Chinese pond turtle

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Chinese pond turtle
Chinemys reevesii 02.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Superfamily: Testudinoidea
Family: Geoemydidae
Genus: Mauremys[1]
Species: M. reevesii
Binomial name
Mauremys reevesii[1]
(Gray, 1831)[1]
Synonyms[3]
Mauremys reevesii in East Timor

Mauremys reevesii, commonly known as the Chinese pond turtle, the Chinese three-keeled pond turtle, or Reeves' turtle, is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae, a family which was formerly called Bataguridae.[1] The species is endemic to Asia.

Geographic range[edit]

Mauremys reevesii is found in China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan.[1][4]

Habitat and behaviour[edit]

M. reevesii is semiaquatic, and basks in the sun on rocks or logs and can often be found leaving water to do so. They can usually be found in marshes, relatively shallow ponds, streams, and canals with muddy or sandy bottoms.

Conservation status[edit]

The Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (M. reevesii) is threatened by competition with released pet red-eared sliders (T. s. elegans), overhunting (its plastron is used in traditional Chinese medicine),[5][6] capturing for the pet trade and wild habitat destruction. The IUCN considers M. reevesii an endangered species.[4] This species, fortunately, breeds well in captivity.

Etymology[edit]

The specific name, reevesii, is in honor of English naturalist John Reeves.[7]

Hybridization[edit]

This species is notorious for its ability to produce hybrids with other Geoemydidae, even species that are only distantly related. The supposed new species "Mauremys" pritchardi was based on a hybrid of unknown origin between a male of this species and a female yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica). Furthermore, it has hybridized with the Chinese stripe-necked turtle (Ocadia sinensis), female Malayan box turtles (Cuora amboinensis), a male four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata), and the Japanese pond turtle (Mauremys japonica) in captivity.[8][9]

Any individuals that are available as pets therefore need to be kept separate from other members of the family.

Farming[edit]

M. reevesii is one of the species raised on China's turtle farms. According to a 1998 survey, 548 farms raised this turtle species in four provinces in China. The statistical data from different provinces were in different formats; however, two provinces reported 20,650 turtles living on 26 farms, with 5,000 animals reproduced annually; the other two provinces reported the total weight of their turtles, namely some 260 tons of these animals on 522 farms. Over the five-year period, 1990–1995, 13 traditional Chinese medicine factories consumed 430 tons of C. reevesii plastrons.[10]

Based on a more recent (2002) survey of 684 Chinese turtle farms (less than half of all 1,499 turtle farms that were registered at the time), researchers found that 2.8 million of turtles of this species (reported there as Chinemys reevesii) lived on these farms, with some 566,000 specimens sold by farmers every year. The total weight of the annual product was 320 tons, with the estimated value of over US$6 million, which makes the market value of a Chinese pond turtle equal to around $12—about twice as much that of the most common farmed species, Pelodiscus sinensis. Taking into account the registered farms that did not respond to the survey, as well as the unregistered producers, the total amounts must be considerably higher.[11]

Pet trade[edit]

Chinese pond turtles are also farmed for the pet trade. In captivity, they require similar care to red-eared sliders (T. s. elegans).

East Timor[edit]

During surveys in East Timor (Timor-Leste), a small but well-established population of M. reevesii was found living in marshes near the city of Dili. The species is not native to the island and was possibly introduced by locals of Chinese origin.[12] East Timor is home to the Roti Island snake-necked turtle of the timorensis subspecies (sometimes considered a species of its own). Although the introduced population of M. reevesii is not known to present a risk to the native turtles per se, they could indirectly present a threat to the natives if confused. M. reevesii from the introduced population are sometimes captured to be sold to people of Chinese origin and this may cause problems if extended to the native turtles.[12] A potential solution is to remove the introduced M. reevesii (thereby restricting the trade to captive farmed M. reevesii).[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Rhodin, Anders G.J.; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Iverson, John B.; Shaffer, H. Bradley (14 December 2010). "Turtles of the world, 2010 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and conservation status" (PDF). Chelonian Research Monographs. 5: 000.112. doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2010. 
  2. ^ van Dijk, P.P. (2013). "Mauremys reevesii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Fritz, Uwe; Havaš, Peter (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World" (PDF). Vertebrate Zoology. 57 (2): 232–233. ISSN 1864-5755. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2010. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b ATTWG (2000)
  5. ^ da Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu; da Silva Vieira; Washington Luiz & Gomes Santana, Gindomar (2008): Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodiversity and Conservation 17(8): 2037–2049. doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0 (HTML abstract, PDF first page)
  6. ^ Subhuti Dharmananda. "Endangered species issues affecting turtles and tortoises used in Chinese medicine". 
  7. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Chinemys reevesii, p. 218).
  8. ^ * Parham, James Ford; Simison, W. Brian; Kozak, Kenneth H.; Feldman, Chris R. & Shi, Haitao (2001): New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4(4): 357–367. PDF fulltext Archived 24 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Erratum: Animal Conservation 5(1): 86 HTML abstract
  9. ^ Buskirk, James R.; Parham, James F. & Feldman, Chris R. (2005): On the hybridisation between two distantly related Asian turtles (Testudines: Sacalia × Mauremys). Salamandra 41: 21-26. PDF fulltext[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ GUO Yinfeng, ZOU Xueying, CHEN Yan, WANG Di & WANG Sung. "Sustainability of Wildlife Use in Traditional Chinese Medicine". 1998. ; also quoted in: Subhuti Dharmananda. "Endangered species issues affecting turtles and tortoises used in Chinese medicine". 
  11. ^ Shi, Haitao; Parham, James F; Fan, Zhiyong; Hong, Meiling; Yin, Feng (2008-01-01), "Evidence for the massive scale of turtle farming in China", Oryx, Cambridge University Press, 42, pp. 147–150, doi:10.1017/S0030605308000562, retrieved 2009-12-26 
  12. ^ a b c Kaiser, Hinrich; Taylor, David; Heacox, Scott; Landry, Paul; Sanchez, Caitlin; Varela Ribeiro, Agivedo; Lemos de Araujo, Luis; Kathriner, Andrew; O'Shea, Mark (30 June 2013). "Conservation education in a post-conflict country five hematological case studies in Timor-Leste" (PDF). Salamandra. 49 (2). ISSN 0036-3375. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Gray JE (1831). Synopsis Reptilium; or Short Descriptions of the Species of Reptiles. Part I.—Cataphracta. Tortoises, Crocodiles, and Enaliosaurians. London: Treuttel, Wertz, and Co. viii + 85 pp. (Emys reevesii, new species, pp. 73–74). (in English and Latin).

External links[edit]