Chinese pond turtle

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Chinese pond turtle
Chinemys reevesii 02.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Testudines
Suborder: Cryptodira
Superfamily: Testudinoidea
Family: Geoemydidae
Genus: Mauremys[1]
Species: M. reevesii
Binomial name
Mauremys reevesii[1]
(Gray, 1831)[1]
  • Emys reevesii Gray, 1831
  • Clemmys (Clemmys) reevesii Fitzinger, 1835
  • Emys vulgaris picta Schlegel, 1844
  • Emys japonica Duméril & Bibron, 1851
  • Geoclemys reevesii Gray, 1856
  • Damonia reevesii Gray, 1869
  • Damonia unicolor Gray, 1873
  • Clemmys unicolor Sclater, 1873
  • Damonia reevesii var. unicolor Boulenger, 1889
  • Geoclemys [reevesii] reevesii Siebenrock, 1907
  • Geoclemys reevesii unicolor Siebenrock, 1907
  • Geoclemmys reevesi Vogt, 1924 (ex errore)
  • Geoclemys grangeri Schmidt, 1925
  • Geoclemys paracaretta Chang, 1929
  • Geoclemys reevesi grangeri Mell, 1929
  • Chinemys reevesi Smith, 1931
  • Geoclemys papacaretta Fang, 1934 (ex errore)
  • Emys reevesi Bourret, 1941
  • Chinemys reevesii Mertens & Wermuth, 1955
  • Chinemy reevesi Mao, 1971
  • Chinemys grangeri Pritchard, 1979
  • Chinemys pani Tao, 1988
  • Chinemys reevessi Obst, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Chinemys reveesii Fritz, 1996 (ex errore)
  • Mauremys reevesii Spinks, Shaffer, Iverson & McCord, 2004
Mauremys reevesii in East Timor

The Chinese pond turtle, Reeves' turtle, or Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii)[1] is a species of turtles in the family Geoemydidae (formerly called Bataguridae). It is found in China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan.[1][4] This species is semiaquatic, and basks in the sun on rocks or logs and can often be found leaving water to do so. They can usually be found in marshes, relatively shallow ponds, streams, and canals with muddy or sandy bottoms.

The Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (M. reevesii) is threatened by competition with released pet red-eared sliders (T. s. elegans), overhunting (its plastron is used in traditional Chinese medicine),[5][6] capturing for the pet trade and wild habitat destruction. The IUCN considers M. reevesii an endangered species.[4] This species, fortunately, breeds well in captivity.


This species is notorious for its ability to produce hybrids with other Geoemydidae, even species that are only distantly related. The supposed new species "Mauremys" pritchardi was based on a hybrid of unknown origin between a male of this species and a female yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica). Furthermore, it has hybridized with the Chinese stripe-necked turtle (Ocadia sinensis), female Malayan box turtles (Cuora amboinensis), a male four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata), and the Japanese pond turtle (Mauremys japonica) in captivity.[7][8]

Any individuals that are available as pets therefore need to be kept separate from other members of the family.


M. reevesii is one of the species raised on China's turtle farms. According to a 1998 survey, 548 farms raised this turtle species in four provinces in China. The statistical data from different provinces were in different formats; however, two provinces reported 20,650 turtles living on 26 farms, with 5,000 animals reproduced annually; the other two provinces reported the total weight of their turtles, namely some 260 tons of these animals on 522 farms. Over the five-year period, 1990–1995, 13 traditional Chinese medicine factories consumed 430 tons of C. reevesii plastrons.[9]

Based on a more recent (2002) survey of 684 Chinese turtle farms (less than half of all 1,499 turtle farms that were registered at the time), researchers found that 2.8 million of turtles of this species (reported there as Chinemys reevesii) lived on these farms, with some 566,000 specimens sold by farmers every year. The total weight of the annual product was 320 tons, with the estimated value of over US$6 million, which makes the market value of a Chinese pond turtle equal to around $12—about twice as much that of the most common farmed species, Pelodiscus sinensis. Taking into account the registered farms that did not respond to the survey, as well as the unregistered producers, the total amounts must be considerably higher.[10]

Pet trade[edit]

Chinese pond turtles are also farmed for the pet trade. In captivity, they require similar care to red-eared sliders (T. s. elegans).


  1. ^ a b c d e Rhodin, Anders G.J.; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Inverson, John B.; Shaffer, H. Bradley (2010-12-14). "Turtles of the world, 2010 update: Annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution and conservation status". Chelonian Research Monographs 5: 000.112. doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v3.2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-15. 
  2. ^ van Dijk, P.P. (2013). "Mauremys reevesii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 30 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Fritz Uwe; Peter Havaš (2007). "Checklist of Chelonians of the World". Vertebrate Zoology 57 (2): 232–233. ISSN 18640-5755. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-12-17. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b ATTWG (2000)
  5. ^ da Nóbrega Alves, Rômulo Romeu; da Silva Vieira; Washington Luiz & Gomes Santana, Gindomar (2008): Reptiles used in traditional folk medicine: conservation implications. Biodiversity and Conservation 17(8): 2037–2049. doi:10.1007/s10531-007-9305-0 (HTML abstract, PDF first page)
  6. ^ Subhuti Dharmananda. "Endangered species issues affecting turtles and tortoises used in Chinese medicine". 
  7. ^ * Parham, James Ford; Simison, W. Brian; Kozak, Kenneth H.; Feldman, Chris R. & Shi, Haitao (2001): New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4(4): 357–367. PDF fulltext Erratum: Animal Conservation 5(1): 86 HTML abstract
  8. ^ Buskirk, James R.; Parham, James F. & Feldman, Chris R. (2005): On the hybridisation between two distantly related Asian turtles (Testudines: Sacalia × Mauremys). Salamandra 41: 21-26. PDF fulltext
  9. ^ GUO Yinfeng, ZOU Xueying, CHEN Yan, WANG Di & WANG Sung. "Sustainability of Wildlife Use in Traditional Chinese Medicine". 1998. ; also quoted in: Subhuti Dharmananda. "Endangered species issues affecting turtles and tortoises used in Chinese medicine". 
  10. ^ Shi, Haitao; Parham, James F; Fan, Zhiyong; Hong, Meiling; Yin, Feng (2008-01-01), "Evidence for the massive scale of turtle farming in China", Oryx (Cambridge University Press) 42: 147–150, doi:10.1017/S0030605308000562, retrieved 2009-12-26 

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