|Languages||Marathi, Kannada,Chitpavani (a dialect of Konkani), Konkani |
|Populated States||Maharashtra, Konkan (Goa and coastal Karnataka); some parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat|
The community remains concentrated in Maharashtra but also has populations all over India and the rest of the world including the USA and UK.
There are two common mythological theories of origin among the Chitpavans. The more contemporary theory is based on the etymology of their name meaning "pure of mind", while an older belief uses the alternate etymology of "pure from the pyre" and is based on the tale of Parashurama in the Sahyadrikhanda of the Skanda Purana. The Parashurama myth of origin is identical to that claimed by the Bene Israel of the Kolaba district. According to Bene Israeli legend, the Chitpavan and Bene Israel are descendants from a group of 14 people shipwrecked off the Konkan coast. One group converted to Hinduism as Chitpavan Brahmins, the other remained Jewish or Bene Israel.
The Konkan region has been inhabited by several immigrant groups including the Parsis, the Bene Israelis, the Kudaldeshkar Gaud Brahmins, and the Konkani Saraswat Brahmins, and the Chitpavan Brahmins were the last of these immigrant arrivals.
Rise during the Maratha rule
Very little is known of the Chitpavans before 1707 A.D. Sometime around this time, an individual of the Chitpavan community, Balaji Vishwanth Bhat arrived from Ratnagari to the Pune-Satara area. He was brought there on the basis of his reputation of being an efficient administrator. He quickly gained the attention of Chhatrapati Shahu and his work so pleased the Chhatrapati that he was appointed the Peshwa or Chief Minister in 1713. Balaji was blessed by his spiritual preceptor Narayan Dikshit Patankar. He ran a well-organized administration, and, by the time of his death in 1720, he had laid the groundwork for the expansion of the Maratha Empire. Since this time until the fall of the Maratha Empire, the seat of the Peshwa would be held by the members of Balaji Bhat's family.
With the accession of Balaji Baji Rao and his family to the supreme authority of the Maratha Confederacy, Chitpavan immigrants began arriving en masse from the Konkan to Pune where the Peshwa offered all important offices his fellow-castemen. The Chitpavan kin were rewarded with tax relief and grants of land. Historians cite nepotism and corruption as causes of the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818. Richard Maxwell Eaton states that this rise of the Chitpavans is a classic example of social rank rising with political fortune. The alleged haughty behavior by the upstart Chitpvans caused conflicts with other communities which manifested itself as late as in 1948 in the form of anti-Brahminism after the killing of Mahatama Gandhi by Nathuram Godse, a Chitpavan.
Role in Indian politics
After the fall of the Maratha Empire in 1818, the Chitpavans lost their political dominance to the British. The British would not subsidize the Chitpavans on the same scale that their caste-fellow, the Peshwas had done in the past. Pay and power was now significantly reduced. Poorer Chitpavan students adapted and started learning English because of better opportunities in the British administration.
Some of the prominent figures in the Hindu reform movements of the 19th and 20th centuries came from the Chitpavan Brahmin community. These included Dhondo Keshav Karve, Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Gopal Ganesh Agarkar, Vinoba Bhave, and Gopal Krishna Gokhale. These reforms preached against the Hindu caste system establishment. Yet, some of the strongest resistance to change also came from the very same community. Jealously guarding their Brahmin stature, the orthodox among the Chitpavans were not eager to see the Shastras challenged, nor the conduct of the Brahmins becoming indistinguishable from that of the Sudras. The vanguard and the old guard clashed many times. Ranade and other reformers were forced to offer penance for breaking purity rules. D. K. Karve was ostracised. Even Tilak made a visit to Varanasi so that he may not be excommunicated.
The Chitpavan community includes two major politicians in the Gandhian tradition: Gopal Krishna Gokhale whom Gandhi acknowledged as a preceptor, and Vinoba Bhave, one of his outstanding disciples. Gandhi describes Bhave as the Jewel of his disciples, and recognized Gokhale as his political guru. However, strong opposition to Gandhi also came from within the Chitpavan community. V D Savarkar, the founder of the Hindu nationalist political ideology Hindutva, was a Chitpavan Brahmin. Several members of the Chitpavan community were among the first to embrace the Hindutva ideology, which they thought was a logical extension of the legacy of the Peshwas and caste-fellow Tilak. These Chitpavans felt out of place with the Indian social reform movement of Mahatama Phule and the mass politics of Mahatama Gandhi. Large numbers of the community looked to Savarkar, the Hindu Mahasabha and finally the RSS. Gandhi's assassins Narayan Apte and Nathuram Godse, drew their inspiration from fringe groups in this reactionary trend.
The Chitpavans have considered themselves to be both warriors and priests. The willingness of the Chitpavans to enter military and other services earned them both high status and power in the Deccan.
The Hindu Chitpavan Brahmins celebrate several festivals according to the Hindu Calendar.
Traditionally, the Chitpavan Brahmins were a community of astrologers and priests who offer religious services to other communities. The 20th century descriptions of the Chitpavans list inordinate frugality, untrustworthiness, conspiratorialism, phlegmatism, hard work, cleanliness and intelligence among their attributes. Agriculture was the second major occupation in the community, practised by the those who possess arable land. Later, Chitpavans became prominent in various white collar jobs and business.
Most of the Chitpavan Brahmins in Maharashtra have adopted Marathi as their language. Till the 1940s, most of the Chitpavans in Konkan spoke a dialect called Chitpavani Konkani in their homes. Even at that time, reports recorded Chitpavani as a fast disappearing language. But in Dakshina Kannada District and Udupi Districts of Karnataka, this language is being spoken in places like Durga and Maala of Karkala taluk and also in places like Shishila and Mundaje of Belthangady Taluk. There are no inherently nasalized vowels in standard Marathi whereas the Chitpavani dialect of Marathi does have nasalized vowels.
Earlier, the Deshastha Brahmins believed that they were the highest of all Brahmins, and looked down upon the Chitpavans as parvenus (a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class), barely equal to the noblest of dvijas. Even the Peshwa was denied the rights to use the ghats reserved for Deshasth priests at Nashik on the Godavari.
This usurping of power by Chitpavans from the Deshastha Brahmins resulted in intense rivalry between the two Brahmin communities which continued in late Colonial British India times. The 19th century records also mention Gramanyas or village-level debates between the Chitpavans, and two other communities, namely the Daivajnas, and the Chandraseniya Kayastha Prabhus. This lasted for about ten years.
- Bal Gangadhar Tilak
- Gopal Krishna Gokhale
- Mahadev Govind Ranade
- Gopal Ganesh Agarkar
- Dhondo Keshav Karve
- Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
- Bajirao I
- Balaji Bajirao
- Madhavrao I
- Madhavrao II
- "Konkani, Goan". Ethnologue.
- Pran Nath Chopra (1982). Religions and communities of India. Vision Books. p. 49.
- H. H. Dodwell. The Cambridge History of India: British India, 1497-1858. p. 385.
- Bernard S. Cohn, Milton Singer (2007). Structure and Change in Indian Society. pp. 399–400. ISBN 978-0-202-36138-3.
- Figueira, Dorothy M. (2002). Aryans, Jews, Brahmins: theorizing authority through myths of identity. SUNY Press. pp. 121–122. ISBN 9780791487839. Retrieved 2013-03-30.
- Irawati Karve (1989) . The Chitpavan Brahmins - A Social and Ethnic Study. pp. 96–97. ISBN 81-7022-235-4.
- T. Parfitt, Y. Egorova (2005). "Genetics, History, and Identity: The Case Of The Bene Israel and the Lemba" (PDF). pp. 206, 208, 221.
- "Jews and India: Perceptions and Image", Yulia Egorova, 2006, Page 85, ISBN 978-0-203-96123-0
- Strizower, Schifra (1971). The Bene Israel of Bombay: A Study of a Jewish Community. p. 16. ISBN 0-8052-3405-5.
- Sandhya Gokhale (2008). The Chitpavans: social ascendancy of a creative minority in Maharashtra, 1818-1918. p. 113. ISBN 81-8290-132-4.
- Richard Maxwell Eaton. A social history of the Deccan, 1300-1761: eight Indian lives, Volume 1. p. 192.
- Edmund Leach, S. N. Mukherjee (1970). Elites in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 101, 104, 105. ISBN 0-521-10765-2.
- Tryambaka Śaṅkara Śejavalakara (1946). Panipat: 1761. pp. 24, 25.
- Anil Seal. The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century (Political change in modern South Asia). pp. 74, 78. ISBN 0-521-09652-9.
- Sukthankar, V. S. Bulletin of the Deccan College Research Institute 8: 182. Missing or empty
- Govind Sakharam Sardesai (1986) . New history of the Marathas: Sunset over Maharashtra (1772-1848). Phoenix Publications. p. 254.
- J. R. Śinde (1985). Dynamics of cultural revolution: 19th century Maharashtra. p. 16.
- S. M. Michael. Dalits in Modern India: Vision and Values. p. 95.
- Swapan Dasgupta, Smruti Koppikar (August 3, 1998). "Godse on Trial". India Today: 24–26. Retrieved 2010-06-29.
- Arnold P. Goldstein, Marshall H. Segall (1983). Aggression in global perspective. p. 245.
- Bhatt, Chetan (2001). Hindu Nationalism: Origins, Ideologies and Modern Myths. Berg. p. 32. ISBN 9781859733486.
- Hansen, Thomas Blom (2001). Wages of Violence: Naming and Identity in Postcolonial Bombay. Princeton University Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-69108-840-2.
- Donald V. Kurtz (1993). Contradictions and Conflict: A Dialectical Political Anthropology of a University in Western India. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-90-04-09828-2.
- David Levinson (1992). Encyclopedia of World Cultures: South Asia. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8161-1840-3.
- Divekar, V. D. (1982). "The Emergence of an Indigenous Business Class in Maharashtra in the Eighteenth Century". Modern Asian Studies 16 (3): 438–439. JSTOR 312115. (subscription required (. ))
- Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (1941). Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. p. 286.
- Rameśa Dhoṅgaḍe, Kashi Wali (2009). Marathi. p. 11. ISBN 978-90-272-8883-7.
- Ravinder Kumar Western India in the Nineteenth Century, p 38.
- Thākare, Keśava Sitārāma (1919). Grāmaṇyācā sādyanta itihāsa arthāta nokarśāhīce banḍa (in Marathi). Mumbai.
- Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India By. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0195623925.
- Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India By. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978-0195623925.
- Wolpert, Stanley A. (April 1991). Tilak and Gokhale: Revolution and Reform in the Making of Modern India By. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0195623925.
- Karve, Dinakar (1963). NEW BRAHMANS: Five Maharashtrian Families Hardcover – Import, by (First ed.). Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780520006355.
- Kulke, Hermann; Rothermund, Dietmar (1986). A History Of India (Third ed.). London, UK: Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 0203443454.
- S. M. Edwardes (2009-07-31). "Chapter XIV - A Konkan Legend". By Ways of Bombay. ISBN 978-1-4068-5154-0. Retrieved 2010-07-03.
- Ravinder Kumar (1968). Western India in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge & Kegan Paul.