests, broadcaster RMF FM reported, citing a bill of indictment that it said prosecutors had submitted against the suspect.
- Zheng, William; Ma, Josephine; Elmer, Keegan (11 January 2019). "China voices 'grave concerns' over Poland's arrest of Huawei sales director on spying charges". The South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Pronczuk, Monika; Yang, Yuan (11 January 2019). "Chinese Huawei employee arrested in Poland on spying allegations". The Financial Times. Archived from the original on 12 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
The Chinese executive is a sales director for Huawei in Poland and his full name is Weijing Wang, the person said. Mr Wang also uses the first name Stanislaw. According to his LinkedIn page, Mr Wang worked in the Chinese consulate in Gdansk for more than four years as the assistant to the general consul before working for Huawei.
- JSLegal Jankowski & Stroiński (24 April 2019). "Answers for Reuters Agency" (PDF). Reuters.
- Plucinska, Joanna; Qing, Koh Gui; Ptak, Alicja; Stecklow, Steve (2 July 019). Hirschberg, Peter (ed.). "How Poland became a front in the cold war between the U.S. and China". Reuters.
- "Reshetin sentenced to 11.5 years for passing technology to China". RIA Novosti. 3 December 2010. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Blomfield, Adrian (1 March 2008). "Has Russia got a new Stalin?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Taranova, Alexandra (22 September 2010). "2 Scientists Held in Murky Spy Case". The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- "Spies' arrest overshadowed by spy swap". United Press International. 22 September 2010. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- "Chinese intelligence using fake online profiles to poach Swiss knowledge". Swissinfo. 7 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
The article claims that profiles with anodyne names such as Lily Hu or Rachel Li contact university staff or researchers in Switzerland and Europe, then encourage them to transfer know-how to China.
- Häuptli, Lukas (1 January 2018). "So spioniert der chinesische Geheimdienst in der Schweiz". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 9 January 2018.
Geheimdienste werben Informanten im Internet an: Der Bund warnt vor einschlägigen Kontakten auf Linkedin.
- "The Local, Refugee spy remanded into custody, 6 June 2009". Thelocal.se. 6 June 2009. Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Swedish citizen charged with spying for China". Agence France-Presse via The Swedish Wire. 16 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
- "Sweden: Uyghur sentenced for spying". United Nations Human Rights Council. 9 March 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- Anderson, Christina (12 April 2018). "Sweden Accuses Man of Spying on Tibetan Refugees for China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018.
"Tibet group thanks Sweden in 'Chinese spy' case". BBC News. 13 April 2018. Archived from the original on 30 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
The indictment accuses Mr Gyantsan of having spied on Tibetan community members in Sweden for "cash benefits" and says he met "a representative of the Chinese state repeatedly in Poland, in connection with this activity". The espionage allegedly took place in 2015–2017. When he was arrested, on returning from Warsaw, he was found to be carrying $6,000 (£4,200) in cash.
"Man charged in Sweden for spying on Tibetans for China". The Local. 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 14 April 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2018.
Swedish prosecutor Mats Ljungqvist told Swedish broadcaster SVT that he man had been in contact with Chinese officials in Poland and Finland, and was paid 50,000 kronor ($6,000) on at least one occasion.
- "Spy chiefs fear Chinese cyber attack" Archived 3 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Times, 29 March 2009
- "MI5 alert on china's cyberspace spy threat" Archived 4 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Times, 1 December 2007
- Chellel, Kit; Wild, Franz; Stringer, David (13 July 2018). "When Rio Tinto Met China's Iron Hand". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 16 July 2018.
- Corera, Gordon (19 December 2018). Rohrer, Finlo (ed.). "Looking for China's spies". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 December 2018.
- "Canwest News Service, Government vows to curb Chinese spying on Canada, 16 April 2006". Canada.com. 16 April 2006. Archived from the original on 4 October 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 January 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Archived 3 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Claims of divided loyalty anger Canadians". Sydney Morning Herald. 28 June 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
- "Defectors say China running 1,000 spies in Canada". CBC News. 15 June 2005. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 2 April 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- The Canadian Press (22 August 2012). "Reporter says Chinese news agency asked him to spy". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Blanchfield, Mike (22 August 2012). "Ottawa bureau chief dismisses spying accusations against Chinese news agency as 'Cold War' ideology". National Post. Archived from the original on 29 January 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Little, Matthew (23 August 2012). "Canadian Reporter Used as Spy for China". The Epoch Times. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Bronskill, Jim (23 April 2017). "Accused in naval spy case presses for info on CSIS wiretaps of Chinese Embassy". Times Colonist. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017.
A naval engineer accused of trying to spy for Beijing is asking a federal judge for full access to information about Canadian Security Intelligence Service wiretaps of the Chinese Embassy. [...] Huang, 53 at the time, worked for Lloyd's Register, a subcontractor to Irving Shipbuilding Inc. He was charged under the Security of Information Act with attempting to communicate secret information to a foreign power. Police said the information related to elements of the federal shipbuilding strategy, which includes patrol ships, frigates, naval auxiliary vessels, science research vessels and icebreakers.
- Bell, Stewart (25 January 2014). "Ontario's Qing Quentin Huang, accused of spying for China, was 'against capitalism,' former employer says". National Post. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
- Keung, Nicholas (17 May 2018). "Man accused of spying for China can remain in Canada, immigration board rules". The Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
- Graff, Garrett M. (11 October 2018). "How the US Forced China to Quit Stealing—Using a Chinese Spy". 2=Wired. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Whitcomb, Dan (8 February 2010). "Ex-Boeing engineer gets 15 years in U.S. spy case". Reuters. Archived from the original on 12 February 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2010.
- Woodward, Bob and Duffy, Brian, "Chinese Embassy Role In Contributions Probed" Archived 18 August 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Washington Post, 13 February 1997
- "Findings Link Clinton Allies to Chinese Intelligence". The Washington Post. 11 February 1998.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Information Week, China cyber espionage threatens US, 20 November 2009". Informationweek.com. 12 August 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Wolf, Jim (19 November 2009). "China cyber spying growing against US, Reuters, 19 November 2009". Reuters.com. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 December 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Koman, Richard (30 May 2008). "Did Chinese copy unattended U.S. laptop?". ZDNet. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Leonard, Tom (30 May 2008). "Chinese spies stole US trade secretary data". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- USA Today. "China denies hacking U.S. government computer". ABC News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- "Four arrests linked to Chinese spy ring". The Washington Times. 4 November 2005. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Indictment of Wen Ho Lee"
- Etzioni, Amitai, "MAR: A Model for US-China Relations," The Diplomat, 20 September 2013,  Archived 10 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- Barrett, Devlin (5 June 2015). "U.S. Suspects Hackers in China Breached About four (4) Million People's Records, Officials Say". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
- "U.S. gov't hack may be four (4) times larger than first reported". Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- Sanders, Sam (4 June 2015). "Massive Data Breach Puts 4 Million Federal Employees' Records at Risk". NPR. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "Hacks of OPM databases compromised 22.1 million people, federal authorities say Archived 26 July 2018 at the Wayback Machine". The Washington Post. 9 July 2015.
- Packham, Colin (12 May 2017). Birsel, Robert (ed.). "China conducting extensive espionage against Australia: defense official". Reuters. Archived from the original on 14 May 2017.
"It is no secret that China is very active in intelligence activities directed against us. It is more than cyber," Dennis Richardson, secretary of the Defense Department, said in a speech in Canberra. [...] "The Chinese government keeps a watchful eye inside Australian Chinese communities and effectively controls some Chinese-language media in Australia," said Richardson.
- Hamilton, Clive (22 February 2018). Silent Invasion: China's influence in Australia. Hardie Grant Books. ISBN 978-1-74358-544-3.
- "Forbes, China Spies scare markets equity, 3 April 2009". Forbes.com. 4 March 2009. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Refugee Review Tribunal of Australia (8 June 2012). "1200907  RRTA 359 (23 May 2012)". Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Granger, Daniel (9 August 2012). "Chinese Student Spy Defects to Australia". The Epoch Times. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- New Tang Dynasty Television (13 August 2012). "Fearful Chinese Spy Applies for Protection". YouTube. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Lu-YueYang, Maggie (26 March 2012). "Australia blocks China's Huawei from broadband tender". Reuters. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Theunissen, Matthew (28 March 2012). "Chinese espionage fears could damage NZ's global relations – analyst". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 5 July 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Keall, Chris (5 November 2018). "Aussie espionage report puts Huawei under more pressure". New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 8 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
- Benson, Simon (29 March 2011). "China spies suspected of hacking Julia Gillard's emails". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Benson, Simon; Anne Wright (29 March 2011). "China suspected as spies hack Gillard". Herald Sun. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- McKenzie, Nick; Flitton, Daniel; Uhlmann, Chris; Baker, Richard (5 June 2017). "Secret ASIO raid uncovered classified documents in power couple's Canberra apartment". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017.
- McKenzie, Nick; Baker, Richard (29 July 2017). "Charges loom for ex-intelligence official Roger Uren after ASIO raid". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
Fairfax Media has confirmed one of Yan's contacts was a Chinese military intelligence operative and reputed arms broker, Colonel Liu Chaoying. Yan introduced Colonel Liu to her Australian network, including a wealthy Australian businessman who took Colonel Liu on several dinner dates.
- Australian Associated Press (5 June 2017). "Canberra couple subject of ASIO raid". Yahoo News. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017.
A Fairfax Media and Four Corners investigation reports the raid targeted Sheri Yan and former Australian diplomat Roger Uren, over allegations she was involved in operations for the Chinese Communist Party.
- Gallagher, Sean (13 October 2017). "Australian defense firm was hacked and F-35 data stolen, DOD confirms". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 18 October 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- Taylor, Rob (12 October 2017). "Cyberattack Captures Data on U.S. Weapons in Four-Month Assault". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
- McKenzie, Nick; Wroe, David (6 July 2018). "Chinese hackers breach ANU, putting national security at risk". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 10 July 2018.
- Borys, Stephanie (8 July 2018). "Chinese hackers infiltrate systems at Australian National University". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
The ABC has been told the Australian National University (ANU) system was first compromised last year.
"New Zealand MP Jian Yang denies being a Chinese spy". BBC News. 13 September 2017. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
They say Mr Yang, who was elected in 2011, was investigated for the decade he spent in China, where he received military and intelligence training at so-called "spy schools".
Jones, Nicholas (14 September 2017). "National MP didn't name Chinese military institutes in citizenship application". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
A National MP who taught English to Chinese spies didn't declare the names of the military institutions where that happened to New Zealand authorities. Jian Yang told the Herald he didn't name the Air Force Engineering University or Luoyang People's Liberation Army University of Foreign Languages when making the applications that led to New Zealand citizenship, which he was granted in 2004.
"National: no idea of SIS inquiry into Yang". Newsroom. 13 September 2017. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
Goodfellow said he could not recall if the party knew Yang had spent a decade at the People's Liberation Army-Air Force Engineering School and the Luoyang Foreign Languages Institute but it did know about him studying there. Told the two venues were commonly training grounds for Chinese intelligence officers, and the language institute was specialised in preparing spies linguistically, Goodfellow said "He is a very good linguist."
White, Edward (13 September 2017). "China-born New Zealand MP responds to FT report". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 14 September 2017. Retrieved 13 September 2017.
A Chinese-born member of New Zealand’s parliament denied being a spy for China at a press conference on Wednesday, although he acknowledged having taught students English for the purpose of information gathering at one of China’s leading military academies [...] He also said the reports about his background were a "smear campaign" and suggested that anti-Chinese racism was the motive.
Brooks, David (1 July 2018). "New Zealand ends China honeymoon over security concerns". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
The debate over political influence within New Zealand intensified last year with revelations that Jian Yang, a legislator in New Zealand's then-ruling center-right National Party, had taught English to Chinese spies before leaving China in the 1990s and becoming a New Zealand citizen in 2004. Yang denied having spied for China and remains in Parliament.
- Paullier, Juan (28 November 2009). "The role of spies in Latin America". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 December 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Zweinnberg, Righard (22 June 2012). "ACAD/Medre.A – 10000′s of AutoCAD files leaked in suspected industrial espionage". ESET. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Williams, Christopher (21 June 2012). "Espionage virus sent blueprints to China". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 27 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- Gibbs, Mark (24 June 2012). "Malware Gets Snoopy". PC World. Archived from the original on 28 June 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.