|Preferred IUPAC name
diphenyl phosphine chloride
|Jmol 3D model||Interactive image|
|Molar mass||220.63776 g mol−1|
|Appearance||clear to light yellow liquid|
|Density||1.229 g cm−3|
|Boiling point||320 ˚C|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Chlorodiphenylphosphine is an organophosphorus compound with the formula (C6H5)2PCl, abbreviated Ph2PCl. It is a colourless oily liquid with a pungent odor that is often described as being garlic-like and detectable even in the ppb range. It is useful reagent for introducing the Ph2P group into molecules, which includes many ligands. Like other halophosphines, Ph2PCl is reactive with many nucleophiles such as water and easily oxidized even by air.
Synthesis and reactions
Chlorodiphenylphosphine is produced on a commercial scale from benzene and phosphorus trichloride (PCl3). Benzene reacts with phosphorus trichloride at extreme temperatures around 600 °C to give dichlorophenylphosphine (PhPCl2). Redistribution of PhPCl2 in the gas phase at high temperatures results in chlorodiphenylphosphine.
- 2 PhPCl2 → Ph2PCl + PCl3
Alternatively such compounds are prepared by redistribution reactions starting with triphenylphosphine and phosphorus trichloride. Synthesis of Ph2PCl by the direct reaction of phenylmagnesium bromide and phosphorus trichloride is not practiced. On the other hand, PCl3 can be usefully converted to its monoamide, which in turn undergoes alkylation or arylation. Subsequent removal of the amide gives :
- PCl3 + 2 (iPr)2NH → (iPr)2NH2Cl + (iPr)2NPCl2
- (iPr)2NPCl2 + 2 PhMgBr → (iPr)2NPPh2 + 2 MgBrCl
- (iPr)2NPPh2 + 2 HCl → (iPr)2NH2Cl + PPh2Cl
- Ph2PCl + MgRX → Ph2PR + MgClX
The phosphines produced from reactions with Ph2PCl are further developed and used as pesticides (such as EPN), stabilizers for plastics (Sandostab P-EPQ), various halogen compound catalysts, flame retardants (cyclic phosphinocarboxylic anhydride), as well as UV-hardening paint systems (used in dental materials) making Ph2PCl an important intermediate in the industrial world.
Precursor to diphenylphosphido derivatives
- Ph2PCl + 2 Na → Ph2PNa + NaCl
- 4 Ph2PCl + LiAlH4 → 4 Ph2PH + LiCl + AlCl3
Both Ph2PNa and Ph2PH are also used in the synthesis of organophosphine ligands.
|Compound||31P chemical shift
(ppm vs 85% H3PO4)
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- O. Kühl "Phosphorus-31 NMR Spectroscopy" Springer, Berlin, 2008. ISBN 978-3-540-79118-8