|Claims||Vertebral subluxation, spinal adjustment, Innate Intelligence|
|Risks||Vertebral artery dissection (stroke), compression fracture, death|
|Related fields||Osteopathy, vitalism|
|Original proponents||D. D. Palmer|
|Subsequent proponents||B. J. Palmer|
|This article is part of a series on|
Chiropractic is a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially of the spine. It has esoteric origins and is based on several pseudoscientific ideas.
Many chiropractors, especially those in the field's early history, have proposed that mechanical disorders of the joints, especially of the spine, affect general health, and that regular manipulation of the spine (spinal adjustment) improves general health. The main chiropractic treatment technique involves manual therapy, especially manipulation of the spine, other joints, and soft tissues, but may also include exercises and health and lifestyle counseling. A chiropractor may have a Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.) degree and be referred to as "doctor" but is not a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) While many chiropractors view themselves as primary care providers, chiropractic clinical training does not meet the requirements to be such a provider.
Systematic reviews of controlled clinical studies of treatments used by chiropractors have found no evidence that chiropractic manipulation is effective, with the possible exception of treatment for back pain. A 2011 critical evaluation of 45 systematic reviews found that spinal manipulation was ineffective at treating any condition. Spinal manipulation may be cost-effective for sub-acute or chronic low back pain, but the results for acute low back pain were insufficient. No compelling evidence exists to indicate that maintenance chiropractic care adequately prevents symptoms or diseases.
There is not sufficient data to establish the safety of chiropractic manipulations. It is frequently associated with mild to moderate adverse effects, with serious or fatal complications in rare cases. There is controversy regarding the degree of risk of vertebral artery dissection, which can lead to stroke and death, from cervical manipulation. Several deaths have been associated with this technique and it has been suggested that the relationship is causative, a claim which is disputed by many chiropractors.
Chiropractic is well established in the United States, Canada, and Australia. It overlaps with other manual-therapy professions such as osteopathy and physical therapy. Most who seek chiropractic care do so for low back pain. Back and neck pain are considered the specialties of chiropractic, but many chiropractors treat ailments other than musculoskeletal issues. Chiropractic has two main groups: "straights", now the minority, emphasize vitalism, "Innate Intelligence", and consider vertebral subluxations to be the cause of all disease; and "mixers", the majority, are more open to mainstream views and conventional medical techniques, such as exercise, massage, and ice therapy.
D. D. Palmer founded chiropractic in the 1890s, after saying he received it from "the other world"; Palmer maintained that the tenets of chiropractic were passed along to him by a doctor who had died 50 years previously. His son B. J. Palmer helped to expand chiropractic in the early 20th century. Throughout its history, chiropractic has been controversial. Its foundation is at odds with evidence-based medicine, and has been sustained by pseudoscientific ideas such as vertebral subluxation and innate intelligence. Despite the overwhelming evidence that vaccination is an effective public health intervention, among chiropractors there are significant disagreements over the subject, which has led to negative impacts on both public vaccination and mainstream acceptance of chiropractic. The American Medical Association called chiropractic an "unscientific cult" in 1966 and boycotted it until losing an antitrust case in 1987. Chiropractic has had a strong political base and sustained demand for services. In the last decades of the twentieth century, it gained more legitimacy and greater acceptance among conventional physicians and health plans in the United States. During the COVID-19 pandemic, chiropractic professional associations advised chiropractors to adhere to CDC, WHO, and local health department guidance. Despite these recommendations, a small but vocal and influential number of chiropractors spread anti-vaccine disinformation.
Chiropractic is generally categorized as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which focuses on manipulation of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine. Its founder, D. D. Palmer, called it "a science of healing without drugs".
Chiropractic's origins lie in the folk medicine of bonesetting, and as it evolved it incorporated vitalism, spiritual inspiration and rationalism. Its early philosophy was based on deduction from irrefutable doctrine, which helped distinguish chiropractic from medicine, provided it with legal and political defenses against claims of practicing medicine without a license, and allowed chiropractors to establish themselves as an autonomous profession. This "straight" philosophy, taught to generations of chiropractors, rejects the inferential reasoning of the scientific method, and relies on deductions from vitalistic first principles rather than on the materialism of science. However, most practitioners tend to incorporate scientific research into chiropractic, and most practitioners are "mixers" who attempt to combine the materialistic reductionism of science with the metaphysics of their predecessors and with the holistic paradigm of wellness. A 2008 commentary proposed that chiropractic actively divorce itself from the straight philosophy as part of a campaign to eliminate untestable dogma and engage in critical thinking and evidence-based research.
|The testable principle||The untestable metaphor|
Restoration of structural integrity
Improvement of health status
|Taken from Mootz & Phillips 1997|
Although a wide diversity of ideas exist among chiropractors, they share the belief that the spine and health are related in a fundamental way, and that this relationship is mediated through the nervous system. Some chiropractors claim spinal manipulation can have an effect on a variety of ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome and asthma.
Chiropractic philosophy includes the following perspectives:
Holism assumes that health is affected by everything in an individual's environment; some sources also include a spiritual or existential dimension. In contrast, reductionism in chiropractic reduces causes and cures of health problems to a single factor, vertebral subluxation. Homeostasis emphasizes the body's inherent self-healing abilities. Chiropractic's early notion of innate intelligence can be thought of as a metaphor for homeostasis.
A large number of chiropractors fear that if they do not separate themselves from the traditional vitalistic concept of innate intelligence, chiropractic will continue to be seen as a fringe profession. A variant of chiropractic called naprapathy originated in Chicago in the early twentieth century. It holds that manual manipulation of soft tissue can reduce "interference" in the body and thus improve health.
Straights and mixers
|Perspective attribute||Potential belief endpoints|
|Scope of practice:||narrow ("straight") ←||→ broad ("mixer")|
|Diagnostic approach:||intuitive ←||→ analytical|
|Philosophic orientation:||vitalistic ←||→ materialistic|
|Scientific orientation:||descriptive ←||→ experimental|
|Process orientation:||implicit ←||→ explicit|
|Practice attitude:||doctor/model-centered ←||→ patient/situation-centered|
|Professional integration:||separate and distinct ←||→ integrated into mainstream|
|Taken from Mootz & Phillips 1997|
Straight chiropractors adhere to the philosophical principles set forth by D. D. and B. J. Palmer, and retain metaphysical definitions and vitalistic qualities. Straight chiropractors believe that vertebral subluxation leads to interference with an "innate intelligence" exerted via the human nervous system and is a primary underlying risk factor for many diseases. Straights view the medical diagnosis of patient complaints, which they consider to be the "secondary effects" of subluxations, to be unnecessary for chiropractic treatment. Thus, straight chiropractors are concerned primarily with the detection and correction of vertebral subluxation via adjustment and do not "mix" other types of therapies into their practice style. Their philosophy and explanations are metaphysical in nature and they prefer to use traditional chiropractic lexicon terminology such as "perform spinal analysis", "detect subluxation", "correct with adjustment". They prefer to remain separate and distinct from mainstream health care. Although considered the minority group, "they have been able to transform their status as purists and heirs of the lineage into influence dramatically out of proportion to their numbers."
Mixer chiropractors "mix" diagnostic and treatment approaches from chiropractic, medical or osteopathic viewpoints and make up the majority of chiropractors. Unlike straight chiropractors, mixers believe subluxation is one of many causes of disease, and hence they tend to be open to mainstream medicine. Many of them incorporate mainstream medical diagnostics and employ conventional treatments including techniques of physical therapy such as exercise, stretching, massage, ice packs, electrical muscle stimulation, therapeutic ultrasound, and moist heat. Some mixers also use techniques from alternative medicine, including nutritional supplements, acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal remedies, and biofeedback.
Although mixers are the majority group, many of them retain belief in vertebral subluxation as shown in a 2003 survey of 1,100 North American chiropractors, which found that 88 percent wanted to retain the term "vertebral subluxation complex", and that when asked to estimate the percent of disorders of internal organs that subluxation significantly contributes to, the mean response was 62 percent. A 2008 survey of 6,000 American chiropractors demonstrated that most chiropractors seem to believe that a subluxation-based clinical approach may be of limited utility for addressing visceral disorders, and greatly favored non-subluxation-based clinical approaches for such conditions. The same survey showed that most chiropractors generally believed that the majority of their clinical approach for addressing musculoskeletal/biomechanical disorders such as back pain was based on subluxation. Chiropractors often offer conventional therapies such as physical therapy and lifestyle counseling, and it may for the lay person be difficult to distinguish the unscientific from the scientific.
In science-based medicine, the term "subluxation" refers to an incomplete or partial dislocation of a joint, from the Latin luxare for 'dislocate'. While medical doctors use the term exclusively to refer to physical dislocations, Chiropractic founder D. D. Palmer imbued the word subluxation with a metaphysical and philosophical meaning drawn from pseudoscientific traditions such as Vitalism.
Palmer claimed that vertebral subluxations, interfered with the body's function and its inborn ability to heal itself. D. D. Palmer repudiated his earlier theory that vertebral subluxations caused pinched nerves in the intervertebral spaces in favor of subluxations causing altered nerve vibration, either too tense or too slack, affecting the tone (health) of the end organ. He qualified this by noting that knowledge of innate intelligence was not essential to the competent practice of chiropractic. This concept was later expanded upon by his son, B. J. Palmer, and was instrumental in providing the legal basis of differentiating chiropractic from conventional medicine. In 1910, D. D. Palmer theorized that the nervous system controlled health:
- "Physiologists divide nerve-fibers, which form the nerves, into two classes, afferent and efferent. Impressions are made on the peripheral afferent fiber-endings; these create sensations that are transmitted to the center of the nervous system. Efferent nerve-fibers carry impulses out from the center to their endings. Most of these go to muscles and are therefore called motor impulses; some are secretory and enter glands; a portion are inhibitory, their function being to restrain secretion. Thus, nerves carry impulses outward and sensations inward. The activity of these nerves, or rather their fibers, may become excited or allayed by impingement, the result being a modification of functionality – too much or not enough action – which is disease."
Vertebral subluxation, a core concept of traditional chiropractic, remains unsubstantiated and largely untested, and a debate about whether to keep it in the chiropractic paradigm has been ongoing for decades. In general, critics of traditional subluxation-based chiropractic (including chiropractors) are skeptical of its clinical value, dogmatic beliefs and metaphysical approach. While straight chiropractic still retains the traditional vitalistic construct espoused by the founders, evidence-based chiropractic suggests that a mechanistic view will allow chiropractic care to become integrated into the wider health care community. This is still a continuing source of debate within the chiropractic profession as well, with some schools of chiropractic still teaching the traditional/straight subluxation-based chiropractic, while others have moved towards an evidence-based chiropractic that rejects metaphysical foundings and limits itself to primarily neuromusculoskeletal conditions.
In 2005, the chiropractic subluxation was defined by the World Health Organization as "a lesion or dysfunction in a joint or motion segment in which alignment, movement integrity and/or physiological function are altered, although contact between joint surfaces remains intact. It is essentially a functional entity, which may influence biomechanical and neural integrity." This differs from the medical definition of subluxation as a significant structural displacement, which can be seen with static imaging techniques such as X-rays. The use of X-ray imaging in the case of vertebral subluxation exposes patients to harmful ionizing radiation for no evidentially supported reason. The 2008 book Trick or Treatment states "X-rays can reveal neither the subluxations nor the innate intelligence associated with chiropractic philosophy, because they do not exist." Attorney David Chapman-Smith, Secretary-General of the World Federation of Chiropractic, has stated that "Medical critics have asked how there can be a subluxation if it cannot be seen on X-ray. The answer is that the chiropractic subluxation is essentially a functional entity, not structural, and is therefore no more visible on static X-ray than a limp or headache or any other functional problem." The General Chiropractic Council, the statutory regulatory body for chiropractors in the United Kingdom, states that the chiropractic vertebral subluxation complex "is not supported by any clinical research evidence that would allow claims to be made that it is the cause of disease."
As of 2014, the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners states "The specific focus of chiropractic practice is known as the chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction. A subluxation is a health concern that manifests in the skeletal joints, and, through complex anatomical and physiological relationships, affects the nervous system and may lead to reduced function, disability or illness."
Pseudoscience versus spinal manipulation therapy
While some chiropractors limit their practice to short-term treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, many falsely claim to be able treat a myriad of other conditions. Some dissuade patients from seeking medical care, others have pretended to be qualified to act as a family doctor.
- Treat young children
- Discourage immunization
- Pretend to be a family doctor
- Take full spine X-rays
- Promote unproven dietary supplements
- Are antagonistic to scientific medicine
- Claim to treat non-musculoskeletal problems
Writing for the Skeptical Inquirer, one physician cautioned against seeing even chiropractors who solely claim to treat musculoskeletal conditions:
"I think Spinal Manipulation Therapy (SMT) is a reasonable option for patients to try ... But I could not in good conscience refer a patient to a chiropractor... When chiropractic is effective, what is effective is not 'chiropractic': it is SMT. SMT is also offered by physical therapists, DOs, and others. These are science-based providers ... If I thought a patient might benefit from manipulation, I would rather refer him or her to a science-based provider.
Scope of practice
Chiropractors emphasize the conservative management of the neuromusculoskeletal system without the use of medicines or surgery, with special emphasis on the spine. Back and neck pain are the specialties of chiropractic but many chiropractors treat ailments other than musculoskeletal issues. There is a range of opinions among chiropractors: some believed that treatment should be confined to the spine, or back and neck pain; others disagreed. For example, while one 2009 survey of American chiropractors had found that 73% classified themselves as "back pain/musculoskeletal specialists", the label "back and neck pain specialists" was regarded by 47% of them as a least desirable description in a 2005 international survey. Chiropractic combines aspects from mainstream and alternative medicine, and there is no agreement about how to define the profession: although chiropractors have many attributes of primary care providers, chiropractic has more attributes of a medical specialty like dentistry or podiatry. It has been proposed that chiropractors specialize in nonsurgical spine care, instead of attempting to also treat other problems, but the more expansive view of chiropractic is still widespread.
Mainstream health care and governmental organizations such as the World Health Organization consider chiropractic to be complementary and alternative medicine (CAM); and a 2008 study reported that 31% of surveyed chiropractors categorized chiropractic as CAM, 27% as integrated medicine, and 12% as mainstream medicine. Many chiropractors believe they are primary care providers, including US and UK chiropractors, but the length, breadth, and depth of chiropractic clinical training do not support the requirements to be considered primary care providers, so their role on primary care is limited and disputed.
Chiropractic overlaps with several other forms of manual therapy, including massage therapy, osteopathy, physical therapy, and sports medicine. Chiropractic is autonomous from and competitive with mainstream medicine, and osteopathy outside the US remains primarily a manual medical system; physical therapists work alongside and cooperate with mainstream medicine, and osteopathic medicine in the U.S. has merged with the medical profession. Practitioners may distinguish these competing approaches through claims that, compared to other therapists, chiropractors heavily emphasize spinal manipulation, tend to use firmer manipulative techniques, and promote maintenance care; that osteopaths use a wider variety of treatment procedures; and that physical therapists emphasize machinery and exercise.
Chiropractic diagnosis may involve a range of methods including skeletal imaging, observational and tactile assessments, and orthopedic and neurological evaluation. A chiropractor may also refer a patient to an appropriate specialist, or co-manage with another health care provider. Common patient management involves spinal manipulation (SM) and other manual therapies to the joints and soft tissues, rehabilitative exercises, health promotion, electrical modalities, complementary procedures, and lifestyle advice.
Chiropractors are not normally licensed to write medical prescriptions or perform major surgery in the United States, (although New Mexico has become the first US state to allow "advanced practice" trained chiropractors to prescribe certain medications.). In the US, their scope of practice varies by state, based on inconsistent views of chiropractic care: some states, such as Iowa, broadly allow treatment of "human ailments"; some, such as Delaware, use vague concepts such as "transition of nerve energy" to define scope of practice; others, such as New Jersey, specify a severely narrowed scope. US states also differ over whether chiropractors may conduct laboratory tests or diagnostic procedures, dispense dietary supplements, or use other therapies such as homeopathy and acupuncture; in Oregon they can become certified to perform minor surgery and to deliver children via natural childbirth. A 2003 survey of North American chiropractors found that a slight majority favored allowing them to write prescriptions for over-the-counter drugs. A 2010 survey found that 72% of Swiss chiropractors considered their ability to prescribe nonprescription medication as an advantage for chiropractic treatment.
A related field, veterinary chiropractic, applies manual therapies to animals and is recognized in many US states, but is not recognized by the American Chiropractic Association as being chiropractic. It remains controversial within certain segments of the veterinary and chiropractic profession.
No single profession "owns" spinal manipulation and there is little consensus as to which profession should administer SM, raising concerns by chiropractors that other medical physicians could "steal" SM procedures from chiropractors. A focus on evidence-based SM research has also raised concerns that the resulting practice guidelines could limit the scope of chiropractic practice to treating backs and necks. Two US states (Washington and Arkansas) prohibit physical therapists from performing SM, some states allow them to do it only if they have completed advanced training in SM, and some states allow only chiropractors to perform SM, or only chiropractors and physicians. Bills to further prohibit non-chiropractors from performing SM are regularly introduced into state legislatures and are opposed by physical therapist organizations.
Spinal manipulation, which chiropractors call "spinal adjustment" or "chiropractic adjustment", is the most common treatment used in chiropractic care. Spinal manipulation is a passive manual maneuver during which a three-joint complex is taken past the normal range of movement, but not so far as to dislocate or damage the joint. Its defining factor is a dynamic thrust, which is a sudden force that causes an audible release and attempts to increase a joint's range of motion. High-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) thrusts have physiological effects that signal neural discharge from paraspinal muscle tissues, depending on duration and amplitude of the thrust are factors of the degree in paraspinal muscle spindles activation. Clinical skill in employing HVLA-SM thrusts depends on the ability of the practitioner to handle the duration and magnitude of the load. More generally, spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) describes techniques where the hands are used to manipulate, massage, mobilize, adjust, stimulate, apply traction to, or otherwise influence the spine and related tissues.
There are several schools of chiropractic adjustive techniques, although most chiropractors mix techniques from several schools. The following adjustive procedures were received by more than 10% of patients of licensed US chiropractors in a 2003 survey: Diversified technique (full-spine manipulation, employing various techniques), extremity adjusting, Activator technique (which uses a spring-loaded tool to deliver precise adjustments to the spine), Thompson Technique (which relies on a drop table and detailed procedural protocols), Gonstead (which emphasizes evaluating the spine along with specific adjustment that avoids rotational vectors), Cox/flexion-distraction (a gentle, low-force adjusting procedure which mixes chiropractic with osteopathic principles and utilizes specialized adjusting tables with movable parts), adjustive instrument, Sacro-Occipital Technique (which models the spine as a torsion bar), Nimmo Receptor-Tonus Technique, applied kinesiology (which emphasises "muscle testing" as a diagnostic tool), and cranial. Chiropractic biophysics technique uses inverse functions of rotations during spinal manipulation. Koren Specific Technique (KST) may use their hands, or they may use an electric device known as an "ArthroStim" for assessment and spinal manipulations. Insurers in the US and UK that cover other chiropractic techniques exclude KST from coverage because they consider it to be "experimental and investigational". Medicine-assisted manipulation, such as manipulation under anesthesia, involves sedation or local anesthetic and is done by a team that includes an anesthesiologist; a 2008 systematic review did not find enough evidence to make recommendations about its use for chronic low back pain.
Many other procedures are used by chiropractors for treating the spine, other joints and tissues, and general health issues. The following procedures were received by more than one-third of patients of licensed US chiropractors in a 2003 survey: Diversified technique (full-spine manipulation; mentioned in previous paragraph), physical fitness/exercise promotion, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ergonomic/postural advice, self-care strategies, activities of daily living, changing risky/unhealthy behaviors, nutritional/dietary recommendations, relaxation/stress reduction recommendations, ice pack/cryotherapy, extremity adjusting (also mentioned in previous paragraph), trigger point therapy, and disease prevention/early screening advice.
A 2010 study describing Belgian chiropractors and their patients found chiropractors in Belgium mostly focus on neuromusculoskeletal complaints in adult patients, with emphasis on the spine. The diversified technique is the most often applied technique at 93%, followed by the Activator mechanical-assisted technique at 41%. A 2009 study assessing chiropractic students giving or receiving spinal manipulations while attending a United States chiropractic college found Diversified, Gonstead, and upper cervical manipulations are frequently used methods.
Reviews of research studies within the chiropractic community have been used to generate practice guidelines outlining standards that specify which chiropractic treatments are legitimate (i.e. supported by evidence) and conceivably reimbursable under managed care health payment systems. Evidence-based guidelines are supported by one end of an ideological continuum among chiropractors; the other end employs antiscientific reasoning and makes unsubstantiated claims. Chiropractic remains at a crossroads, and that in order to progress it would need to embrace science; the promotion by some for it to be a cure-all was both "misguided and irrational". A 2007 survey of Alberta chiropractors found that they do not consistently apply research in practice, which may have resulted from a lack of research education and skills. Specific guidelines concerning the treatment of nonspecific (i.e., unknown cause) low back pain are inconsistent between countries.
Numerous controlled clinical studies of treatments used by chiropractors have been conducted, with varied results. There is no conclusive evidence that chiropractic manipulative treatment is effective for the treatment of any medical condition, except perhaps for certain kinds of back pain.
Generally, the research carried out into the effectiveness of chiropractic has been of poor quality. Research published by chiropractors is distinctly biased: reviews of SM for back pain tended to find positive conclusions when authored by chiropractors, while reviews by mainstream authors did not.
There is a wide range of ways to measure treatment outcomes. Chiropractic care benefits from the placebo response, but it is difficult to construct a trustworthy placebo for clinical trials of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The efficacy of maintenance care in chiropractic is unknown.
Available evidence covers the following conditions:
- Low back pain. A 2013 Cochrane review found very low to moderate evidence that SMT was no more effective than inert interventions, sham SMT or as an adjunct therapy for acute low back pain. The same review found that SMT appears to be no better than other recommended therapies. A 2012 overview of systematic reviews found that collectively, SM failed to show it is an effective intervention for pain. A 2011 Cochrane review found strong evidence that suggests there is no clinically meaningful difference between SMT and other treatments for reducing pain and improving function for chronic low back pain. A 2010 Cochrane review found no difference between the effects of combined chiropractic treatments and other treatments for chronic or mixed duration low back pain. A 2010 systematic review found that most studies suggest SMT achieves equivalent or superior improvement in pain and function when compared with other commonly used interventions for short, intermediate, and long-term follow-up.
- Radiculopathy. A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis found a statistically significant improvement in overall recovery from sciatica following SM, when compared to usual care, and suggested that SM may be considered. There is moderate quality evidence to support the use of SM for the treatment of acute lumbar radiculopathy and acute lumbar disc herniation with associated radiculopathy. There is low or very low evidence supporting SM for chronic lumbar spine-related extremity symptoms and cervical spine-related extremity symptoms of any duration and no evidence exists for the treatment of thoracic radiculopathy.
- Whiplash and other neck pain. There is no consensus on the effectiveness of manual therapies for neck pain. A 2013 systematic review found that the data suggests that there are minimal short- and long-term treatment differences when comparing manipulation or mobilization of the cervical spine to physical therapy or exercise for neck pain improvement. A 2013 systematic review found that although there is insufficient evidence that thoracic SM is more effective than other treatments, it is a suitable intervention to treat some patients with non-specific neck pain. A 2011 systematic review found that thoracic SM may offer short-term improvement for the treatment of acute or subacute mechanical neck pain; although the body of literature is still weak. A 2010 Cochrane review found low quality evidence that suggests cervical manipulation may offer better short-term pain relief than a control for neck pain, and moderate evidence that cervical manipulation and mobilization produced similar effects on pain, function and patient satisfaction. A 2010 systematic review found low level evidence that suggests chiropractic care improves cervical range of motion and pain in the management of whiplash.
- Headache. There is conflicting evidence surrounding the use of chiropractic SMT for the treatment and prevention of migraine headaches. A 2006 review found no rigorous evidence supporting SM or other manual therapies for tension headache. A 2005 review found that the evidence was weak for effectiveness of chiropractic manipulation for tension headache, and that it was probably more effective for tension headache than for migraine.
- Extremity conditions. A 2011 systematic review and meta-analysis concluded that the addition of manual mobilizations to an exercise program for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis resulted in better pain relief than a supervised exercise program alone and suggested that manual therapists consider adding manual mobilization to optimize supervised active exercise programs. There is silver level evidence that manual therapy is more effective than exercise for the treatment of hip osteoarthritis, however this evidence could be considered to be inconclusive. There is a small amount of research into the efficacy of chiropractic treatment for upper limbs, limited to low level evidence supporting chiropractic management of shoulder pain and limited or fair evidence supporting chiropractic management of leg conditions.
- Other. A 2012 systematic review found insufficient low bias evidence to support the use of spinal manipulation as a therapy for the treatment of hypertension. A 2011 systematic review found moderate evidence to support the use of manual therapy for cervicogenic dizziness. There is very weak evidence for chiropractic care for adult scoliosis (curved or rotated spine) and no scientific data for idiopathic adolescent scoliosis. A 2007 systematic review found that few studies of chiropractic care for nonmusculoskeletal conditions are available, and they are typically not of high quality; it also found that the entire clinical encounter of chiropractic care (as opposed to just SM) provides benefit to patients with cervicogenic dizziness, and that the evidence from reviews is negative, or too weak to draw conclusions, for a wide variety of other nonmusculoskeletal conditions, including ADHD/learning disabilities, dizziness, high blood pressure, and vision conditions. Other reviews have found no evidence of significant benefit for asthma, baby colic, bedwetting, carpal tunnel syndrome, fibromyalgia, gastrointestinal disorders, kinetic imbalance due to suboccipital strain (KISS) in infants, menstrual cramps, insomnia, postmenopausal symptoms, or pelvic and back pain during pregnancy. As there is no evidence of effectiveness or safety for cervical manipulation for baby colic, it is not endorsed.
The World Health Organization found chiropractic care in general is safe when employed skillfully and appropriately. There is not sufficient data to establish the safety of chiropractic manipulations. Manipulation is regarded as relatively safe but complications can arise, and it has known adverse effects, risks and contraindications. Absolute contraindications to spinal manipulative therapy are conditions that should not be manipulated; these contraindications include rheumatoid arthritis and conditions known to result in unstable joints. Relative contraindications are conditions where increased risk is acceptable in some situations and where low-force and soft-tissue techniques are treatments of choice; these contraindications include osteoporosis. Although most contraindications apply only to manipulation of the affected region, some neurological signs indicate referral to emergency medical services; these include sudden and severe headache or neck pain unlike that previously experienced. Indirect risks of chiropractic involve delayed or missed diagnoses through consulting a chiropractor.
Spinal manipulation is associated with frequent, mild and temporary adverse effects, including new or worsening pain or stiffness in the affected region. They have been estimated to occur in 33% to 61% of patients, and frequently occur within an hour of treatment and disappear within 24 to 48 hours; adverse reactions appear to be more common following manipulation than mobilization. The most frequently stated adverse effects are mild headache, soreness, and briefly elevated pain fatigue. Chiropractic is correlated with a very high incidence of minor adverse effects. Rarely, spinal manipulation, particularly on the upper spine, can also result in complications that can lead to permanent disability or death; these can occur in adults and children. Estimates vary widely for the incidence of these complications, and the actual incidence is unknown, due to high levels of underreporting and to the difficulty of linking manipulation to adverse effects such as stroke, which is a particular concern. Adverse effects are poorly reported in recent studies investigating chiropractic manipulations. A 2016 systematic review concludes that the level of reporting is unsuitable and unacceptable. Reports of serious adverse events have occurred, resulting from spinal manipulation therapy of the lumbopelvic region. Estimates for serious adverse events vary from 5 strokes per 100,000 manipulations to 1.46 serious adverse events per 10 million manipulations and 2.68 deaths per 10 million manipulations, though it was determined that there was inadequate data to be conclusive. Several case reports show temporal associations between interventions and potentially serious complications. The published medical literature contains reports of 26 deaths since 1934 following chiropractic manipulations and many more seem to remain unpublished.
Vertebrobasilar artery stroke (VAS) is statistically associated with chiropractic services in persons under 45 years of age, but it is similarly associated with general practitioner services, suggesting that these associations are likely explained by preexisting conditions. Weak to moderately strong evidence supports causation (as opposed to statistical association) between cervical manipulative therapy (CMT) and VAS. There is insufficient evidence to support a strong association or no association between cervical manipulation and stroke. While the biomechanical evidence is not sufficient to support the statement that CMT causes cervical artery dissection (CD), clinical reports suggest that mechanical forces have a part in a substantial number of CDs and the majority of population controlled studies found an association between CMT and VAS in young people. It is strongly recommended that practitioners consider the plausibility of CD as a symptom, and people can be informed of the association between CD and CMT before administrating manipulation of the cervical spine. There is controversy regarding the degree of risk of stroke from cervical manipulation. Many chiropractors state that, the association between chiropractic therapy and vertebral arterial dissection is not proven. However, it has been suggested that the causality between chiropractic cervical manipulation beyond the normal range of motion and vascular accidents is probable or definite. There is very low evidence supporting a small association between internal carotid artery dissection and chiropractic neck manipulation. The incidence of internal carotid artery dissection following cervical spine manipulation is unknown. The literature infrequently reports helpful data to better understand the association between cervical manipulative therapy, cervical artery dissection and stroke. The limited evidence is inconclusive that chiropractic spinal manipulation therapy is not a cause of intracranial hypotension. Cervical intradural disc herniation is very rare following spinal manipulation therapy.
Chiropractors, like other primary care providers, sometimes employ diagnostic imaging techniques such as X-rays and CT scans that rely on ionizing radiation. Although there is no clear evidence for the practice, some chiropractors may still X-ray a patient several times a year. Practice guidelines aim to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure, which increases cancer risk in proportion to the amount of radiation received. Research suggests that radiology instruction given at chiropractic schools worldwide seem to be evidence-based. Although, there seems to be a disparity between some schools and available evidence regarding the aspect of radiography for patients with acute low back pain without an indication of a serious disease, which may contribute to chiropractic overuse of radiography for low back pain.
A 2012 systematic review concluded that no accurate assessment of risk-benefit exists for cervical manipulation. A 2010 systematic review stated that there is no good evidence to assume that neck manipulation is an effective treatment for any medical condition and suggested a precautionary principle in healthcare for chiropractic intervention even if a causality with vertebral artery dissection after neck manipulation were merely a remote possibility. The same review concluded that the risk of death from manipulations to the neck outweighs the benefits. Chiropractors have criticized this conclusion, claiming that the author did not evaluate the potential benefits of spinal manipulation. Edzard Ernst stated "This detail was not the subject of my review. I do, however, refer to such evaluations and should add that a report recently commissioned by the General Chiropractic Council did not support many of the outlandish claims made by many chiropractors across the world." A 1999 review of 177 previously reported cases published between 1925 and 1997 in which injuries were attributed to manipulation of the cervical spine (MCS) concluded that "The literature does not demonstrate that the benefits of MCS outweigh the risks." The professions associated with each injury were assessed. Physical therapists (PT) were involved in less than 2% of all cases, with no deaths caused by PTs. Chiropractors were involved in a little more than 60% of all cases, including 32 deaths.
A 2009 review evaluating maintenance chiropractic care found that spinal manipulation is associated with considerable harm and no compelling evidence exists to indicate that it adequately prevents symptoms or diseases, thus the risk-benefit is not evidently favorable.
A 2012 systematic review suggested that the use of spine manipulation in clinical practice is a cost-effective treatment when used alone or in combination with other treatment approaches. A 2011 systematic review found evidence supporting the cost-effectiveness of using spinal manipulation for the treatment of sub-acute or chronic low back pain; the results for acute low back pain were insufficient.
A 2006 systematic cost-effectiveness review found that the reported cost-effectiveness of spinal manipulation in the United Kingdom compared favorably with other treatments for back pain, but that reports were based on data from clinical trials without placebo controls and that the specific cost-effectiveness of the treatment (as opposed to non-specific effects) remains uncertain. A 2005 American systematic review of economic evaluations of conservative treatments for low back pain found that significant quality problems in available studies meant that definite conclusions could not be drawn about the most cost-effective intervention. The cost-effectiveness of maintenance chiropractic care is unknown.[non-primary source needed]
Analysis of a clinical and cost utilization data from the years 2003 to 2005 by an integrative medicine independent physician association (IPA) which looked the chiropractic services utilization found that the clinical and cost utilization of chiropractic services based on 70,274 member-months over a 7-year period decreased patient costs associate with the following use of services by 60% for in-hospital admissions, 59% for hospital days, 62% for outpatient surgeries and procedures, and 85% for pharmaceutical costs when compared with conventional medicine (visit to a medical doctor primary care provider) IPA performance for the same health maintenance organization product in the same geography and time frame.
Education, licensing, and regulation
Requirements vary between countries. In the U.S. chiropractors obtain a non-medical accredited diploma in the field of chiropractic. Chiropractic education in the U.S. has been criticized for failing to meet generally accepted standards of evidence-based medicine. The curriculum content of North American chiropractic and medical colleges with regard to basic and clinical sciences has little similarity, both in the kinds of subjects offered and in the time assigned to each subject. Accredited chiropractic programs in the U.S. require that applicants have 90 semester hours of undergraduate education with a grade point average of at least 3.0 on a 4.0 scale. Many programs require at least three years of undergraduate education, and more are requiring a bachelor's degree. Canada requires a minimum three years of undergraduate education for applicants, and at least 4200 instructional hours (or the equivalent) of full‐time chiropractic education for matriculation through an accredited chiropractic program. Graduates of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) are formally recognized to have at least 7–8 years of university level education. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines suggest three major full-time educational paths culminating in either a DC, DCM, BSc, or MSc degree. Besides the full-time paths, they also suggest a conversion program for people with other health care education and limited training programs for regions where no legislation governs chiropractic.
Upon graduation, there may be a requirement to pass national, state, or provincial board examinations before being licensed to practice in a particular jurisdiction. Depending on the location, continuing education may be required to renew these licenses. Specialty training is available through part-time postgraduate education programs such as chiropractic orthopedics and sports chiropractic, and through full-time residency programs such as radiology or orthopedics.
In the U.S., chiropractic schools are accredited through the Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) while the General Chiropractic Council (GCC) is the statutory governmental body responsible for the regulation of chiropractic in the UK. The U.S. CCE requires a mixing curriculum, which means a straight-educated chiropractor may not be eligible for licensing in states requiring CCE accreditation. CCEs in the U.S., Canada, Australia and Europe have joined to form CCE-International (CCE-I) as a model of accreditation standards with the goal of having credentials portable internationally. Today, there are 18 accredited Doctor of Chiropractic programs in the U.S., 2 in Canada, 6 in Australasia, and 5 in Europe. All but one of the chiropractic colleges in the U.S. are privately funded, but in several other countries they are in government-sponsored universities and colleges. Of the two chiropractic colleges in Canada, one is publicly funded (UQTR) and one is privately funded (CMCC). In 2005, CMCC was granted the privilege of offering a professional health care degree under the Post-secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act, which sets the program within the hierarchy of education in Canada as comparable to that of other primary contact health care professions such as medicine, dentistry and optometry.
Regulatory colleges and chiropractic boards in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Australia are responsible for protecting the public, standards of practice, disciplinary issues, quality assurance and maintenance of competency. There are an estimated 49,000 chiropractors in the U.S. (2008), 6,500 in Canada (2010), 2,500 in Australia (2000), and 1,500 in the UK (2000).
Chiropractors often argue that this education is as good as or better than medical physicians', but most chiropractic training is confined to classrooms with much time spent learning theory, adjustment, and marketing. The fourth year of chiropractic education persistently showed the highest stress levels. Every student, irrespective of year, experienced different ranges of stress when studying. The chiropractic leaders and colleges have had internal struggles. Rather than cooperation, there has been infighting between different factions. A number of actions were posturing due to the confidential nature of the chiropractic colleges in an attempt to enroll students.[clarification needed]
The chiropractic oath is a modern variation of the classical Hippocratic Oath historically taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice their professions ethically. The American Chiropractic Association (ACA) has an ethical code "based upon the acknowledgement that the social contract dictates the profession's responsibilities to the patient, the public, and the profession; and upholds the fundamental principle that the paramount purpose of the chiropractic doctor's professional services shall be to benefit the patient." The International Chiropractor's Association (ICA) also has a set of professional canons.
A 2008 commentary proposed that the chiropractic profession actively regulate itself to combat abuse, fraud, and quackery, which are more prevalent in chiropractic than in other health care professions, violating the social contract between patients and physicians. According to a 2015 Gallup poll of U.S. adults, the perception of chiropractors is generally favorable; two-thirds of American adults agree that chiropractors have their patient's best interest in mind and more than half also agree that most chiropractors are trustworthy. Less than 10% of US adults disagreed with the statement that chiropractors were trustworthy.
Chiropractors, especially in America, have a reputation for unnecessarily treating patients. In many circumstances the focus seems to be put on economics instead of health care. Sustained chiropractic care is promoted as a preventive tool, but unnecessary manipulation could possibly present a risk to patients. Some chiropractors are concerned by the routine unjustified claims chiropractors have made. A 2010 analysis of chiropractic websites found the majority of chiropractors and their associations made claims of effectiveness not supported by scientific evidence, while 28% of chiropractor websites advocate lower back pain care, which has some sound evidence.
The US Office of the Inspector General (OIG) estimated that for calendar year 2013, 82% of payments to chiropractors under Medicare Part B, a total of $359 million, did not comply with Medicare requirements. There have been at least 15 OIG reports about chiropractic billing irregularities since 1986.
In 2009, a backlash to the libel suit filed by the British Chiropractic Association (BCA) against Simon Singh inspired the filing of formal complaints of false advertising against more than 500 individual chiropractors within one 24-hour period, prompting the McTimoney Chiropractic Association to write to its members advising them to remove leaflets that make claims about whiplash and colic from their practice, to be wary of new patients and telephone inquiries, and telling their members: "If you have a website, take it down NOW" and "Finally, we strongly suggest you do NOT discuss this with others, especially patients." An editorial in Nature suggested that the BCA may have been trying to suppress debate and that this use of English libel law was a burden on the right to freedom of expression, which is protected by the European Convention on Human Rights. The libel case ended with the BCA withdrawing its suit in 2010.
Chiropractic is established in the U.S., Canada, and Australia, and is present to a lesser extent in many other countries. It is viewed as a marginal and non-clinically–proven attempt at complementary and alternative medicine, which has not integrated into mainstream medicine. Billions are spent annually for chiropractic services.
In Australia, there are approximately 2488 chiropractors, or one chiropractor for every 7980 people. Most private health insurance funds in Australia cover chiropractic care, and the federal government funds chiropractic care when the patient is referred by a medical practitioner. In 2014, the chiropractic profession had a registered workforce of 4,684 practitioners in Australia represented by two major organizations — the Chiropractors' Association of Australia (CAA) and the Chiropractic and Osteopathic College of Australasia (COCA). Annual expenditure on chiropractic care (alone or combined with osteopathy) in Australia is estimated to be between AUD$750–988 million with musculoskeletal complaints such as back and neck pain making up the bulk of consultations; and proportional expenditure is similar to that found in other countries. While Medicare (the Australian publicly funded universal health care system) coverage of chiropractic services is limited to only those directed by a medical referral to assist chronic disease management, most private health insurers in Australia do provide partial reimbursement for a wider range of chiropractic services in addition to limited third party payments for workers compensation and motor vehicle accidents.
Of the 2,005 chiropractors who participated in a 2015 survey, 62.4% were male and the average age was 42.1 (SD = 12.1) years. Nearly all chiropractors (97.1%) had a bachelor's degree or higher, with the majority of chiropractor's highest professional qualification being a bachelor or double bachelor's degree (34.6%), followed by a master's degree (32.7%), Doctor of Chiropractic (28.9%) or PhD (0.9%). Only a small number of chiropractor's highest professional qualification was a diploma (2.1%) or advanced diploma (0.8%).
In the United Kingdom, there are over 2,000 chiropractors, representing one chiropractor per 29,206 people. Chiropractic is available on the National Health Service in some areas, such as Cornwall, where the treatment is only available for neck or back pain.
A 2010 study by questionnaire presented to UK chiropractors indicated only 45% of chiropractors disclosed to patients the serious risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine and that 46% believed there was possibility patients would refuse treatment if the risks were correctly explained. However 80% acknowledged the ethical/moral responsibility to disclose risk to patients.
United States and Canada
The percentage of the population that utilizes chiropractic care at any given time generally falls into a range from 6% to 12% in the U.S. and Canada, with a global high of 20% in Alberta in 2006. In 2008, chiropractors were reported to be the most common CAM providers for children and adolescents, these patients representing up to 14% of all visits to chiropractors.
There were around 50,330 chiropractors practicing in North America in 2000. In 2008, this has increased by almost 20% to around 60,000 chiropractors. In 2002–03, the majority of those who sought chiropractic did so for relief from back and neck pain and other neuromusculoskeletal complaints; most do so specifically for low back pain. The majority of U.S. chiropractors participate in some form of managed care. Although the majority of U.S. chiropractors view themselves as specialists in neuromusculoskeletal conditions, many also consider chiropractic as a type of primary care. In the majority of cases, the care that chiropractors and physicians provide divides the market, however for some, their care is complementary.
In the U.S., chiropractors perform over 90% of all manipulative treatments. Satisfaction rates are typically higher for chiropractic care compared to medical care, with a 1998 U.S. survey reporting 83% of respondents satisfied or very satisfied with their care; quality of communication seems to be a consistent predictor of patient satisfaction with chiropractors.
Utilization of chiropractic care is sensitive to the costs incurred by the co-payment by the patient. The use of chiropractic declined from 9.9% of U.S. adults in 1997 to 7.4% in 2002; this was the largest relative decrease among CAM professions, which overall had a stable use rate. As of 2007 7% of the U.S. population is being reached by chiropractic. They were the third largest medical profession in the US in 2002, following physicians and dentists. Employment of U.S. chiropractors was expected to increase 14% between 2006 and 2016, faster than the average for all occupations.
Chiropractic's origins lie in the folk medicine practice of bonesetting, in which untrained practitioners engaged in joint manipulation or resetting fractured bones. Chiropractic was founded in 1895 by Daniel David (D.D.) Palmer in Davenport, Iowa. Palmer, a magnetic healer, hypothesized that manual manipulation of the spine could cure disease. The first chiropractic patient of D.D. Palmer was Harvey Lillard, a worker in the building where Palmer's office was located. He claimed that he had severely reduced hearing for 17 years, which started soon following a "pop" in his spine. A few days following his adjustment, Lillard claimed his hearing was almost completely restored. Another of Palmer's patients, Samuel Weed, coined the term chiropractic, from Greek χειρο- chiro- (itself from χείρ cheir 'hand') 'hand' and πρακτικός praktikos 'practical'. Chiropractic is classified as a field of pseudomedicine on account of its esoteric origins.
Chiropractic competed with its predecessor osteopathy, another medical system based on magnetic healing; both systems were founded by charismatic midwesterners in opposition to the conventional medicine of the day, and both postulated that manipulation improved health. Although initially keeping chiropractic a family secret, in 1898 Palmer began teaching it to a few students at his new Palmer School of Chiropractic. One student, his son Bartlett Joshua (B.J.) Palmer, became committed to promoting chiropractic, took over the Palmer School in 1906, and rapidly expanded its enrollment.
Early chiropractors believed that all disease was caused by interruptions in the flow of innate intelligence, a vitalistic nervous energy or life force that represented God's presence in man; chiropractic leaders often invoked religious imagery and moral traditions. D.D. Palmer said he "received chiropractic from the other world". D.D. and B.J. both seriously considered declaring chiropractic a religion, which might have provided legal protection under the U.S. constitution, but decided against it partly to avoid confusion with Christian Science. Early chiropractors also tapped into the Populist movement, emphasizing craft, hard work, competition, and advertisement, aligning themselves with the common man against intellectuals and trusts, among which they included the American Medical Association (AMA).
Chiropractic has seen considerable controversy and criticism. Although D.D. and B.J. were "straight" and disdained the use of instruments, some early chiropractors, whom B.J. scornfully called "mixers", advocated the use of instruments. In 1910, B.J. changed course and endorsed X-rays as necessary for diagnosis; this resulted in a significant exodus from the Palmer School of the more conservative faculty and students. The mixer camp grew until by 1924 B.J. estimated that only 3,000 of the U.S.'s 25,000 chiropractors remained straight. That year, B.J.'s invention and promotion of the neurocalometer, a temperature-sensing device, was highly controversial among B.J.'s fellow straights. By the 1930s, chiropractic was the largest alternative healing profession in the U.S.
Chiropractors faced heavy opposition from organized medicine. D.D. Palmer was jailed in 1907 for practicing medicine without a license. Thousands of chiropractors were prosecuted for practicing medicine without a license, and D.D. and many other chiropractors were jailed. To defend against medical statutes, B.J. argued that chiropractic was separate and distinct from medicine, asserting that chiropractors "analyzed" rather than "diagnosed", and "adjusted" subluxations rather than "treated" disease. B.J. cofounded the Universal Chiropractors' Association (UCA) to provide legal services to arrested chiropractors. Although the UCA won their first test case in Wisconsin in 1907, prosecutions instigated by state medical boards became increasingly common and in many cases were successful. In response, chiropractors conducted political campaigns to secure separate licensing statutes, eventually succeeding in all fifty states, from Kansas in 1913 through Louisiana in 1974. The longstanding feud between chiropractors and medical doctors continued for decades. The AMA labeled chiropractic an "unscientific cult" in 1966, and until 1980 advised its members that it was unethical for medical doctors to associate with "unscientific practitioners". This culminated in a landmark 1987 decision, Wilk v. AMA, in which the court found that the AMA had engaged in unreasonable restraint of trade and conspiracy, and which ended the AMA's de facto boycott of chiropractic.
Serious research to test chiropractic theories did not begin until the 1970s, and is continuing to be hampered by antiscientific and pseudoscientific ideas that sustained the profession in its long battle with organized medicine. By the mid-1990s there was a growing scholarly interest in chiropractic, which helped efforts to improve service quality and establish clinical guidelines that recommended manual therapies for acute low back pain. In recent decades chiropractic gained legitimacy and greater acceptance by medical physicians and health plans, and enjoyed a strong political base and sustained demand for services. However, its future seemed uncertain: as the number of practitioners grew, evidence-based medicine insisted on treatments with demonstrated value, managed care restricted payment, and competition grew from massage therapists and other health professions. The profession responded by marketing natural products and devices more aggressively, and by reaching deeper into alternative medicine and primary care.
Some chiropractors oppose vaccination and water fluoridation, which are common public health practices. Within the chiropractic community there are significant disagreements about vaccination, one of the most cost-effective public health interventions available. Most chiropractic writings on vaccination focus on its negative aspects, claiming that it is hazardous, ineffective, and unnecessary. Some chiropractors have embraced vaccination, but a significant portion of the profession rejects it, as original chiropractic philosophy traces diseases to causes in the spine and states that vaccines interfere with healing. The extent to which anti-vaccination views perpetuate the current chiropractic profession is uncertain. The American Chiropractic Association and the International Chiropractors Association support individual exemptions to compulsory vaccination laws, and a 1995 survey of U.S. chiropractors found that about a third believed there was no scientific proof that immunization prevents disease. The Canadian Chiropractic Association supports vaccination; a survey in Alberta in 2002 found that 25% of chiropractors advised patients for, and 27% against, vaccinating themselves or their children. Many even reject the fact that smallpox has been eradicated and they believe it was renamed monkeypox.
Early opposition to water fluoridation included chiropractors, some of whom continue to oppose it as being incompatible with chiropractic philosophy and an infringement of personal freedom. Other chiropractors have actively promoted fluoridation, and several chiropractic organizations have endorsed scientific principles of public health. In addition to traditional chiropractic opposition to water fluoridation and vaccination, chiropractors' attempts to establish a positive reputation for their public health role are also compromised by their reputation for recommending repetitive lifelong chiropractic treatment.
Throughout its history chiropractic has been the subject of internal and external controversy and criticism. According to Daniel D. Palmer, the founder of chiropractic, subluxation is the sole cause of disease and manipulation is the cure for all diseases of the human race. A 2003 profession-wide survey found "most chiropractors (whether 'straights' or 'mixers') still hold views of innate intelligence and of the cause and cure of disease (not just back pain) consistent with those of the Palmers." A critical evaluation stated "Chiropractic is rooted in mystical concepts. This led to an internal conflict within the chiropractic profession, which continues today." Chiropractors, including D.D. Palmer, were jailed for practicing medicine without a license. For most of its existence, chiropractic has battled with mainstream medicine, sustained by antiscientific and pseudoscientific ideas such as subluxation. Collectively, systematic reviews have not demonstrated that spinal manipulation, the main treatment method employed by chiropractors, is effective for any medical condition, with the possible exception of treatment for back pain. Chiropractic remains controversial, though to a lesser extent than in past years.
- Chiropractic education
- Chiropractic schools
- Councils on Chiropractic Education International
- List of topics characterized as pseudoscience
- Toftness device
- World Federation of Chiropractic
- Chapman-Smith DA, Cleveland CS III (2005). "International status, standards, and education of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 111–34. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
- Nelson CF, Lawrence DJ, Triano JJ, Bronfort G, Perle SM, Metz RD, Hegetschweiler K, LaBrot T (2005). "Chiropractic as spine care: a model for the profession". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 13 (1): 9. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-9. PMC 1185558. PMID 16000175.
- Swanson ES (2015). "Pseudoscience". Science and Society: Understanding Scientific Methodology, Energy, Climate, and Sustainability. Springer. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-319-21987-5.
- For an explanation regarding the description of chiropractic as a pseudoscience, see:
- Singh, Simon; Ernst, Edzard (2008). "The Truth About Chiropractic Therapy". Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial. London: Bantam Press. ISBN 978-0-593-06129-9. OCLC 190777228.
- Hall, Harriet (March 11, 2008). "Science and Chiropractic". sciencebasedmedicine.org. New England Skeptical Society. Archived from the original on May 12, 2019. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
- Hansson, Sven Ove (2017-06-01). "Science denial as a form of pseudoscience". Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A. 63: 39–47. Bibcode:2017SHPSA..63...39H. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2017.05.002. ISSN 0039-3681. PMID 28629651.
- Ernst, Edzard (2009-04-01). "Complementary/alternative medicine: engulfed by postmodernism, anti-science and regressive thinking". The British Journal of General Practice. 59 (561): 298–301. doi:10.3399/bjgp09X420482. ISSN 0960-1643. PMC 2662117. PMID 19341568.
- Hall, Harriet (May 2020). "Applied kinesiology and other chiropractic delusions". Skeptical Inquirer. 44 (3): 21–23.
- Novella, Steven (March 22, 2017). "Cracking Down on Chiropractic Pseudoscience". sciencebasedmedicine.org. New England Skeptical Society. Archived from the original on December 19, 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-19.
- Williams, William F. (2000). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Facts on File Inc. p. 51. ISBN 1-57958-207-9
- Mootz RD, Shekelle PG (1997). "Content of practice". In Cherkin DC, Mootz RD (eds.). Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. pp. 67–91. OCLC 39856366. AHCPR Pub No. 98-N002.
- "The DC as PCP? Drug Wars Resume – Science-Based Medicine". sciencebasedmedicine.org. 2019-12-18. Archived from the original on 2019-12-18. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
- Bellamy, Jann (December 20, 2018). "Legislative Alchemy 2018: Chiropractors rebranding as primary care physicians continues". sciencebasedmedicine.org. Archived from the original on December 19, 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
- Ernst E (May 2008). "Chiropractic: a critical evaluation". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 35 (5): 544–62. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2007.07.004. PMID 18280103.
- Cooper RA, McKee HJ (2003). "Chiropractic in the United States: trends and issues". Milbank Quarterly. 81 (1): 107–38, table of contents. doi:10.1111/1468-0009.00040. PMC 2690192. PMID 12669653.
- Posadzki P, Ernst E (2011). "Spinal manipulation: an update of a systematic review of systematic reviews". The New Zealand Medical Journal. 124 (1340): 55–71. PMID 21952385.
- Lin CW, Haas M, Maher CG, Machado LA, van Tulder MW (2011). "Cost-effectiveness of guideline-endorsed treatments for low back pain: a systematic review". European Spine Journal. 20 (7): 1024–38. doi:10.1007/s00586-010-1676-3. PMC 3176706. PMID 21229367.
- Ernst E (2009). "Chiropractic maintenance treatment, a useful preventative approach?". Preventive Medicine. 49 (2–3): 99–100. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.05.004. PMID 19465044.
- Gouveia LO, Castanho P, Ferreira JJ (2009). "Safety of chiropractic interventions: a systematic review" (PDF). Spine. 34 (11): E405–13. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181a16d63. PMID 19444054. S2CID 21279308.
- Ernst E (2007). "Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 100 (7): 330–38. doi:10.1177/014107680710000716. PMC 1905885. PMID 17606755. Archived from the original on 2010-05-16.
- Christian Nordqvist (2007-07-02). "Spinal Manipulation Should Not Be Routinely Used, New Study Warns". Med News Today.
- Haynes MJ, Vincent K, Fischhoff C, Bremner AP, Lanlo O, Hankey GJ (2012). "Assessing the risk of stroke from neck manipulation: a systematic review". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 66 (10): 940–47. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.03004.x. PMC 3506737. PMID 22994328.
- Ernst E (2010). "Vascular accidents after neck manipulation: cause or coincidence?". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 64 (6): 673–77. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02237.x. PMID 20518945. S2CID 38571730.
- Ernst E (2010). "Deaths after chiropractic: a review of published cases". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 64 (8): 1162–65. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02352.x. PMID 20642715. S2CID 45225661.
- Tetrault M (2004). "Global professional strategy for chiropractic" (PDF). Chiropractic Diplomatic Corps. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-04-18.
- Norris P (2001). "How 'we' are different from 'them': occupational boundary maintenance in the treatment of musculo-skeletal problems". Sociology of Health and Illness. 23 (1): 24–43. doi:10.1111/1467-9566.00239.
- Hurwitz EL, Chiang LM (2006). "A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: findings from the joint Canada/United States Survey of Health, 2002-03". BMC Health Services Research. 6: 49. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-6-49. PMC 1458338. PMID 16600038.
- Kaptchuk TJ, Eisenberg DM (November 1998). "Chiropractic: origins, controversies, and contributions". Archives of Internal Medicine. 158 (20): 2215–24. doi:10.1001/archinte.158.20.2215. PMID 9818801.
- Martin SC (October 1993). "Chiropractic and the social context of medical technology, 1895-1925". Technology and Culture. 34 (4): 808–34. doi:10.2307/3106416. JSTOR 3106416. PMID 11623404.
- D.D. Palmer's Religion of Chiropractic – Letter from D.D. Palmer to P.W. Johnson, D.C., May 4, 1911. In the letter, he often refers to himself with royal third person terminology and also as "Old Dad".
- Lazarus, David (June 30, 2017). Column: Chiropractic treatment, a $15-billion industry, has its roots in a ghost story. Archived July 19, 2020, at the Wayback Machine --- "Daniel David Palmer, the 'father' of chiropractic who performed the first chiropractic adjustment in 1895, was an avid spiritualist. He maintained that the notion and basic principles of chiropractic treatment were passed along to him during a seance by a long-dead doctor. 'The knowledge and philosophy given me by Dr. Jim Atkinson, an intelligent spiritual being ... appealed to my reason,' Palmer wrote in his memoir The Chiropractor, which was published in 1914 after his death in Los Angeles. Atkinson had died 50 years prior to Palmer's epiphany." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved: September 25, 2019.
- DeVocht JW (2006). "History and overview of theories and methods of chiropractic: a counterpoint". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 444: 243–49. doi:10.1097/01.blo.0000203460.89887.8d. PMID 16523145. S2CID 35775630.
- Homola S (2006). "Chiropractic: history and overview of theories and methods". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 444: 236–42. doi:10.1097/01.blo.0000200258.95865.87. PMID 16446588.
- Joseph C. Keating, Jr.; Cleveland CS III; Menke M (2005). "Chiropractic history: a primer" (PDF). Association for the History of Chiropractic. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2013. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
A significant and continuing barrier to scientific progress within chiropractic are the anti-scientific and pseudo-scientific ideas (Keating 1997b) which have sustained the profession throughout a century of intense struggle with political medicine. Chiropractors' tendency to assert the meaningfulness of various theories and methods as a counterpoint to allopathic charges of quackery has created a defensiveness which can make critical examination of chiropractic concepts difficult (Keating and Mootz 1989). One example of this conundrum is the continuing controversy about the presumptive target of DCs' adjustive interventions: subluxation (Gatterman 1995; Leach 1994).
- Busse JW, Morgan L, Campbell JB (2005). "Chiropractic antivaccination arguments". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 28 (5): 367–73. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2005.04.011. PMID 15965414.
- Campbell JB, Busse JW, Injeyan HS (2000). "Chiropractors and vaccination: a historical perspective". Pediatrics. 105 (4): e43. doi:10.1542/peds.105.4.e43. PMID 10742364.
- Johnson C, Baird R, Dougherty PE, Globe G, Green BN, Haneline M, Hawk C, Injeyan HS, Killinger L, Kopansky-Giles D, Lisi AJ, Mior SA, Smith M (2008). "Chiropractic and public health: current state and future vision". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 31 (6): 397–410. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.07.001. PMID 18722194.
- WFC Public Health Committee and WFC Research Committee (March 17, 2020). COVID-19 Advice for Chiropractors World Federation of Chiropractic.
- Robert C. Jones, et al. Not Business as Usual: A Safe, Responsible Response to COVID-19 American Chiropractic Association
- MICHELLE R. SMITH, SCOTT BAUER and MIKE CATALINI (October 8, 2021). Anti-vaccine chiropractors rising force of misinformation. Associated Press.
- Keating JC Jr (2005). "Philosophy in chiropractic". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 77–98. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
- Mootz RD, Phillips RB (1997). "Chiropractic belief systems". In Cherkin DC, Mootz RD (eds.). Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research. Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. pp. 9–16. OCLC 39856366. AHCPR Pub No. 98-N002.
- Murphy DR, Schneider MJ, Seaman DR, Perle SM, Nelson CF (Aug 2008). "How can chiropractic become a respected mainstream profession? The example of podiatry" (PDF). Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 16: 10. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-10. PMC 2538524. PMID 18759966. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-03-25. Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- Gay RE, Nelson CF (2003). "Chiropractic philosophy". In Wainapel SF, Fast A (eds.). Alternative Medicine and Rehabilitation: a Guide for Practitioners. New York: Demos Medical Publishing. ISBN 978-1-888799-66-8.
- "Chiropractic". NHS Choices. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Freeman J (February 2005). "Towards a definition of holism". The British Journal of General Practice. 55 (511): 154–55. PMC 1463203. PMID 15720949.
- Martin Gardner (1 June 1957). Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science. Courier Corporation. pp. 227–. ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2.
- Raso J (1997). "Dictionary of Metaphysical Healthcare – Glossary". Quackwatch. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
- Keating JC Jr; Cleveland CS III; Menke M (2005). "Chiropractic history: a primer" (PDF). Association for the History of Chiropractic. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-04-24. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- McDonald WP, Durkin KF, Pfefer M, et al. (2003). How Chiropractors Think and Practice: The Survey of North American Chiropractors. Ada, OH: Institute for Social Research, Ohio Northern University. ISBN 978-0-9728055-5-1.[page needed] Summarized in: McDonald WP, Durkin KF, Pfefer M (2004). "How chiropractors think and practice: the survey of North American chiropractors". Seminars in Integrative Medicine. 2 (3): 92–8. doi:10.1016/j.sigm.2004.07.002.
- "New Study Finds Unity in Chiropractic". Dynamic Chiropractic. Vol. 21, no. 12. June 2, 2003.
- Smith M, Carber LA (2008). "Survey of US Chiropractor Attitudes and Behaviors about Subluxation" (PDF). Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. 15: 19–26. doi:10.1016/s1556-3499(13)60166-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-04-25.
- Benedetti, Paul; MacPhail, Wayne (2002-01-01). Spin Doctors: The Chiropractic Industry Under Examination. Dundurn. p. 18. ISBN 9781550024067.
- "Definition of Subluxation". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved January 4, 2018.
- "luxation (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 2019-05-01. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
- Keating J. C. Jr (1995). "D. D. Palmer's forgotten theories of chiropractic" (PDF). Association for the History of Chiropractic. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
- Keating JC Jr (2005). "A brief history of the chiropractic profession". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 23–64. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
- Palmer DD (1910). The Chiropractor's Adjuster: Text-book of the Science, Art and Philosophy of Chiropractic for Students and Practitioners. Portland, OR: Portland Printing House Co. OCLC 17205743.
A subluxated vertebra ... is the cause of 95 percent of all diseases ... The other five percent is caused by displaced joints other than those of the vertebral column.
- Keating JC, Charlton KH, Grod JP, Perle SM, Sikorski D, Winterstein JF (August 2005). "Subluxation: dogma or science?". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 13: 17. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-17. PMC 1208927. PMID 16092955.
- Rose KA, Adams A (2000). "A survey of the use of evidence-based health care in chiropractic college clinics" (PDF). Journal of Chiropractic Education. 14 (2): 71–77. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-10-02.
- Homola S (2006). "Can chiropractors and evidence-based manual therapists work together? an opinion from a veteran chiropractor" (PDF). Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 14 (2): E14–18. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.366.2817. doi:10.1179/jmt.2006.14.2.14E. S2CID 71826135.
- World Health Organization (2005). WHO guidelines on basic training and safety in chiropractic (PDF). ISBN 978-92-4-159371-7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-03-13. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- Jenkins, HJ (5 October 2016). "Awareness of radiographic guidelines for low back pain: a survey of Australian chiropractors". Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 24: 39. doi:10.1186/s12998-016-0118-7. PMC 5051064. PMID 27713818.
- Ammendolia C, Taylor JA, Pennick V, Côté P, Hogg-Johnson S, Bombardier C (2008). "Adherence to radiography guidelines for low back pain: A survey of chiropractic schools worldwide". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 31 (6): 412–18. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.06.010. PMID 18722195.
- Singh, S; Ernst, E (2008). "The truth about chiropractic therapy". Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. W.W. Norton. pp. 145–90. ISBN 978-0-393-06661-6.
- David Chapman-Smith (2000). "Principles and Goals of Chiropractic Care". The Chiropractic Profession: Its Education, Practice, Research and Future Directions. NCMIC Group. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-892734-02-0.
- "Guidance on claims made for the chiropractic vertebral subluxation complex" (PDF). General Chiropractic Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- NBCE (2014), About Chiropractic, National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, archived from the original on June 19, 2015, retrieved February 1, 2015
- Hall, Harriet (June 1, 2017). "Chiropractors: Pro and Con". Skeptical Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
- Benedetti, Paul; MacPhail, Wayne (2002). Spin Doctors: The Chiropractic Industry Under Examination. Toronto: Dundurn Group. p. 198. ISBN 1-55002-406-X.
- "Chirobase". Quackwatch. 7 May 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-06-10. Retrieved July 28, 2021.
- Villanueva-Russell Y (June 2011). "Caught in the crosshairs: identity and cultural authority within chiropractic". Social Science & Medicine. 72 (11): 1826–37. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.03.038. PMID 21531061.
- Meeker WC, Haldeman S (2002). "Chiropractic: a profession at the crossroads of mainstream and alternative medicine". Annals of Internal Medicine. 136 (3): 216–27. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.694.4126. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-136-3-200202050-00010. PMID 11827498. S2CID 16782086.
- Gleberzon BJ, Cooperstein R, Perle SM (2005). "Can chiropractic survive its chimerical nature?". The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 49 (2): 69–73. PMC 1840015. PMID 17549192.
- Redwood D, Hawk C, Cambron J, Vinjamury SP, Bedard J (2008). "Do chiropractors identify with complementary and alternative medicine? results of a survey". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 14 (4): 361–68. doi:10.1089/acm.2007.0766. PMID 18435599.
- Bellamy, Jann J (2010). "Legislative alchemy: the US state chiropractic practice acts". Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 15 (3): 214–22. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7166.2010.01032.x.
- Jones-Harris, Amanda R (October 2010). "Are chiropractors in the uk primary healthcare or primary contact practitioners?: a mixed methods study". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 18 (28): 28. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-18-28. PMC 3161390. PMID 20979615.
- Theberge N (January 2008). "The integration of chiropractors into healthcare teams: a case study from sport medicine". Sociology of Health & Illness. 30 (1): 19–34. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9566.2007.01026.x. PMID 18254831.
- Pettman E (2007). "A history of manipulative therapy". Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy. 15 (3): 165–74. doi:10.1179/106698107790819873. PMC 2565620. PMID 19066664.
- Baer HA (2006). "The drive for legitimization by osteopathy and chiropractic in Australia: between heterodoxy and orthodoxy". Complementary Health Practice Review. 11 (2): 77–94. doi:10.1177/1533210106292467.
- Parkman CA (2004). "Issues in credentialing CAM providers". The Case Manager. 15 (4): 24–27. doi:10.1016/j.casemgr.2004.05.004. PMID 15247891.
- Occupational And Professional Licensing, Chiropractic Practitioners, Chiropractic Advanced Practice Certification Registry Archived 2010-03-17 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Occupational And Professional Licensing, Chiropractic Practitioners, Chiropractic Advanced Practice Certification Registry (PDF) Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- Morrison P (2009). "Adjusting the role of chiropractors in the United States: why narrowing chiropractor scope of practice statutes will protect patients". Health Matrix. 19 (2): 493–537. PMID 19715143.
- Wangler M, Zaugg B, Faigaux E (2010). "Medication Prescription: A Pilot Survey of Bernese Doctors of Chiropractic Practicing in Switzerland". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 33 (3): 231–37. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.01.013. PMID 20350678.
- "Scope of Practice: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) and other practice act exemptions". American Veterinary Medical Association. May 2019. Archived from the original on April 4, 2016. Retrieved April 1, 2016.
- ACA House of Delegates (1994). "'Veterinary' chiropractic". American Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
- Kamen, Daniel (June 18, 2001). "Politics and technique". Dynamic Chiropractic. Vol. 19, no. 13.
- Villanueva-Russell Y (2005). "Evidence-based medicine and its implications for the profession of chiropractic". Social Science & Medicine. 60 (3): 545–61. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.05.017. PMID 15550303.
- Anderson, Chantal (2009-01-22). "Physical therapists, chiropractors square off over bill". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on 2010-09-22. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Hilliard JW, Johnson ME (2004). "State practice acts of licensed health professions: scope of practice". DePaul Journal of Health Care Law. 8 (1): 237–61.
- Christensen MG, Kollasch MW (2005). "Professional functions and treatment procedures" (PDF). Job Analysis of Chiropractic (PDF). Greeley, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners. pp. 121–38. ISBN 978-1-884457-05-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2008-08-25.
- Winkler K, Hegetschweiler-Goertz C, Jackson PS, et al. (2003). "Spinal manipulation policy statement" (PDF). American Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2008-05-24.
- Pickar JG, Sung PS, Kang YM, Ge W (2007). "Response of lumbar paraspinal muscles spindles is greater to spinal manipulative loading compared with slower loading under length control". The Spine Journal. 7 (5): 583–95. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2006.10.006. PMC 2075482. PMID 17905321.
- Cooperstein R, Gleberzon BJ (2004). Technique Systems in Chiropractic. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-07413-4.[page needed]
- Harrison DD, Janik TJ, Harrison GR, Troyanovich S, Harrison DE, Harrison SO (1996). "Chiropractic biophysics technique: a linear algebra approach to posture in chiropractic". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 19 (8): 525–35. PMID 8902664.
- "Provider Manual for Chiropractic Services" (PDF). North Dakota Department of Human Services. State of North Dakota. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-04-08. Retrieved 2016-04-14.
- NHS Leeds West CCG Assurance Committee (2014-01-02). "Complementary and Alternative Therapies Evidence Based Decision Making Framework" (PDF). leedswestccg.nhs.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
- "Chiropractic Services - Policy", Aetna, archived from the original on 24 March 2016, retrieved 29 March 2016
- "Chiropractic Policy" (PDF). Oklahoma State University Health Plan. 1 April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
- Dagenais S, Mayer J, Wooley JR, Haldeman S (2008). "Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with medicine-assisted manipulation". The Spine Journal. 8 (1): 142–49. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2007.09.010. PMID 18164462.
- Ailliet L, Rubinstein SM, de Vet HC (October 2010). "Characteristics of chiropractors and their patients in Belgium". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 33 (8): 618–25. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.08.011. PMID 21036284.
- Ndetan HT, Rupert RL, Bae S, Singh KP (February 2009). "Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries sustained by students while attending a chiropractic college". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 32 (2): 140–48. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.12.012. PMID 19243726.
- Joseph C. Keating, Jr. (1997). "Chiropractic: science and antiscience and pseudoscience side by side". Skeptical Inquirer. 21 (4): 37–43.
- Phillips RB (2005). "The evolution of vitalism and materialism and its impact on philosophy". In Haldeman S, Dagenais S, Budgell B, et al. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Chiropractic (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. 65–76. ISBN 978-0-07-137534-4.
- Reggars JW (2011). "Chiropractic at the crossroads or are we just going around in circles?". Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 19: 11. doi:10.1186/2045-709X-19-11. PMC 3119029. PMID 21599991.
- Suter E, Vanderheyden LC, Trojan LS, Verhoef MJ, Armitage GD (February 2007). "How important is research-based practice to chiropractors and massage therapists?". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 30 (2): 109–15. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.12.013. PMID 17320731.
- Murphy AY, van Teijlingen ER, Gobbi MO (September 2006). "Inconsistent grading of evidence across countries: a review of low back pain guidelines". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 29 (7): 576–81, 581.e1–2. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.07.005. PMID 16949948.
- Ernst E, Canter PH (April 2006). "A systematic review of systematic reviews of spinal manipulation". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 99 (4): 192–96. doi:10.1177/014107680609900418. PMC 1420782. PMID 16574972.
- "Back treatment 'has few benefits'". BBC News. March 22, 2006.
- Johnston BC, da Costa BR, Devereaux PJ, Akl EA, Busse JW (April 2008). "The use of expertise-based randomized controlled trials to assess spinal manipulation and acupuncture for low back pain: a systematic review". Spine. 33 (8): 914–18. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31816b4be4. PMID 18404113. S2CID 28092478.
- Khorsan R, Coulter ID, Hawk C, Choate CG (June 2008). "Measures in chiropractic research: choosing patient-based outcome assessments". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 31 (5): 355–75. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.04.007. PMID 18558278.
- Kaptchuk TJ (June 2002). "The placebo effect in alternative medicine: can the performance of a healing ritual have clinical significance?". Annals of Internal Medicine. 136 (11): 817–25. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.694.4848. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-136-11-200206040-00011. PMID 12044130. S2CID 207535762.
- Hancock MJ, Maher CG, Latimer J, McAuley JH (2006). "Selecting an appropriate placebo for a trial of spinal manipulative therapy". Australian Journal of Physiotherapy. 52 (2): 135–38. doi:10.1016/S0004-9514(06)70049-6. PMID 16764551.
- Leboeuf-Yde C, Hestbaek L (2008). "Maintenance care in chiropractic – what do we know?". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 16: 3. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-3. PMC 2396648. PMID 18466623.
- Rubinstein SM, Terwee CB, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW (February 2013). "Spinal manipulative therapy for acute low back pain: an update of the cochrane review". Spine (Systematic Review). 38 (3): E158–77. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e31827dd89d. hdl:2066/109576. PMID 23169072. S2CID 28795577.
- Posadzki P (2012). "Is spinal manipulation effective for pain? An overview of systematic reviews". Pain Medicine. 13 (6): 754–61. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2012.01397.x. PMID 22621391.
- Rubinstein SM, van Middelkoop M, Assendelft WJ, de Boer MR, van Tulder MW (June 2011). "Spinal manipulative therapy for chronic low-back pain: an update of a Cochrane review". Spine (Systematic review). 36 (13): E825–46. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3182197fe1. hdl:1887/117578. PMID 21593658. S2CID 5061433.
- Walker BF, French SD, Grant W, Green S (2010). Walker BF (ed.). "Combined chiropractic interventions for low-back pain". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD005427. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005427.pub2. PMC 6984631. PMID 20393942.
- Dagenais S, Gay RE, Tricco AC, Freeman MD, Mayer JM (October 2010). "NASS Contemporary Concepts in Spine Care: spinal manipulation therapy for acute low back pain". The Spine Journal. 10 (10): 918–40. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2010.07.389. PMID 20869008.
- Lewis RA, Williams NH, Sutton AJ, Burton K, Din NU, Matar HE, Hendry M, Phillips CJ, Nafees S, Fitzsimmons D, Rickard I, Wilkinson C (2013). "Comparative clinical effectiveness of management strategies for sciatica: systematic review and network meta-analyses" (PDF). The Spine Journal. 15 (6): 1461–77. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2013.08.049. PMID 24412033.
- Leininger B, Bronfort G, Evans R, Reiter T (February 2011). "Spinal manipulation or mobilization for radiculopathy: a systematic review". Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 22 (1): 105–25. doi:10.1016/j.pmr.2010.11.002. PMID 21292148.
- Hahne AJ, Ford JJ, McMeeken JM (May 2010). "Conservative management of lumbar disc herniation with associated radiculopathy: a systematic review". Spine. 35 (11): E488–504. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181cc3f56. PMID 20421859. S2CID 19121111.
- Vernon H, Humphreys BK (2007). "Manual therapy for neck pain: an overview of randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews" (PDF). Europa Medicophysica. 43 (1): 91–118. PMID 17369783.
- Schroeder J, Kaplan L, Fischer DJ, Skelly AC (2013). "The Outcomes of Manipulation or Mobilization Therapy Compared with Physical Therapy or Exercise for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review". Evidence-Based Spine-Care Journal. 4 (1): 30–41. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1341605. PMC 3699243. PMID 24436697.
- Huisman PA, Speksnijder CM, de Wijer A (January 2013). "The effect of thoracic spine manipulation on pain and disability in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review". Disability and Rehabilitation. 35 (20): 1677–85. doi:10.3109/09638288.2012.750689. PMID 23339721. S2CID 12159586.
- Cross KM, Kuenze C, Grindstaff TL, Hertel J (September 2011). "Thoracic spine thrust manipulation improves pain, range of motion, and self-reported function in patients with mechanical neck pain: a systematic review". Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 41 (9): 633–42. doi:10.2519/jospt.2011.3670. PMID 21885904.
- Gross A, Miller J, D'Sylva J, Burnie SJ, Goldsmith CH, Graham N, Haines T, Brønfort G, Hoving JL (August 2010). "Manipulation or mobilisation for neck pain: a Cochrane Review". Manual Therapy. 15 (4): 315–33. doi:10.1016/j.math.2010.04.002. PMID 20510644.
- Shaw L, Descarreaux M, Bryans R, Duranleau M, Marcoux H, Potter B, Ruegg R, Watkin R, White E (2010). "A systematic review of chiropractic management of adults with Whiplash-Associated Disorders: recommendations for advancing evidence-based practice and research". Work. 35 (3): 369–94. doi:10.3233/WOR-2010-0996. PMID 20364057.
- Chaibi A, Tuchin PJ, Russell MB (April 2011). "Manual therapies for migraine: a systematic review". The Journal of Headache and Pain. 12 (2): 127–33. doi:10.1007/s10194-011-0296-6. PMC 3072494. PMID 21298314.
- Posadzki P, Ernst E (June 2011). "Spinal manipulations for the treatment of migraine: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials". Cephalalgia. 31 (8): 964–70. doi:10.1177/0333102411405226. PMID 21511952. S2CID 31205541.
- Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Cuadrado ML, Miangolarra JC, Barriga FJ, Pareja JA (2006). "Are manual therapies effective in reducing pain from tension-type headache?: a systematic review". The Clinical Journal of Pain. 22 (3): 278–85. doi:10.1097/01.ajp.0000173017.64741.86. PMID 16514329. S2CID 23367185.
- Biondi DM (June 2005). "Physical treatments for headache: a structured review". Headache. 45 (6): 738–46. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05141.x. PMID 15953306. S2CID 42640492.
- Jansen MJ, Viechtbauer W, Lenssen AF, Hendriks EJ, de Bie RA (2011). "Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review". Journal of Physiotherapy. 57 (1): 11–20. doi:10.1016/S1836-9553(11)70002-9. PMID 21402325.
- French HP, Brennan A, White B, Cusack T (April 2011). "Manual therapy for osteoarthritis of the hip or knee - a systematic review". Manual Therapy. 16 (2): 109–17. doi:10.1016/j.math.2010.10.011. PMID 21146444.
- McHardy A, Hoskins W, Pollard H, Onley R, Windsham R (February 2008). "Chiropractic treatment of upper extremity conditions: a systematic review". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 31 (2): 146–59. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.12.004. PMID 18328941.
- Pribicevic M, Pollard H, Bonello R, de Luca K (2010). "A systematic review of manipulative therapy for the treatment of shoulder pain". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 33 (9): 679–89. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2010.08.019. PMID 21109059.
- Brantingham, James W.; Bonnefin, Debra; Perle, Stephen M.; Cassa, Tammy Kay; Globe, Gary; Pribicevic, Mario; Hicks, Marian; Korporaal, Charmaine (2012). "Manipulative Therapy for Lower Extremity Conditions: Update of a Literature Review". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 35 (2): 127–66. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2012.01.001. PMID 22325966.
- Mangum K, Partna L, Vavrek D (2012). "Spinal manipulation for the treatment of hypertension: a systematic qualitative literature review". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 35 (3): 235–43. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2012.01.005. PMID 22341795.
- Lystad RP, Bell G, Bonnevie-Svendsen M, Carter CV (2011). "Manual therapy with and without vestibular rehabilitation for cervicogenic dizziness: a systematic review". Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. 19 (1): 21. doi:10.1186/2045-709X-19-21. PMC 3182131. PMID 21923933.
- Everett CR, Patel RK (September 2007). "A systematic literature review of nonsurgical treatment in adult scoliosis". Spine. 32 (19 Suppl): S130–34. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e318134ea88. PMID 17728680. S2CID 9339782.
- Romano M, Negrini S (2008). "Manual therapy as a conservative treatment for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a systematic review". Scoliosis. 3: 2. doi:10.1186/1748-7161-3-2. PMC 2262872. PMID 18211702.
- Hawk C, Khorsan R, Lisi AJ, Ferrance RJ, Evans MW (June 2007). "Chiropractic care for nonmusculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review with implications for whole systems research". The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 13 (5): 491–512. doi:10.1089/acm.2007.7088. PMID 17604553.
- Ernst E (December 2009). "Spinal manipulation for asthma: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials". Respiratory Medicine. 103 (12): 1791–95. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2009.06.017. PMID 19646855.
- Hondras MA, Linde K, Jones AP (2005). "Manual therapy for asthma". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD001002. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001002.pub2. PMID 15846609.
- Gotlib A, Rupert R (2008). "Chiropractic manipulation in pediatric health conditions--an updated systematic review". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 16: 11. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-16-11. PMC 2553791. PMID 18789139.
- Baby colic:
- Ernst E (2009). "Chiropractic spinal manipulation for infant colic: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (9): 1351–53. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02133.x. PMID 19691620. S2CID 36131261.
- Husereau D, Clifford T, Aker P, Leduc D, Mensinkai S (2003). Spinal Manipulation for Infantile Colic (PDF). Technology report no. 42. Ottawa: Canadian Coordinating Office for Health Technology Assessment. ISBN 978-1-894978-11-8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-17. Retrieved 2008-10-06.
- Huang, Tao; Shu, Xu; Huang, Yu Shan; Cheuk, Daniel KL; Huang, Tao (2011). "Complementary and miscellaneous interventions for nocturnal enuresis in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD005230. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005230.pub2. PMID 22161390.
- O'Connor D, Marshall S, Massy-Westropp N, Pitt V (2003). "Non-surgical treatment (other than steroid injection) for carpal tunnel syndrome". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD003219. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003219. PMC 6486195. PMID 12535461.
- Sarac AJ, Gur A (2006). "Complementary and alternative medical therapies in fibromyalgia". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 12 (1): 47–57. doi:10.2174/138161206775193262. PMID 16454724.
- Schneider M, Vernon H, Ko G, Lawson G, Perera J (2009). "Chiropractic management of fibromyalgia syndrome: a systematic review of the literature". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 32 (1): 25–40. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.08.012. PMID 19121462.
- Ernst E (2009). "Chiropractic treatment for fibromyalgia: a systematic review". Clinical Rheumatology. 28 (10): 1175–78. doi:10.1007/s10067-009-1217-9. PMID 19544042. S2CID 25339207.
- Ernst E (2011). "Chiropractic treatment for gastrointestinal problems: A systematic review of clinical trials". Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology. 25 (1): 39–49. doi:10.1155/2011/910469. PMC 3027333. PMID 21258667.
- Brand PL, Engelbert RH, Helders PJ, Offringa M (2005). "[Systematic review of the effects of therapy in infants with the KISS-syndrome (kinetic imbalance due to suboccipital strain)]". Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (in Dutch). 149 (13): 703–07. PMID 15819137.
- Proctor ML, Hing W, Johnson TC, Murphy PA, Brown J (2006). "Spinal manipulation for primary and secondary dysmenorrhoea". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3 (3): CD002119. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002119.pub3. PMC 6718213. PMID 16855988.
- Goto, Viviane; Frange, Cristina; Andersen, Monica L.; Júnior, José M. S.; Tufik, Sergio; Hachul, Helena (May 2014). "Chiropractic intervention in the treatment of postmenopausal climacteric symptoms and insomnia: A review". Maturitas. 78 (1): 3–7. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2014.02.004. PMID 24656717.
- Liddle, Sarah D.; Pennick, Victoria (2015-09-30). "Interventions for preventing and treating low-back and pelvic pain during pregnancy". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2015 (9): CD001139. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001139.pub4. PMC 7053516. PMID 26422811.
- Camilleri M, Park SY, Scarpato E, Staiano A (2017). "Exploring hypotheses and rationale for causes of infantile colic". Neurogastroenterology & Motility (Review). 29 (2): e12943. doi:10.1111/nmo.12943. PMC 5276723. PMID 27647578.
- Anderson-Peacock E, Blouin JS, Bryans R, Danis N, Furlan A, Marcoux H, Potter B, Ruegg R, Stein JG, White E (2005). "Chiropractic clinical practice guideline: evidence-based treatment of adult neck pain not due to whiplash". The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 49 (3): 158–209. PMC 1839918. PMID 17549134.
• Anderson-Peacock E, Bryans R, Descarreaux M, Marcoux H, Potter B, Ruegg R, Shaw L, Watkin R, White E (2008). "A Clinical Practice Guideline Update from The CCA•CFCREAB-CPG" (PDF). The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 52 (1): 7–8. PMC 2258235. PMID 18327295. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-09-05.
- Thiel HW, Bolton JE, Docherty S, Portlock JC (2007). "Safety of chiropractic manipulation of the cervical spine: a prospective national survey". Spine. 32 (21): 2375–78. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181557bb1. PMID 17906581. S2CID 42353750.
- Hurwitz EL, Morgenstern H, Vassilaki M, Chiang LM (July 2005). "Frequency and clinical predictors of adverse reactions to chiropractic care in the UCLA neck pain study". Spine. 30 (13): 1477–84. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000167821.39373.c1. PMID 15990659. S2CID 45678522.
- "Safety and regulation of chiropractic". NHS Choices. 20 August 2014. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
- Vohra S, Johnston BC, Cramer K, Humphreys K (2007). "Adverse events associated with pediatric spinal manipulation: a systematic review". Pediatrics. 119 (1): e275–83. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1392. PMID 17178922. S2CID 43683198.
- Ernst E, Posadzki P (2012). "Reporting of adverse effects in randomised clinical trials of chiropractic manipulations: a systematic review". The New Zealand Medical Journal. 125 (1353): 87–140. PMID 22522273.
- Gorrell LM, Engel RM, Brown B, Lystad RP (2016). "The reporting of adverse events following spinal manipulation in randomized clinical trials-a systematic review". The Spine Journal (Systematic Review). 16 (9): 1143–51. doi:10.1016/j.spinee.2016.05.018. PMID 27241208.
- Hebert JJ, Stomski NJ, French SD, Rubinstein SM (2013). "Serious Adverse Events and Spinal Manipulative Therapy of the Low Back Region: A Systematic Review of Cases". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 38 (9): 677–91. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2013.05.009. PMID 23787298.
- Hurwitz EL, Carragee EJ, van der Velde G, Carroll LJ, Nordin M, Guzman J, Peloso PM, Holm LW, Côté P, Hogg-Johnson S, Cassidy JD, Haldeman S (2008). "Treatment of neck pain: noninvasive interventions: results of the Bone and Joint Decade 2000–2010 Task Force on Neck Pain and Its Associated Disorders". Spine. 33 (4 Suppl): S123–52. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181644b1d. PMID 18204386. S2CID 27261997.
- Paciaroni M, Bogousslavsky J (2009). "Cerebrovascular complications of neck manipulation". European Neurology. 61 (2): 112–18. doi:10.1159/000180314. PMID 19065058.
- Miley ML, Wellik KE, Wingerchuk DM, Demaerschalk BM (2008). "Does cervical manipulative therapy cause vertebral artery dissection and stroke?". Neurologist. 14 (1): 66–73. doi:10.1097/NRL.0b013e318164e53d. PMID 18195663. S2CID 18062970.
- Biller, J.; Sacco, R. L.; Albuquerque, F. C.; Demaerschalk, B. M.; Fayad, P.; Long, P. H.; Noorollah, L. D.; Panagos, P. D.; Schievink, W. I.; Schwartz, N. E.; Shuaib, A.; Thaler, D. E.; Tirschwell, D. L. (2014). "Cervical Arterial Dissections and Association With Cervical Manipulative Therapy: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association". Stroke. 45 (10): 3155–74. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000016. PMID 25104849.
- Church, Ephraim W; Sieg, Emily P; Zalatimo, Omar; Hussain, Namath S; Glantz, Michael; Harbaugh, Robert E (2016). "Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Chiropractic Care and Cervical Artery Dissection: No Evidence for Causation". Cureus. 8 (2): e498. doi:10.7759/cureus.498. PMC 4794386. PMID 27014532.
- Chung CL, Côté P, Stern P, L'espérance G (2014). "The Association Between Cervical Spine Manipulation and Carotid Artery Dissection: A Systematic Review of the Literature". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 38 (9): 672–6. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2013.09.005. PMID 24387889.
- Wynd S, Westaway M, Vohra S, Kawchuk G (2013). "The quality of reports on cervical arterial dissection following cervical spinal manipulation". PLOS ONE. 8 (3): e59170. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...859170W. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059170. PMC 3604043. PMID 23527121.
- Tuchin, P. (2014). "A systematic literature review of intracranial hypotension following chiropractic". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 68 (3): 396–402. doi:10.1111/ijcp.12247. PMID 24372942. S2CID 5315779.
- Yang, Hwan-Seo; Oh, Young-Min; Eun, Jong-Pil (2016). "Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation Causing Progressive Quadriparesis After Spinal Manipulation Therapy". Medicine. 95 (6): e2797. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002797. PMC 4753938. PMID 26871842.
- Bussières AE, Taylor JA, Peterson C (2008). "Diagnostic imaging practice guidelines for musculoskeletal complaints in adults – an evidence-based approach – part 3: spinal disorders". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 31 (1): 33–88. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.11.003. PMID 18308153.
- Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: Board on Radiation Effects Research" US National Research Council (2006). Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/11340. ISBN 978-0-309-09156-5.
- E Ernst (2011). "Response to critiques of deaths after chiropractic". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 65 (1): 106. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2010.02568.x. S2CID 72845939.
- Di Fabio, Richard P (January 1, 1999). "Manipulation of the Cervical Spine: Risks and Benefits". Physical Therapy. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
Although the risk of injury associated with MCS appears to be small, this type of therapy has the potential to expose patients to vertebral artery damage that can be avoided with the use of mobilization (nonthrust passive movements). The literature does not demonstrate that the benefits of MCS outweigh the risks. Several recommendations for future studies and for the practice of MCS are discussed.
- Michaleff ZA, Lin CW, Maher CG, van Tulder MW (2012). "Spinal manipulation epidemiology: Systematic review of cost effectiveness studies". Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 22 (5): 655–62. doi:10.1016/j.jelekin.2012.02.011. PMID 22429823.
- Canter PH, Coon JT, Ernst E (2006). "Cost-Effectiveness of Complementary Therapies in the United Kingdom – A Systematic Review†". Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 3 (4): 425–32. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel044. PMC 1697737. PMID 17173105. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11.
- van der Roer N, Goossens ME, Evers SM, van Tulder MW (2005). "What is the most cost-effective treatment for patients with low back pain? a systematic review". Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 19 (4): 671–84. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2005.03.007. PMID 15949783.
- Sarnat RL, Winterstein J, Cambron JA (May 2007). "Clinical Utilization and Cost Outcomes From an Integrative Medicine Independent Physician Association: An Additional 3-Year Update". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 30 (4): 263–69. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2007.03.004. PMID 17509435.
- "Glossary". National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Dept. of Education. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- Marcus DM, McCullough L (2009). "An evaluation of the evidence in 'evidence-based' integrative medicine programs". Academic Medicine. 84 (9): 1229–34. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b185f4. PMID 19707062.
- Coulter I, Adams A, Coggan P, Wilkes M, Gonyea M (September 1998). "A comparative study of chiropractic and medical education". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 4 (5): 64–75. PMID 9737032.
- "Prospective students". Association of Chiropractic Colleges. Archived from the original on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2009-07-23.
- "Standards for Accreditation of Doctor of Chiropractic Programmes" (PDF). Canadian Federation of Chiropractic Regulatory and Educational Accrediting Boards. 2011-11-26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- "CMCC Backgrounder 2015" (PDF). Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- "Degree Authority in Ontario". Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. Retrieved 2010-12-14.
- "State chiropractic licensure". Life University. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Becoming a chiropractor". Canadian Federation of Chiropractic Regulatory and Educational Accrediting Boards. Archived from the original on 2009-06-15. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- Grod JP (2006). "Continuing health education in Canada". The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. 50 (1): 14–17. PMC 1839972. PMID 17549163.
- Stuber KJ, Grod JP, Smith DL, Powers P (2005). "An online survey of chiropractors' opinions of Continuing Education". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 13 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-13-22. PMC 1282582. PMID 16242035.
- Coulter ID, Adams AH, Sandefur R (1997). "Chiropractic training" (PDF). In Cherkin DC, Mootz RD (eds.). Chiropractic in the United States: Training, Practice, and Research (PDF). Rockville, MD: Agency for Health Care Policy and Research. pp. 17–28. OCLC 39856366. Archived from the original on 2008-06-25. Retrieved 2008-05-11. AHCPR Pub No. 98-N002.
- "The Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE)". The Council on Chiropractic Education. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
- "The General Chiropractic Council". Retrieved 2020-05-02.
- "About Us". Councils on Chiropractic Education International. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- "Accredited Doctor of Chiropractic programs". The Council on Chiropractic Education. Archived from the original on 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2008-02-22.
- "Accreditation of educational programmes". Canadian Federation of Chiropractic Regulatory and Educational Accrediting Boards. Archived from the original on 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Program Accreditation Status". Council on Chiropractic Education Australasia. Archived from the original on 2011-02-17. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
- "Institutions holding Accredited Status with the ECCE". European Council On Chiropractic Education. 2010-11-01. Archived from the original on 2014-07-22. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
- "Canadian Chiropractic Association FAQs". Canadian Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original on 2009-08-17. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- "Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards FAQ". Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- "Chiropractors". U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-05.
- "Canadian Chiropractic Association: Chiropractic in Canada". Canadian Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- Chapman-Smith D (2000). "Current status of the profession". The Chiropractic Profession: Its Education, Practice, Research and Future Directions. West Des Moines, IA: NCMIC. ISBN 978-1-892734-02-0.
- Hester H, Cunliffe C, Hunnisett A (2013). "Stress in chiropractic education: a student survey of a five-year course". Journal of Chiropractic Education. 27 (2): 147–51. doi:10.7899/JCE-13-4. PMC 3791907. PMID 23957319.
- Johnson C (December 2010). "Reflecting on 115 years: the chiropractic profession's philosophical path". Journal of Chiropractic Humanities. 17 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1016/j.echu.2010.11.001. PMC 3342796. PMID 22693471.
- Simpson JK, Losco B, Young KJ (2010). "Development of the murdoch chiropractic graduate pledge". Journal of Chiropractic Education. 24 (2): 175–86. doi:10.7899/1042-5055-24.2.175. PMC 2967342. PMID 21048880.
- Staff. "Code of Ethics". American Chiropractic Association. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
- Staff. "ICA code of Ethics". International Chiropractor's Association. Archived from the original on 2014-04-05.
- Inc., Gallup (8 September 2015). "Majority in U.S. Say Chiropractic Works for Neck, Back Pain". Retrieved 2015-09-13.
- Weeks, William B; Goertz, Christine M; Meeker, William C; Marchiori, Dennis M (2015-01-01). "Public Perceptions of Doctors of Chiropractic: Results of a National Survey and Examination of Variation According to Respondents' Likelihood to Use Chiropractic, Experience With Chiropractic, and Chiropractic Supply in Local Health Care Markets". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 38 (8): 533–44. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2015.08.001. PMID 26362263.
- "A pivotal moment for free speech in Britain". The Guardian. April 15, 2010.
- "The BHA re-publishes Simon Singh's article on chiropractic therapy". British Humanist Association. July 29, 2009.
- Ernst E, Gilbey A (2010). "Chiropractic claims in the English-speaking world". The New Zealand Medical Journal. 123 (1312): 36–44. PMID 20389316.
- Stephen Barrett (2017-01-02). "Medicare Overpayments to Chiropractors Are Widespread". American Council on Science and Health.
- Lucas Laursen. "The Great Beyond: Chiropractic group advises members to 'withdraw from the battleground'". Nature.com. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- Lucas Laursen. "The Great Beyond: Complaints converge on chiropractors". Nature.com. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
- "Unjust burdens of proof". Nature. 459 (7248): 751. June 2009. Bibcode:2009Natur.459Q.751.. doi:10.1038/459751a. PMID 19516290.
- Pallab Ghosh (2010-04-15). "Case dropped against Simon Singh". BBC News.
- Mark Henderson (2010-04-16). "Science writer Simon Singh wins bitter libel battle". Times Online. London.
- Leach, Matthew J. (2013-08-01). "Profile of the complementary and alternative medicine workforce across Australia, New Zealand, Canada, United States and United Kingdom". Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 21 (4): 364–378. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2013.04.004. ISSN 0965-2299. PMID 23876568.
- Xue CC, Zhang AL, Lin V, Myers R, Polus B, Story DF (2008). "Acupuncture, chiropractic and osteopathy use in Australia: a national population survey". BMC Public Health. 8: 105. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-8-105. PMC 2322980. PMID 18377663.
- Adams, Jon; Lauche, Romy; Peng, Wenbo; Steel, Amie; Moore, Craig; Amorin-Woods, Lyndon G.; Sibbritt, David (2017). "A workforce survey of Australian chiropractic: the profile and practice features of a nationally representative sample of 2,005 chiropractors". BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 17 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1542-x. ISSN 1472-6882. PMC 5217252. PMID 28056964. This article incorporates text by Jon Adams, Romy Lauche, Wenbo Peng, Amie Steel, Craig Moore, Lyndon G. Amorin-Woods, and David Sibbritt available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
- "Chiropractic treatment available on NHS in Cornwall". BBC. August 13, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Langworthy JM, Forrest L (2010). "Withdrawal rates as a consequence of disclosure of risk associated with manipulation of the cervical spine". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 18: 27. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-18-27. PMC 3161389. PMID 20977721.
- Lawrence DJ, Meeker WC (2007). "Chiropractic and CAM utilization: a descriptive review". Chiropractic & Osteopathy. 15: 2. doi:10.1186/1746-1340-15-2. PMC 1784103. PMID 17241465.
- Crownfield PW (2007). "Chiropractic in Alberta: a model of consumer utilization and satisfaction". Dynamic Chiropractic. Vol. 25, no. 6.
- Kemper KJ, Vohra S, Walls R (December 2008). "American Academy of Pediatrics. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in pediatrics". Pediatrics. 122 (6): 1374–86. doi:10.1542/peds.2008-2173. PMID 19047261.
- Daniel C. Cherkin; Robert D. Mootz (2010). "Chiropractic in the United States:Training, Practice, and Research". Chirobase. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- Gaumer G (2006). "Factors associated with patient satisfaction with chiropractic care: survey and review of the literature". Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 29 (6): 455–62. doi:10.1016/j.jmpt.2006.06.013. PMID 16904491.
- Tindle HA, Davis RB, Phillips RS, Eisenberg DM (2005). "Trends in use of complementary and alternative medicine by US adults: 1997-2002". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 11 (1): 42–9. PMID 15712765.
- Stanley, G. (2007). "The Sustainability of Chiropractic". Dynamic Chiropractic. Vol. 25, no. 19.
- Eric J. Bailey (2002). African American Alternative Medicine: Using Alternative Medicine to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 26–. ISBN 978-0-89789-747-1.
- Baer HA (1987). "Divergence and convergence in two systems of manual medicine: osteopathy and chiropractic in the United States". Medical Anthropology Quarterly. 1 (2): 176–93. doi:10.1525/maq.1987.1.2.02a00030.
- "Definition of chiropractic in English". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014.
- "Definition of chiro- in English". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2014.
-  — Chiro.org
- Cherkin D (November 1989). "AMA policy on chiropractic". American Journal of Public Health. 79 (11): 1569–70. doi:10.2105/AJPH.79.11.1569-a. PMC 1349822. PMID 2817179.
- Wardle, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Sullivan, Elizabeth (2016). "Complementary medicine and childhood immunisation: A critical review". Vaccine. 34 (38): 4484–4500. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.07.026. PMID 27475472.
- Russell ML, Injeyan HS, Verhoef MJ, Eliasziw M (2004). "Beliefs and behaviours: understanding chiropractors and immunization". Vaccine. 23 (3): 372–79. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.05.027. PMID 15530683.
- Jones RB, Mormann DN, Durtsche TB (1989). "Fluoridation referendum in La Crosse, Wisconsin: contributing factors to success". American Journal of Public Health. 79 (10): 1405–08. doi:10.2105/AJPH.79.10.1405. PMC 1350185. PMID 2782512.
- Jaroff, Leon (27 February 2002). "Back Off, Chiropractors!". Time. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
- Gunther Brown, Candy (July 7, 2014). "Chiropractic: Is it Nature, Medicine or Religion?". HuffPost.
- Long PH (2013). Barrett S (ed.). Chiropractic Abuse: An Insider's Lament. American Council on Science & Health. ISBN 978-0-9727094-9-1.
- Homola S (2002). "Chiropractic: Conventional or Alternative Healing?". In Shermer M (ed.). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. Vol. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 308–. ISBN 978-1-57607-653-8.
- Menke JM (January 2014). "Do Manual Therapies Help Low Back Pain?: A Comparative Effectiveness Meta-Analysis". Spine (Meta-analysis). 39 (7): E463–72. doi:10.1097/BRS.0000000000000230. PMID 24480940. S2CID 25497624.