Jump to content

Ching Hai

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ching Hai
Ching Hai in Sydney (1993)
Hue Dang Trinh

(1950-05-12) 12 May 1950 (age 74)
formerly Vietnamese
Known forSpirituality, mysticism, poetry Entrepreneur
Notable workBook:The Key of Immediate Enlightenment, Supreme Master TV, Loving Hut
MovementQuan Yin Method
Supreme Master Ching Hai
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese[1]
Simplified Chinese
Literal meaningClear Ocean Immeasurable Teacher [note 1]
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetThanh Hải Vô Thượng Sư[2]

Ching Hai (born Trịnh Đăng Huệ;[note 2] 12 May 1950), commonly referred to as Suma or Supreme Master Ching Hai, is a British citizen of Vietnamese descent; a humanitarian, philanthropist,[3][4][5][6] and the spiritual leader[7] of the Guanyin Famen (Chinese) or Quan Yin method transnational cybersect. The practice had existed predating the common usage of the internet.[7][8][9][10] Based out of Taiwan, she is estimated to have 2 million followers worldwide.[11][12] Ching Hai founded the Loving Hut vegan restaurant chain and vegan Celestial Shop fashion company under Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association.[13][14]

Life and career


Ching Hai was born to a Vietnamese mother and an ethnic Chinese father,[15] on 12 May 1950 in a small village in the Quảng Ngãi Province in Vietnam.[16] At the age of 18, she moved to England to study and later to France and then Germany, where she worked for the Red Cross.[17] In 1969, she began a relationship with a German scientist.[7][18] They married, but separated after two years to focus on spiritualism and she moved to India to study different religions.[16] In 1979, she met a Buddhist monk in Germany whom she followed for three years, but his monastery denied entry to women.[18]

Ching Hai attempted to buy a copy of the Bhagavad Gita from a bookshop near the Ganges. Despite the shopkeepers' assertions that they did not have a copy, an extensive search revealed one in a sealed box. This led to rumours of her having a third eye circulating by 1982.[8] In 1983, she met a Vietnamese Buddhist monk in Taiwan named Jing-Xing, who ordained her in 1984 as "Thanh Hai", meaning "pure ocean".[18]

According to her official biography, Ching Hai was born to a well-off naturopathic family in Âu Lạc, Hanoi, Vietnam. Though raised as a Roman Catholic, she learned the basics of Buddhism from her grandmother. A Himalayas spiritual teacher showed her a particular meditation method which she named Quan Yin method.[19]

According to Ting Jen-Chieh (Ding Renjie), assistant research fellow in the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, by the early 1990s Ching Hai was at odds with the Buddhist establishment in Taiwan. Rather than submit to their demands, she severed all connections to Buddhist organizations, abandoned the traditional robe, grew out her hair, dressed fashionably, and set out to create her own independent group.[20]

Currently, Ching Hai doesn't operate under the guise of traditional Buddhism. Her home page calls her "Supreme Master Ching Hai, a renowned humanitarian, artist, and spiritual leader" (lingxiu daoshi 領袖道士). Her current irreverence for religious traditions in general, have made her more synonymous to a Zen master.[20]

Transpersonal psychologist, Timothy Conway writes: "Though Ching Hai can be stern from time to time with her disciples, she often can be seen happily singing simple, romantic folksongs with them for hours at a time. This attractive blend of power and simplicity, virtue and joy, has many people revering Ching Hai as a manifestation of Guan-yin Bodhisattva".[21] Ching Hai calls her meditation method the Guan Yin (Chinese) or Quan Yin method because She gave her first public teachings in Taiwan. Quan Yin is a Chinese term that means "observation of the inner vibration".[22]

Her meditation centres in American cities such as Los Angeles benefit from tax-exempt status as religious organizations.[16] She presides over an organization which owns restaurants and sells her jewellery and clothes.[18]

Corporate operations


Ching Hai is the founder of the Loving Hut restaurant chain, which in 2017 had 200 locations in 35 countries worldwide.[23] The restaurants are run on a franchise basis, with devotees managing each one and most workers belonging to the movement.[24][25][26]

Her organization's numerous websites are offered in 17 languages. The Celestial Shop "includes a line of Celestial apparel and Celestial jewelry designed by the Master".[8]

Liam D. Murphy, professor of anthropology at California State has stated that "Ching Hai is a textbook example of what social scientists call a charismatic prophet" and that the abuse of power over her own members in loving hut is a hypothetical possibility “If anyone is in danger...it is usually their own members". Murphy states that the proper term for her movement is not “cult,” but more accurately a new religious movement".[27] The Database of Religious History (University of British Columbia), states regarding Ching Hai's movement "Does the religious group actively proselytize and recruit new members: No." with subject-matter expert, anthropologist Stephen Christopher commentating "Not really. Of course Ching Hai herself uses 24 hour satellite TV programming to reach out to potential new recruits. It is more often the case that among the Five Precepts the edict of veganism is most actively promoted as lifestyle worth spreading among non-believers".[28] Christopher writes "The debate about the legitimacy of Ching Hai largely plays out through cyber forums from YouTube videos to cult warning websites. Christian missionary groups are particularly interested in debunking Ching Hai even though they may have no direct contact with the organization. These online forums often devolve into misunderstanding and exaggeration and Ching Hai adherents often express hurt and disappointment when they discover such material. Conversely, some adherents have disaffiliated after encountering anti-Ching Hai material".[28]

In 2017, Yahoo.com reported that Chuck McLean, senior research fellow at GuideStar, reviewed the 990s of two of the largest American chapters of the group: Los Angeles, which reports over $1.2 million in assets-more than any other chapter in the US-and San Jose, the parent organization of more than a dozen chapters across the country. "Taking their Forms 990 at face value, it seems unlikely that anyone is enriching themselves financially through these organizations ... I don't know what the associated business interests are about, but it appears that they give almost all of their money to legitimate causes."[23]

International organizations

The Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association Publishing Co. was founded on 1st Fl., No.236, Songshan Rd., Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan.

Ching Hai has founded organizations including the Supreme Master Ching Hai International, World Peace Media, Oceans of Love Entertainment and Supreme Master Television.

In late 2008, Ching Hai launched a media campaign in Australia and New Zealand asking people to "Be Green, Go Veg, Save the Planet".[29]

The Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association has made submissions to the Garnaut Climate Change Review, advocating large cuts to livestock production. Hai is in favor of a meat tax.[30][31]

According to political scientist Patricia Thornton at the University of Oxford, the Ching Hai World Society's heavy reliance on the internet for text distribution, recruitment and information-sharing, marks the group as a transnational cybersect.[8] Thornton claimed that the source of income behind Hai's numerous business ventures is unknown[8] and that much of the media produced by her television programmes is heavily self-referential and promotional and aims to "build a public record of recognition for group activities."[8]

Anthropologist Saskia Abrahms-Kavunenko at Max Weber Center for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies stated that similar to Ravi Shankar movement, Ching Hai group generally don't self identify as a religion and are very ecumenical. Abrahms-Kavunenko has also noted that while in the field in Mongolia, Hai's group especially via Supreme Master Television 24 hour broadcast is influencing many Buddhists ideas on meditation and enlightenment, even though they are not sure of the authenticity of her claims.[32]

In Prominent Nuns: Influential Taiwanese Voices (CrossCurrents 2011), Religious studies Research associate Jennifer Eichman of the Centere of Buddhist Studies at SOAS University of London summarizes: While to some, Ching Hai's movement is considered Buddhist Heresy and to others a New Age religious organization. Accusations of being a Cult group have been made repeatedly over the years, especially in newspaper articles and by cult watchers. Ching Hai's response to this accusation is that participants were free to leave at any time.[20]

In Eichman's own view, as infuriating as Hai's persona, her materialism and unsystematic religious synthesizing is to the Taiwanese Buddhist community and to others who have called her a cult leader, when we set aside her Buddhist roots and compare her work to that of an ever-changing array of self-made gurus, spiritual guides and newly formed religions that make up the New Age marketplace, it becomes evident that Ching Hai's work is neither the most radical nor innovative. She states that the controversies swirling around Ching Hai should not stop us from noting just how gutsy it was for her to strike out on her own, and with her unusual prominence as a female spiritual leader, Ching Hai in effect demonstrates her ability to compete in a spiritual arena dominated largely by men. And we should be open to the idea that not all female leaders will remain within the religious mainstream.[20]

Humanitarian aid and philanthropy


A 1996 United States Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs report states "Published criticisms of Ching Hai generally fail to credit her organization's good works. Her members reportedly are active in many humanitarian and charitable causes...Ching Hai's greatest humanitarian activity continues to be working for the more than 20,000 Vietnamese refugees still in camps dispersed throughout Southeast Asia." The report also lists humanitarian aid to the victims of: 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the Great Flood of 1993 in the United States and the 1995 food shortage crisis in Cambodia.[3] According to a report issued by the Information Centre for Human Rights and Democracy in Hong Kong: Prior to the 1997 Handover of Hong Kong, Hai donated 6 million dollars to Vietnamese refugees and other people who needed help.[33]

Upon receiving the Gusi Peace Prize in 2006, Political journalist Fel Maragay wrote in the Manila Standard that while "to her disciples and admirers, she is a messenger from the world of spirituality who has set the directions their lives aright by teaching them “method of enlightenment” through meditation", to the people she provides humanitarian assistance; "she is a good Samaritan who has come to their succor during times of natural calamities. She has always carried out her charitable mission without fanfare in any country hit by major disasters.".[17]

ReliefWeb cites Hai Humanitarian aid to the victims of 1996 Bangladesh tornado,[34] the 2009 Namibia floods,[35] the 2015 European migrant crisis via the Croatian Red Cross[36] and in 2017 to South Sudanese refugees via the Sudanese Red Crescent.[37] Humanitarian aid has also been reported in local news outlets in Florida (USA) during Hurricane Ian,[38] 2011 flood victims in Belize[39] 2018 Northern Province floods in Sri Lanka,[40] 2020 Covid-19 support for Ghana Red Cross Society,[41][42] 2022 Assam floods in India.[43] In Taiwan, Hai has been active in Homeless street outreach.[44][45][46] In 2018 Lu Wei-Ching, deputy mayor of New Taipei City stated that "the Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association has always paid attention to the disadvantaged, and usually donates all kinds of clothes and shoes to the homeless.".[47] Hai's website chronologically lists 1663 overall donations and instances of humanitarian aid between the years 1989 to 2018.[48]

Hai has created a series of awards under the Umbrella title "World Shining Awards",[49][50][51][52][53] "...to recognize some of the most exemplary, generous, caring, and courageous people who walk amongst us and go beyond the call of duty to help others unconditionally".[54][55] A representative of Hai Association stated to The Washington Post that "An association committee selects individuals and organizations for donations based on their efforts to help others....Hai provides the money for the awards from the proceeds of her businesses, which include jewelry, clothing and vegetarian restaurants".[56]

Award recipients included organizations such as the Department of Environmental Affairs (South Africa) of its efforts to protect Seals,[57] the Iranian Red Crescent Society, for its humanitarian aid to victims of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake.[58] and International Animal Rescue Indonesia for its work saving critically endangered orangutans in Borneo, protecting rainforest habitats and encouraging sustainable community development.[59] Or to individuals, such as a young boy from Ohio who bought special harnesses to Police dogs,[60] a lady from India for inventing non violent silk saris.[61]

Quan Yin method


Ching Hai first demonstrated the "Immeasurable Light Meditation Center and the Way of Sound Contemplation" or Quan Yin method of meditation in Miaoli, Taiwan.[8] According to Ching Hai "The method is transmitted without words ... In fact, it isn't really a method. It's the power of the Master. If you have it, then you can transmit it. The Method is a transcendental one that cannot be described by our language. Even if someone describes it to you, you won't receive the Light and the vibration, the inner peace and Wisdom".[62] In Supreme Master TV series A Journey through Aesthetic Realms, episode Path of Saints: Sant Mat Tradition of Light it is stated "Sant Mat was first brought to the West by Hazur Baba Sawan Singh Ji, who graced the Earth in the latter half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th Century...The lineage for contacting the inner Light and Sound has continued since time immemorial through various enlightened Masters. Today, Supreme Master Ching Hai is a living Master who is also able to impart the way of the Light and Sound through the Quan Yin Method.".[63]

The method involves meditation on the "inner light and the inner sound" of God or the Buddha. Ching Hai claims that the Bible acknowledged the existence of this method: “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.” (John 1:1) and that this Word is the Inner Sound.[64] Hai states that it has been repeatedly re-used by most major religions.[16] As an example, in Buddhism, she refers to the Śūraṅgama Sūtra, where Avalokitesvara says that he attained enlightenment through concentration on the subtle inner sound, and then Buddha asserts "That is how enlightenment is won. Buddhas as many as the Ganges’ sand entered this one gateway to Nirvana. All past Tathagatas have achieved this method. All Bodhisattvas now enter this perfection. All who practice in the future should rely on this Dharma.”.[65]

The Quan Yin method "Full Initiation" involves a life-long commitment to a vegan diet, adherence to the Five Precepts of Buddhism and at least two hours meditation daily. "Quick initiation" or "Convenient Method", requires a half hour's meditation daily and abstinence from meat for ten days each month.[66]

A 2015 Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada Research report states "Sources characterize Guanyin Famen [Quan Yin] as a Buddhist group (Dui Hua Foundation 29 Aug. 2013; US 10 Oct. 2009, 115) or a "Taiwan-based sect" of Buddhism (ibid.)".[67]

Thailand Mahidol University International College comparative religion studies syllabus classifies Hai's sect as a Religious movement within Mahayana Buddhism, alongside Thích Nhất Hạnh and Tzu Chi movements.[68]

Transpersonal psychologist and Advaita Vedanta scholar Timothy Conway writes "While she was in deep spiritual retreat in the Indian Himalayas, under a very old teacher who evidently taught the way of Surat Sabda Yoga (as found in the Radhasoāmi tradition)", this final enlightenment evidently dawned. After her breakthrough, Ching Hai continued to practice deep meditation for many months, then went to Taiwan". Conway lists Hai in the "Women of Buddhism" section of his Narrative Encyclopedic Sourcebook "Women of Spirit: Saints, Teachers, Healers, Sisterhoods and Goddesses of East and West".[21]

The World Religions and Spirituality Project has written "Ching Hai’s teaching against violence towards animals is very similar to Sikhism, but her meditation teachings resemble Buddhism, and her Catholic background enables her to incorporate Christian Bible teachings as well.".[64]

Religious studies scholar Jennifer Eichman notes that this particular meditation method is not part of the standard Buddhist repertoire. Hai's modified synthesis of the method is primarily in Christian-Buddhist jargon with a sprinkling of Hindu ideas. Ching Hai is more likely to cite the Bible than Hindu texts. Ching Hai claims, following standard Zen doctrine, that everyone is the Buddha; they simply need to realize this fact. In a departure from Christian doctrine, Ching Hai claims that God is not the creator of humans; rather karmic accumulation is responsible for the repeated transmigration of the soul.[20]

Korean Dahnhak Qigong expert Kim Tae-young, author of the popular Leading Experience guidebooks (in Korean) — published in 102 volumes since 1990,[69] has written in Leading Experience vol 37 (1997) that Quan Chi (concentrating on Chi) and Quan Nian, (observing conceptions) are more familiar terms than the term Quan Yin (observation of the inner vibration). Kim at that time; an initiate of Hai's "Convenient Method" explains "Quan Yin signifies the practice of observing sound in the literal sense. It is not the crude vibratory sound of matter we hear from the outside, but the deepest inner sound heard from the real self and the Truth". Regarding Hai's Master lineage, Kim stated: Ching Hai rarely speaks about her Master Khuda Ji.[70][22][71]

In 1999, attending and reviewing Immediate Enlightenment, Eternal Liberation seminar In Ireland, part of Ching Hai's 1999 European Lecture Tour,[72] Dominican Order priest Louis Hughes, chairperson of Dialogue Ireland a Christian countercult ministry,[73][74] raises the question of the true origins of Ching Hai's teaching: "In a brief autobiography she [Hai] explains that her significant spiritual experience came about as a result of time spent in the Himalayas where she discovered 'the Quan Yin Method and the Divine Transmission'. Nowhere in the movement's literature is any mention made of how she came upon this enlightenment. Enquiring from one of her retinue as to who Ching Hai's teacher was, yielded the vague reply. 'Khuda Ji – he lives in a cave in the Himalayas – maybe has left his body now.' Such reticence in regards to the identity of one's initiating guru is quite unusual among Oriental religious teachers".[66]

Religious studies scholars, Michael York and others, include Ching Hai in the Indian contemporary Sant Mat movements, where the method is called Surat Shabd Yoga. While adhering to formless devotion (Nirguna Brahman), the initiation of the method from a lineage guru or master is paramount.[75][76] Professor of religious studies at the University of Lancaster Christopher Partridge wrote that Ching Hai visited India and was initiated by Thakar Singh, a Ruhani Satsang Sant Mat master.[7][76] Investigator Terry Lenzner reported in the 1996 Committee on Governmental Affairs "Hue [Ching Hai] reportedly hid her association with Thakar Singh when she arrived in Taiwan in October 1983 because it would have prevented her from becoming fully ordained in the Buddhist order".[77] Professor of philosophy David C. Lane, a controversial disciple of Charan Singh a Radha Soami Satsang Beas Sant Mat Master,[78] stated in his 2017 essay "Studying Cults, A Forty-Year Reflection" that "Ching Hai, tried to deny for many years her close association with the notorious shabd yoga guru, Thakar Singh, since she didn't want to be tainted by her former guru's sexual exploits".[79][80]

In an article titled "The Master from the Himalayan Cloud" published in Supreme Master Ching Hai News Magazine vol 79 (February 1997), Ching Hai stated while she did practice surat shabd yoga and attended different ashrams in the past, the master who gave her the final and breakthrough transmission was a master she called Khuda Ji, whom she encountered on a her spiritual journey in the Himalayas.[81]

Ban in China


The Quan Yin method and Ching Hai's group is banned in China since 1995.[82][8] In 1996, authorities discovered a list of several thousand practitioners. "Following an investigation into the sect, its beliefs, and activities, party authorities concluded that the organization was fundamentally anti-communist and labeled it a 'reactionary religious organization.'"[8]

The Chinese government labeled the group as xiejiao, roughly translating to "evil cult" but clarified in 2000 as meaning any group that:

a. establishes an illegal organization in the name of religion, qigong, etc.;
b. deifies its leaders;
c. initiates and spreads superstitions and heterodox beliefs;
d. utilizes various means to fabricate and spread superstitions and heterodox [or cultic] beliefs to excite doubts and deceive the people, and recruit and control its members by various means;

e. engages in disturbing social order in an organized manner that brings injury to the lives and properties of the citizens.[82]

Further, in 2017 the China Anti-Cult website listed Guanyin method as one of eleven "dangerous groups".[82]

In 2002, the manager of the Wuhan Zhongzhi Electric Testing Equipment Company was accused by the Chinese authorities of using the business as a cover to "support heresies" associated with the Quan Yin method.[8] The enterprise supported thirty practitioners who "masqueraded as employees and business associates." The manager was charged with using the company's offices and buildings as "retreat sites", organizing "initiations" and "screenings" to recruit members, and illegally printing and distributing more than 6,000 copies of heretical texts.[8]

Ban in Vietnam


The Vietnamese Magazine's Religion Bulletin – January 2020, states "The Vietnamese government views all developing religions today as heresy". Methods of suppression: preventing proselytization, imprisoning proselytizers, forcing citizens to sign vows to abandon their religion.[83][84]

According to an official statement by Vietnamese authorities:

“Activities spreading superstition affect the social fabric. They have the clearest and broadest influence on the population in places where these new religions (heresy, strange faiths) appear: Supreme Master Ching Hai, Long Hoa Maitreya, Treasured Temple of the Three Religions, Protestant Word of Life…”

A publication of the Central Propaganda Committee divided these “heretical religions” into three groups. The first two groups included religions that sprung up locally from Protestant foundations and Buddhist foundations. The third group contains those religions that were imported from overseas, such as Supreme Master Ching Hai.[83]



In Uncompleted Transitional Justice in Taiwan: Repression of Religious and Spiritual Minorities and the Tai Ji Men Case, Associate professor of Business administration at Shih Chien University, Cheng-An Tsai wrote "After 1987 [in Taiwan], a post-authoritarian regime followed, which proclaimed religious liberty but still persecuted religious movements perceived as hostile to the ruling party. In 1996, after the first direct presidential election, the Taiwanese government launched a political purge, targeting religious and spiritual groups that did not show support for the president in power during the election. The crackdown hit several of the largest religious movements active in Taiwan, including Fo Guang Shan, Chung Tai Shan, Tai Ji Men, the Taiwan Zen Buddhist Association, the Sung Chi-Li Miracle Association, and later Guanyin Famen [Ching Hai Association]".[85] Cheng-An Tsai added " Liao Zheng-Hao Minister of Justice, actively carried out the “religious crackdown” to purge dissidents including: investigations, tax inspections by the National Taxation Bureau, assets seizure, demolitions of “illegal” structures, and exorbitant fines.This elaborate campaign required the mobilization of a large number of media, judicial organs, national tax authorities, and so on. Angry ex-members were encouraged to make vague accusations, each of which guaranteed a good three weeks of media headlines. The crackdown was supported by the media, most of which were not independent from the ruling politicians.".[86] In 2019, speaking in a freedom of religion conference in Taiwan, Li Jianzhong Judge and president of the Shilin District court in Taipe, mentioned that the series of religious suppression incidents in 1996, of Song Qili, Miaotian, Taijimen, Supreme Master Ching Hai, and many other groups that have been targeted: Some lawsuits have been going on for more than 20 years. "They have been prosecuted for "fraud" related to criminal matters. After careful judicial trials, all of them were found not guilty".[87] SET News reported that in 1996 Miaoli County government demolished an illegal building in Hai's meditation center and that it was searched by prosecutors and police on a large scale, but in the end she was not prosecuted due to insufficient evidence.[88] ETtoday quoted Hai followers stating "Why did the investigation bureau spend so much manpower, but finally closed the case? because there was no victim".[89]

In 1996 Hai's American followers[90] donated $640,000 to Bill Clinton's Presidential Legal Defense Fund which the trust returned. Following the 1996 United States campaign finance controversy the fund took caution to what it deemed "suspicious" funding sources.[91][92] Mark Csikszentmihalyi, Professor & Chair of International studies at UC, Berkeley wrote "Are donations from charismatic Buddhists one whit more threatening than those from Pat Robertson?" Csikszentmihalyi described the alleged controversy as scapegoating members of minority religious groups in order to divert attention from the real problem of money in politics.".[93]

In 2003, park rangers discovered a man-made island and a 330-foot (100 m) long boardwalk that had been illegally constructed in Biscayne National Park in Florida from Ching Hai's property just inland of the shoreline. The estimated cost to remove the boardwalk, restore the damaged mangrove forest, and remove the several tons of limestone boulders from the environmentally sensitive seagrass bed, was US$1 million. Miami-Dade seized the property of Ching Hai, known locally under the pseudonym Celestia De Lamour, to help recover the costs of restoration. The following year, park workers demolished the boardwalk and replanted between 400 and 500 mangrove trees in the area. The artificial island of boulders remained due to lack of funding to hire a barge, which would cost several hundred thousand dollars. According to the Miami Herald, "Federal agencies still hope to recoup costs from the landowner, but investigators say she and her workers have left the country."[94][95][96] Removing mangroves without a permit is prohibited in Florida and carries a fine.[97] Conversely, in 2010, when the Woodland Trust received a £100,000 donation from Hai's foundation in order to conserve an area of Snowdonia woodland in Wales, and was challenged about the Florida Mangroves incident and criticism, Woodland Trust Spokesperson stated "...the Woodland Trust has procedures to rigorously check out all high value donations against key criteria pertaining to legality and Trust policy.” and that "the Trust always investigated corporate donors to safeguard its reputation. It found nothing untoward about Ching Hai, neither did the group request publicity."[98][99]



Actress Joanna Ampil portrays Hai, in the 2011 Musical "The Real Love". The musical follows Hai life in Germany from when she met her husband (portrayed by Adam Pascal), and her decision to follow her spiritual quest.[116][117]


Series / Category Title Year Ref.
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment The Key of Immediate Enlightenment 1 1989 ISBN 9789866895432
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment 2 1991 ISBN 9789866895111
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment 3 1992 ISBN 9789866895449
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment 4 1996 ISBN 9789866895180
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment 5 1996 ISBN 9781886544550
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment Questions & Answers 1 1993 ISBN 9789866895432
The Key of Immediate Enlightenment Questions & Answers 2 2001 ISBN 9789866895333
Spiritual Aphorisms I 1995 ISBN 9789866895364
I Have Come to Take You Home 1995 ISBN 9789868263505
Secrets to Effortless Spiritual Practice 2005 ISBN 9868106125
Of God and Humans—Insights from Bible Stories 2006 ISBN 9868106168
The Realization of Health-Returning to the Natural and Righteous Way of Living 2008 ISBN 9789868263536
Aphorisms II 2013 ISBN 9789866895654
Coloring Our Lives - Keys to Living a Beautiful Life 2015 ISBN 9789866895319
Love Is The Only Solution 2021 ISBN 9780578960067
Noble Animals The Birds in My Life 2007 ISBN 9789866895142
The Dogs in My Life, Vol 1 2007 ISBN 9789868536791
The Dogs in My Life, Vol 2 2007 ISBN 9789866895081
The Noble Wilds 2008 ISBN 9789868415232
Children Master Tells Stories 1997 ISBN 9789868263567
God Takes Care of Everything 2003 ISBN 9789866895340
Your Halo Is Too Tight! 2005 ISBN 9572824562
Mission on the Blue Water Planet (Digital) 2013 [118]
The Underground World of Mars (Digital) 2013 [119]
Sunny the Fearless (Digital) 2014 [120]
Poetry Silent Tears[121] 1998 ISBN 9789866895043
The Dream of A Butterfly[122] 2000 ISBN 9781886544451
The Lost Memories[123] 2001 ISBN 9781886544321
Traces of Previous Lives[124] 2002 ISBN 9781886544383
The Old Time[125] 2003 ISBN 9781886544161
Wu Tzu Poems[126] 2005 ISBN 9572824597
Pebbles and Gold[127] 2006 ISBN 9789868263529
The Love of Centuries[128] 2011 ISBN 9789866895463

See also



  1. ^ * Qīnghǎi wú shàng shī.
    • Thanh Hải Vô Thượng Sư.
    Literally; “Clear Ocean, Immeasurable Teacher”. Winter, Franz (2018). "How to Download the Divine". Online – Heidelberg Journal of Religions on the Internet. 13: 133 – via Heidelberg University.
    • Both the Chinese and Vietnamese adjectives: "Immeasurable" are derived from the Sanskrit word "Anuttara" See: Glossary of Buddhism. For the Chinese title Teacher or Master see: Shifu.
  2. ^ Vietnamese name consisting of three parts in the following order: a family name, a middle name and a given name.


  1. ^ Lukas Pokorny, ed. (2018). Handbook of East Asian new religious movements. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-36297-0. OCLC 1021065075.
  2. ^ "Vietnam: Country Report" (PDF). Immigration and Nationality Directorate, Home Office, United Kingdom. October 2003. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  3. ^ a b Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Congress (1998). Investigation of Illegal Or Improper Activities in Connection with 1996 Federal Election Campaign: Final Report. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 2798.
  4. ^ "Anual report" (PDF). American Red Cross. 2020. p. 26.
  5. ^ Archives, L. A. Times (19 January 1999). "CHARITY SCORECARD". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  6. ^ "President of the Republic of Slovenia > Reception of Supreme Master Ching Hai". www2.gov.si. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  7. ^ a b c d Partridge, Christopher (2004) New Religions: A Guide Oxford University Press, p. 263-264
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Thornton, Patricia M. (2008). "Manufacturing Dissent in Transnational China: Boomerang, Backfire or Spectacle?". In Kevin J. O'Brien (ed.). Popular Protest in China. Harvard University Press. pp. 179–204 – via www.academia.edu.
  9. ^ "Taipei Review". Taiwan Review. 51 (7–11). Kwang Hwa Publishing Company. 2001. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  10. ^ Schumacher, Elizabeth (13 August 2018). "Vegan restaurants run by cult leader who 'speaks to God' | DW | 13.08.2018". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  11. ^ "China : Treatment of Guanyin Famen practitioners (Kuan Yin Famen, Guanyin Method, Quanyin Famen, Way of the Goddess of Mercy, Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association)". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 14 August 2015. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  12. ^ Goossaert, Vincent; Palmer, David A. (2011). The Religious Question in Modern China. University of Chicago Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-226-30416-8. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  13. ^ Chua-Eoan, Howard (20 January 1997). "The Buddhist Martha". Time. Archived from the original on 21 July 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  14. ^ Maragay, Fel V. (20 November 2006). "Master of charity". Manila Standard Today. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2007.
  15. ^ "The Dui Hua Foundation-Dialogue – Issue 52: The "Cult" of Buddha". Dui Hua Foundation. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2023.
  16. ^ a b c d Young, Gordon (22 May 1996). "God Inc". SF Weekly. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 15 April 2007.
  17. ^ a b Maragay, Fel V. (20 November 2006). "Master of Charity". Manila Standard. Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  18. ^ a b c d Guzmán, Rafer (28 March 1996). "Immaterial Girl". Metro. Archived from the original on 21 December 2005. Retrieved 5 January 2006.
  19. ^ Hai, Ching Hai (March 2009). "God's Direct Contact". Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association. Archived from the original on 2 February 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2009.
  20. ^ a b c d e Eichman, Jennifer (2011). "Prominent Nuns: Influential Taiwanese Voices". CrossCurrents. 61 (3): 345–373. doi:10.1111/j.1939-3881.2011.00187.x. ISSN 0011-1953. S2CID 170393485. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  21. ^ a b Conway, Timothy (October 2017). "Women of Buddhism". Enlightened-Spirituality.org. Archived from the original on 18 July 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  22. ^ a b "Spiritual Interaction/The Supreme Master Ching Hai and The Quan Yin Method (continued)". The Supreme Master Ching Hai News Magazine. No. 98. November 1998. Archived from the original on 9 November 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2020.
  23. ^ a b Childs, Morgan (13 April 2017). "The Vegan Chain That Might Be a Cult". Yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  24. ^ Twist, Amanda van Eck Duymaer van (22 April 2016). Minority Religions and Fraud: In Good Faith. Routledge. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-1-317-09574-3.
  25. ^ "New religious movements: alternative religions serving up innovations in food and faith". ReligiScope. Retrieved 31 December 2021.
  26. ^ Goldman, Marion S. (2014), "Food, Faith and Fraud in Two New Religious Movements", Minority Religions and Fraud, Routledge, pp. 135–152, doi:10.4324/9781315595535-8, ISBN 978-1-315-59553-5, retrieved 31 December 2021
  27. ^ "Know thy master". News & Review. 28 December 2010. Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  28. ^ a b Christopher, Stephen. "Supreme Master Ching Hai World Society (General Variables/Group interaction)". religiondatabase.org. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  29. ^ "Bleak days at Cape Grim as beef bashed". The Australian. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  30. ^ "Go vegan, save the world". News24. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  31. ^ "Animal-people Meat Tax Is Critical for a Vegan World - English". suprememastertv.com. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  32. ^ Abrahms-Kavunenko, Saskia (2019). Enlightenment and the Gasping City: Mongolian Buddhism at a Time of Environmental Disarray. Cornell University Press. pp. 187, 193. ISBN 978-1-5017-3766-4. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  33. ^ "China: Meditation practice called "Kuan Yin Famen" (Guanyin Famen, Guanyin Method, Quanyin Famen); treatment of practitioners, particularly in Shandong". Refworld.com. 8 February 2001. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  34. ^ "Bangladesh - Storm. DHA Information Report No. 7 - Bangladesh | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 24 May 1996. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  35. ^ "Namibia: Breweries donates to flood victims - Namibia | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  36. ^ "Croatia: Population Movement Emergency Plan of Action Operation update n° 1 - Croatia | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 1 December 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  37. ^ "Sudan: Population Movement Emergency Plan of Action (EPoA) MDRSD022 - Final Report - Sudan | ReliefWeb". reliefweb.int. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  38. ^ "'We didn't let anything stop us': Nonprofit feeds thousands after Hurricane Ian". Marco Island Florida. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  39. ^ "International Organization Donates Flood Relief". www.7newsbelize.com. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  40. ^ "385 More Jaffna Families with Army Initiative Get More Relief Packs, Each worth Thousands | Sri Lanka Army". www.army.lk. 8 April 2019. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  41. ^ "Kwaebibirem flood victims receive relief items". ModernGhana.com. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  42. ^ "COVID-19: Ghana Red Cross Society Receives US$150,000.00 from Supreme Master Ching Hai". The New Independent Online. 27 June 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  43. ^ "Flood Relief: Guwahati, August 2022". Ramakrishna Mission. 28 August 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  44. ^ "清海無上師世界會贈冬衣 盼新北街友穿新衣禦寒". Yahoo News. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  45. ^ 自由時報電子報 (6 August 2018). "清海無上師世界會 捐洗澡車助街友 - 生活". 自由時報電子報 (in Chinese). Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  46. ^ "屏縣遊民收容所歲末年終關懷 邀街友團圓迎新年". Yahoo News. 6 February 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  47. ^ "宗教團體再捐街友洗澡車 盼「洗盡前塵、重新出發」". Yahoo News. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  48. ^ "Humanitarian Relief Activities by the Supreme Master Ching Hai and Her International Association". www.godsdirectcontact.org.tw. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  49. ^ "Good deed earns an award". NZ Herald. 1 July 2023. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  50. ^ "Animal water bowl project wins big award". The New Indian Express. 19 December 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  51. ^ "Animal rights group wins award". ABC News. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  52. ^ "Sebbie Hall: Teenager's daily acts of kindness lead to foundation launch". BBC News. 24 December 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  53. ^ "Shining World Awards". award.godsdirectcontact.net. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  54. ^ "Couple from Srinagar bags Shining World Compassion Award for rehabilitation of animals". Greater Kashmir. 21 October 2022. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  55. ^ Tan, Annabel (10 March 2021). "Power to the People". Prestige Hong Kong. Retrieved 18 May 2024.
  56. ^ Terhune, Virginia (29 February 2012). "Bowie teacher receives $10,000 for work in Gambia". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  57. ^ "SA recognised for seal protection". BrandSouthAfrica.com. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  58. ^ "IRCS received 'Shining World Compassion Award'". Tehran Times. 12 November 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  59. ^ "IAR Indonesia receives award for compassionate conservation from international humanitarian organisation". International Animal Rescue. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  60. ^ Barrera, Alicia; Chavez, Steven (28 January 2021). "11-year-old Ohio boy raises money, buys vests for SAPD K9 officers worth over $21,000". KSAT. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  61. ^ "Art of making 'non-violent' silk saris". www.theweekendleader.com. Retrieved 27 May 2023.
  62. ^ "What is the Quan Yin Method?". The Supreme Master Ching Hai International Association. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  63. ^ "A Journey through Aesthetic Realms Path of Saints: Sant Mat Tradition of Light and Sound". suprememastertv.tv. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  64. ^ a b "Suma Ching Hai". wrldrels.org. 24 June 2001. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  65. ^ "Traces of Quan Yin in Religion - Contemplation on the Inner Heavenly Sound, Part 1 of 3 - English". suprememastertv.com. Retrieved 9 February 2022.
  66. ^ a b "Dialogue Ireland – Newsletter 11 – 1999". Dialogue Ireland. 30 September 1999. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  67. ^ Canada, Immigration and Refugee Board of (5 June 2018). "Responses to Information Requests". irb.gc.ca. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  68. ^ Heikkilä-Horn, Marja-Leena. "ICIR 216 Religious Movements and Diversity in Asia" (PDF). muic.mahidol.ac.th. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  69. ^ Park, Sung-Man (24 February 2013). "Caring for the Body and Minds (originally in Korean)". SkyeDaily.com. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  70. ^ "Exchange Of Spirituality/The Supreme Master And The Quan Yin Method". The Supreme Master Ching Hai News Magazine. No. 97. October 1998. Archived from the original on 28 October 2005. Retrieved 9 February 2020.
  71. ^ Kim, Tae-young (15 November 1997). Leading Experience 37. South Korea: Yurim Press. ISBN 8971620374. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  72. ^ "God's Direct contact/Supreme Master Ching Hai /Lecture Tours‧Spreading Peace and Love/European Lecture Tour in 1999/Ireland". God's Direct Contact. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  73. ^ "The cult watchdog". The Irish Times. 22 March 2000. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  74. ^ Garde, Mike (24 November 2013). "Losing a friend to a cult is like a death in the family – with no funeral". Independent.ie. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  75. ^ York, Michael (2018). Pagan Mysticism: Paganism as a World Religion. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-5275-2308-1. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  76. ^ a b Jones, Constance A.; Ryan, James D. (2007). "Sant Mat movement". Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Encyclopedia of World Religions. J. Gordon Melton, Series Editor. New York: Facts On File. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9. Archived from the original on 20 October 2022. Retrieved 13 January 2022.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  77. ^ Investigation of Illegal Or Improper Activities in Connection with the 1996 Federal Election Campaign: Hearings Before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1998. p. 320. ISBN 9780160561672. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  78. ^ Bellamy, Dodie. "The fraud that is Eckankar". San Diego Reader. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  79. ^ Lane, David. "Studying Cults, A Forty-Year Reflection". Integral World. Archived from the original on 6 February 2020. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  80. ^ Lane, David. "David Lane explains why he meditates". HinesSight.blog.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
  81. ^ Hai, Ching (February 1997). "The Master from the Himalayan Cloud". The Supreme Master Ching Hai News Magazine. No. 79. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  82. ^ a b c Irons, Edward A (15 October 2018). "China's Blacklist of Forbidden Religions - The Chinese Communist Party's War on Religious Liberty".
  83. ^ a b "Religion Bulletin – January 2020". The Vietnamese Magazine. 13 May 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2023.
  84. ^ Hoang, Chung (24 May 2013). "New Religious Movements in Vietnamese Media Discourse since 1986: A Critical Approach". Australian Religion Studies Review. 25 (3): 293–315. doi:10.1558/arsr.v25i3.293.
  85. ^ Tsai, Cheng-An (20 September 2021). "Uncompleted Transitional Justice in Taiwan: Repression of Religious and Spiritual Minorities and the Tai Ji Men Case". The Journal of CESNUR. 5 (5): 68–93. doi:10.26338/tjoc.2021.5.5.5. ISSN 2532-2990.
  86. ^ "台灣未完成的轉型正義:受壓迫的宗教心靈少數派與太極門案". 平反1219行動聯盟. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  87. ^ "【新聞】台灣宗教自由與國際接軌 首當其衝做好人權保障". 法稅改革聯盟 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 June 2023.
  88. ^ 三立新聞網 (8 October 2019). "起底清海無上師!涉斂財…離台 反造就她事業遍布全球 | 社會 | 三立新聞網 SETN.COM". www.setn.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  89. ^ "清海無上師背景曝!來台5天「觀音法門」賺破億 信徒:她充滿愛力 | ETtoday生活新聞 | ETtoday新聞雲". www.ettoday.net (in Traditional Chinese). 8 October 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  90. ^ Public Eye, Metroactive News & Issues (December 1996). "Supreme Ordeal". Metro Silicon Valley. Retrieved 1 July 2023.
  91. ^ "SECT LEADER BADGERED FOLLOWERS FOR CLINTON AID". Chicago Tribune. 1 August 1997. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  92. ^ "AllPolitics - Ching Hai Interview - Jan. 9, 1997". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  93. ^ Csikszentmihalyi, Mark (25 January 1997). "WE DON'T FAIRLY COMPARE POLITICAL DONORS\". Greensboro News and Record. Retrieved 11 June 2023.
  94. ^ "Park service to eliminate island". The Washington Times. 26 March 2004. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  95. ^ "A mystery in Miami as sect leader and an instant island disappear". The Independent. 28 March 2004. Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  96. ^ Morgan, Curtis (24 March 2004). "Park removes access to illegal bay island". The Miami Herald.
  97. ^ Fisher, Kellyalexis (1998). "Man Let 'em Grow: The State of Florida Mangrove Laws". Florida Bar Journal.
  98. ^ "Spiritual leader gives £100,000 to save valley". WalesOnline. 23 October 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  99. ^ "Cult took my wife – now it's funding a woodland in North Wales". North Wales Live. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  100. ^ "檀香山市長代表美國政府頒贈 清海無上師 國際和平獎.榮譽公民和銅像". 聯合報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣台北. 9 November 1993.
  101. ^ 記者劉乃游專訪 (6 November 1993). "清海無上師獲國際和平和平獎 赴美賑災行善獲美政府 頒贈榮譽公民並豎像". 中央日報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣台北.
  102. ^ "清海無上師榮獲國際和平獎". 高雄晚報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣台北. 6 November 1993.
  103. ^ 記者陳碧華、李彥甫 (26 May 1994). "談到同胞苦難 她三度淚下 國際人權大會 清海無上師致詞感人". 聯合報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣台北.
  104. ^ 記者李秀姬 (26 May 1994). "國際人權聯盟發表人權宣言 立委建議 福爾摩沙收容悠樂難民". 自由時報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣台北.
  105. ^ "重申國際正義人道精神 國際人權大會發表人權宣言". 中國晚報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣台北. 29 May 1994.
  106. ^ 台北訊 (1 March 1994). "美國頒發世界精神領袖獎清海無上師". 聯合報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣.
  107. ^ "清海無上師榮獲世界精神領袖獎". 中央日報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣. 4 March 1994.
  108. ^ "清海無上師榮獲世界精神領袖獎". 中國時報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣. 7 March 1994.
  109. ^ 台北訊 (1 March 1994). "清海大師獲「世界精神領袖獎」". 自由時報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣.
  110. ^ 記者 黃宏玉/特稿 (1 March 1994). "清海無上師渡化眾生免除苦難實至名歸". 台灣公論報 (in Chinese (Taiwan)). 台灣.
  111. ^ 本報記者田人 (25 February 1994). "美中西部六州聯合舉辦「清海日」 及贈送銅像晚會 場面盛大 氣氛莊嚴 近二千人出席大會". 美國芝加哥時報. 美國.
  112. ^ "The 28th Annual TELLY Awards | Winners". 12 November 2006. Archived from the original on 12 November 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  113. ^ "The Peace Seeker". www.godsdirectcontact.org.tw. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  114. ^ "Gusi Peace Prize International 2006". Gusi Peace Prize Foundation. 22 November 2006. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020. Supreme Master Ching Hai (Vietnam) for Philanthropy
  115. ^ "Carlo among 15 Gusi Peace Prize awardees". philstar Global. 17 November 2006. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  116. ^ Gans, Andrew (2 August 2011). "Betty Buckley, Shirley Jones, Cady Huffman, Adam Pascal Set for The Real Love: A New Musical". Playbill. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  117. ^ Rodis, Girlie. "Joanna Ampil with Adam Pascal in musical concert The Real Love". Philstar.com. Retrieved 29 May 2023.
  118. ^ Hai, Ching (2013). Mission on the blue water planet (PDF) (1st ed.). Love Ocean Creative International Co.
  119. ^ Hai, Ching (2013). The Underground World on Mars (PDF) (1st ed.). Love Ocean Creative International Co.
  120. ^ Hai, Ching (2014). Sunny the Fearless (PDF) (1st ed.). Love Ocean Creative International Co.
  121. ^ Hai, Ching (1988). Silent Tears (5th ed.). SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9789866895043.
  122. ^ Hai, Ching (2000). The Dream of a Butterfly (2nd ed.). SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9781886544451.
  123. ^ Hai, Ching (2001). The Lost Memories (1st ed.). SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9781886544321.
  124. ^ Hai, Ching (2002). Traces of Previous Lives. SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9781886544383.
  125. ^ Hai, Ching (2003). The Old Time. SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9781886544161.
  126. ^ Hai, Ching (2005). Wu Tzu Poems (2nd ed.). SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9572824597.
  127. ^ Hai, Ching (2006). Pebbles and Gold (2nd ed.). SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9789868263529.
  128. ^ Hai, Ching (2011). The Love of Centuries (1st ed.). SMCHIA Publishing Co. ISBN 9789866895463.