Chinese tea culture
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|Chinese tea culture|
|Alternative Chinese name|
Chinese tea culture refers to how tea is prepared, what equipment is used to make and serve tea, as well as the occasions when people consume tea to celebrate in China. Tea culture in China differs from that in European countries like Britain and Asian countries like Japan in preparation methods, tasting methods, and occasions for which it is consumed. Even now, tea is consumed regularly in both casual and formal Chinese occasions. In addition to being a type of beverage, Chinese tea is used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in Chinese cuisine.
The concept of tea culture is referred to in Chinese as chayi ("the art of drinking tea"), or cha wenhua ("tea culture"). The word cha (茶) denotes the beverage that is derived from Camellia sinensis, the tea plant. Prior to the 8th century BC, the tea was known collectively under the term 荼 (pinyin: tú) along with a great number of other bitter plants. These two Chinese characters are identical, with the exception of an additional horizontal stroke in 荼. The older character is made up of the radical 艸 (pinyin: cǎo) in its reduced form of 艹 and the character 余(pinyun: yú), which gives the phonetic cue.
Tea drinking customs
There are several special circumstances in which tea is prepared and consumed in Chinese culture.
- As a sign of respect
- In Chinese society, the younger generation always shows their respect to the older generation by offering a cup of tea. Inviting their elders to restaurants for tea drinking is a traditional activity on holidays. In the past, people of the lower class served tea to the upper class in society. Today, as Chinese society becomes more liberal, the rule of tea representing respect is blurred. Sometimes parents may pour a cup of tea for their children to show their care, or a boss may even pour tea for subordinates at restaurants to promote their relationship. However, in formal occasions, this rule still remain unchanged.
- For a family gathering
- When sons and daughters leave home due to work or marriage, they may spend fewer time with their parents, and their parents may seldom meet their grandchildren as well. Therefore, going to restaurants and drinking tea becomes an important activity for family gatherings. Every Sunday, Chinese restaurants are crowded with families, especially during holiday time. This phenomenon reflects tea's function in Chinese family values.
- To apologize
- In Chinese culture, people make a serious apology to others by pouring tea for them. For example, children who made a mistake serving tea to their parents is a sign of regret and submission.
- To express thanks and connect large families on wedding ceremonies
- In the traditional Chinese marriage ceremony, both the bride and groom are supposed to kneel in front of their parents and serve them tea, which is the most devout way to express their gratitude. It is a practice for the married couple to say in front of their parents as they serve the tea, "Thank you for bringing us up. Now we are getting married. We owe it all to you." The parents will usually drink a small portion of the tea and then give them a red envelope, which symbolizes good luck. Another variant form is that the bride serves tea to the groom's parents, symbolizing that she is to become a part of the latter's family.
- The tea ceremony during a wedding also serves as a means for both parties to meet with each other. As Chinese families can be rather extended, and there may be one or two hundred people, it is entirely possible for either the bride or groom during a courtship to not have been introduced to some relatives. This was particularly true in older generations where the patriarch may have had more than one wife and not all family members were always on good terms. As such, during the tea ceremony, the couple would serve tea to all family members and salute them by their official title. Family members drinking the tea symbolizes acceptance of the new couple into the family, while refusing to drink symbolizes opposition to the wedding and was quite unheard of since it would result in a loss of "face". Older generations would give a red envelope to the matrimonial couple while the couple would be expected to give red envelopes to the unmarried younger ones.
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Light finger tapping is a custom for thanking the tea master or tea server for tea. After one's cup is filled, one may knock their bent index and middle fingers (or some similar variety of finger tapping) on the table to express gratitude to the person who served the tea. Although this custom is common in southern Chinese cultures, such as that of the Cantonese; in other parts of China, it is only acceptable if the person wishing to express their gratitude is preoccupied with conversation and cannot actually say "thank you" when their cup is filled.
This custom is said to have originated in the Qing dynasty when the Qianlong Emperor travelled in disguise throughout the empire. Servants were told not to reveal their master's identity. One day in a restaurant, the emperor, after pouring himself a cup of tea, filled a servant's cup as well. To that servant it was a huge honour to have the emperor pour him a cup of tea. Out of habit, he wanted to kneel and express his thanks to the emperor. However, he could not do this since that would reveal the emperor's identity, so he bent his fingers on the table to express his gratitude and respect to the emperor. In this sense, the bent fingers for knocking are supposed to be there to signify a bowing servant. One finger is the head and the other two are the arms.
It should be noted that in formal tea ceremonies nodding of the head and/or saying "thank you" is more appropriate.
Brewing Chinese tea
The different ways of brewing Chinese tea depend on variables like the formality of the occasion, the means of the people preparing it and the kind of tea being brewed. For example, green teas are more delicate than oolong teas or black teas so that it should be brewed with cooler water. The most informal method of brewing tea is the simple adding of leaves to a pot with hot water. This method is commonly found in households and restaurants, as in traditions like dim sum (點心) or yum cha (飲茶) in Cantonese restaurants. Two other primary methods of brewing tea are the Chaou method and the Gongfucha method. Chaou brewing tends towards a more formal occasion and is generally used for more delicate teas, medicinal teas and tea tastings. Gongfucha brewing is a far more formal method of tea brewing (mainly for oolong or double fermented teas like Pu'erh). Although even this method can be made more or less formal depending on the occasion. The Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty contributed to the development of loose tea brewing by banning the production of compressed tea.
Gàiwǎn refers to a covered bowl(蓋碗/盖碗; lit., "lidded bowl"), also known as 蓋杯 (Pinyin: gàibēi; lit., "lidded cup") or 焗盅 (Pinyin: júzhōng; lit., "heat suffocation vessel") depending on the region of the China. It is a relatively new word and this method of 'brewing' tea was originally developed by the Chaoshan people and was originally named Chá-ōu, 茶甌 (simplified 茶瓯). There are two words to describe the method of brewing. One is chōng (沖) and the other is pào (泡). For chaou brewing, the word chōng is used rather than pào.
The chaou is a three piece teaware consisting of a lid, a cup/bowl, and a saucer. Chaous are generally made of porcelain or are glazed on the inside in order to prevent a buildup of tannins, which is a yellowish or brownish substance in tea leaves. The chaou may be used on its own or with tasting cups on the side. Chaou brewing is usually employed in tea tasting situations, such as when buying tea where neutrality in taste and ease of access to brewing leaves for viewing and sniffing is important. This method of serving is often used in informal situations, but it can also be used on more formal occasions. Chaou brewing can be used for all forms of teas, among which lightly oxidized teas benefit most from this brewing method.
The Chinese tea ceremony, also called the Chinese Art of Tea, is a Chinese cultural activity involving the ceremonial preparation and presentation of tea leaves. The manner in which the tea ceremony is performed, or the art of its performance is shown in the process. Taoism has also been an influence in the development of the tea ceremony. The elements of the Chinese tea ceremony are in a harmonious combination of nature and enjoying tea in either informal or formal settings. Tea ceremonies are now being revived in China's new fast-paced culture, and continuing the long tradition of this intangible cultural art.
Gongfu tea ceremony
The Gōngfu Chá (工夫茶) also known as "工Gongfucha" or the "功Kung Fu Tea Ceremony" is a relatively famous tradition of Minnan (閩南) and Chaoshan (潮汕) area. It makes use of small Yixing teawares teapot of about 100 – 150 ml (4 or 5 fl.oz.) to enhance the aesthetics, and more importantly, to "round out" the taste of the tea being brewed. Yixing teapot brewing sides towards the formal, and is used for private enjoyment of the tea as well as for welcoming guests. Depending on the region of China the steps of brewing may differ, as well as the tools used in the process(e.g. Taiwanese-style Gongfu cha which makes use of several additional instruments including tweezers and a tea strainer). This procedure is mostly applicable to Oolong teas, but some use it to make Pu'erh and other double-fermented teas.
Influence on Chinese culture
Tea has a major influence on the development of Chinese culture. Chinese traditional culture is closely connected with Chinese tea. Tea is often associated with literature, arts, and philosophy and is connected closely with Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Roughly, since Tang Dynasty, drinking tea is a must for self-cultivation. Chinese Chan (similar to Japanese Zen) philosophy is also linked with drinking tea.
Traditionally tea drinkers were regarded as the academic and cultural elites of the society because the practice of drinking tea was considered to be an expression of personal morality, education, social principles, and status. Increased enthusiasm for tea drinking led to the greater production of teaware, which significantly popularized Chinese porcelain culture.
Chinese scholars have used the teahouse for places of sharing ideas. The teahouse was a place where political allegiances and social rank were said to have been temporarily suspended in favor of an honest and rational discourse. In this sense, the leisure consumption of tea was common in promoting conviviality and civility amongst the participants.Teahouse is not only the by-product of Chinese tea culture but also the historical evidence of Chinese tea history. Currently, people can also feel a kind of humanistic atmosphere in Beijing's Lao She Teahouse and teahouses in East China cities like Hangzhou, Suzhou, Yangzhou, Nanjing, Wuxi, Shaoxing and Shanghai and so on. It is still dynamic and vigorous.
In modern China, virtually every dwelling — even down to the simplest mud hut — has a set of tea implements for brewing a hot cup of tea. These implements are symbols of welcome for visitors or neighbors. Traditionally, a visitor to a Chinese home will be expected to sit down and drink tea while talking; the Chinese consider having such visits while standing to be uncouth. There are several types of tea: green tea, oolong tea, red tea, black tea, white tea, yellow tea, puerh tea and flower tea. Tea leaves are traditionally produced by constantly turning fresh leaves in a deep bowl. This process allows the tea to dry with its full flavor ready to be used.
Folding the napkin in tea ceremonies is a traditional action and is done to keep away bad Qi energy in China as tea (茶) was regarded as one of the seven daily necessities, the others being firewood, rice, oil, salt, soy sauce, and vinegar（柴,米,油,鹽,醬,醋）.
- Parkinson, Rhonda. "The Origin of Finger Tapping - Chinese Tea History". About.com. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chinese tea ceremony.|
- Tenfu Tea College
- Lu-Yu Tea Culture Institute
- A bilingual website that introduces Chinese Tea culture and teapots
- A bilingual website with ceremony/brewing guides and tea history
- Traditional Chinese Tea Ceremony
- Basic Facts of Tea
- An Offering of Tea during a Chinese Wedding
- Commented pictures on how to brew tea