From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

EB1911 Algae - Fig. 2.-Chlorophyceae.png
Chlorophytes (A–F, H–L and O)
Scientific classification e
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Archaeplastida
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Reichenbach, 1828, emend. Pascher, 1914, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004[1][2][3]
  • Chlorophycophyta Papenfuss 1946
  • Chlorophycota
  • Chlorophytina
  • Chlorophyllophyceae
  • Isokontae
  • Stephanokontae[5]
Green algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan

Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae) and thus includes about 7,000 species[6][7] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to the sister of the streptophytes/charophytes. The clade Streptophyta consists of the Charophyta in which the Embryophyta emerged.[8][9] In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species.[4] Like the land plants (bryophytes and tracheophytes), green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch[6] in their plastids.

The division contains both unicellular and multicellular species. Some conduct sexual reproduction, which is oogamous or isogamous. All members of the clade have motile flagellated swimming cells.[10] While most species live in freshwater habitats and a large number in marine habitats, other species are adapted to a wide range of land environments. For example, Chlamydomonas nivalis, which causes Watermelon snow, lives on summer alpine snowfields. Others, such as Trentepohlia species, live attached to rocks or woody parts of trees. Monostroma kuroshiense, an edible green alga cultivated worldwide and most expensive among green algae, belongs to this group.

Some members of the Chlorophyta form symbiotic relationships with protozoa, sponges, and cnidarians. Others form symbiotic relationships with fungi to form lichens.


Species of Chlorophyta (treated as what is now considered one of the two main clades of Viridiplantae) are common inhabitants of marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments.[11][12] Several species have adapted to specialised and extreme environments, such as deserts, arctic environments, hypersaline habitats, marine deep waters and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. [13][14][15] Some groups, such as the Trentepohliales are exclusively found on land.[16] Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a diverse range of eukaryotes, including fungi (to form lichens), ciliates, forams, cnidarians and molluscs. [12] Some species of Chlorophyta are heterotrophic, either free-living or parasitic.[17][18] Two common species of the heterotrophic green alga Prototheca are pathogenic and can cause the disease protothecosis in humans and animals.[19]


"Siphoneae" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904

Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides[20] and more recently genetic data.


A newer proposed classification follows Leliaert et al. 2011[15] and modified with Silar 2016,[21] Leliaert 2016[22] and Lopes dos Santos et al. 2017[23] for the green algae clades and Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015[24] for the land plants clade. Sánchez-Baracaldo et al. is followed for the basal clades.[25][26]






Prasinococcales ("prasinophyte clade VI")


(Prasinophyceae s.s.)

Pyramimonadophyceae ("prasinophyte clade I")

Mamiellophyceae ("prasinophyte clade II")

Nephroselmidophyceae ("prasinophyte clade III")

?Pycnococcaceae ("prasinophyte clade V")

Picocystophyceae ("prasinophyte clade VII C")

Chloropicophyceae ("prasinophyte clade VII A/B")




Chlorodendrophyceae ("prasinophyte clade IV")







Charophyta (stoneworts)





Embryophyte (Land plants)

Green Algae

Leliaert et al. 2012[edit]

Simplified phylogeny of the Chlorophyta, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.[12] Note that many algae previously classified in Chlorophyta are placed here in Streptophyta.

Pombert et al. 2005[edit]

A possible classification when Chlorophyta refers to one of the two clades of the Viridiplantae is shown below.[27]

Lewis & McCourt 2004[edit]

Hoek, Mann and Jahns 1995[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta, treated as all green algae, according to Hoek, Mann and Jahns 1995.[6]

In a note added in proof, an alternative classification is presented for the algae of the class Chlorophyceae:

Bold and Wynne 1985[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta according to Bold and Wynne 1985.[28]

Mattox & Stewart 1984[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Mattox & Stewart 1984:[29]

Fott 1971[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Fott 1971.[30]

Round 1971[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta and related algae according to Round 1971.[31]

Smith 1938[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Smith 1938:


  1. ^ Reichenbach, H. G. L. (1828). Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis, p. 23.
  2. ^ Pascher A (1914). "Über Flagellaten und Algen". Berichte der deutsche botanischen Gesellschaft. 32: 136–160.  [1]
  3. ^ Adl SM; Simpson AGB; Farmer MA; Andersen RA; Anderson OR; Barta JR; Bowser SS; Brugerolle G; Fensome RA; Fredericq S; James TY; Karpov S; Kugrens P; Krug J; Lane CE; Lewis LA; Lodge J; Lynn DH; Mann DG; McCourt RM; Mendoza L; Moestrup Ø; Mozley-Standridge SE; Nerad TA; Shearer CA; Smirnov AV; Speigel FW; Taylor MFJR (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873. 
  4. ^ a b Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2011). "AlgaeBase : Chlorophyta". World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2011-07-26 
  5. ^
  6. ^ a b c Hoek, C. van den, Mann, D.G. and Jahns, H.M. 1995. Algae An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  7. ^ "Major Algae Phyla - Table - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  8. ^ Lewis, Louise A. & McCourt, R.M. (2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants". Am. J. Bot. 91 (10): 1535–1556. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308 
  9. ^ Becker, B. & Marin, B. (2009). "Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes". Annals of Botany. 103 (7): 999–1004. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp044. PMC 2707909Freely accessible. PMID 19273476 
  10. ^ Kapraun, D.F. (April 2007). "Nuclear DNA content estimates in green algal lineages: Chlorophyta and Streptophyta". Annals of Botany. 99 (4): 677–701. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl294. PMC 2802934Freely accessible. PMID 17272304. 
  11. ^ Graham LE, Graham JM, Wilcox LW (2009) Algae. 2nd Edition. Benjamin Cummings (Pearson), San Francisco, CA
  12. ^ a b c Leliaert, F.; Smith, D.R.; Moreau, H.; Herron, M.D.; Verbruggen, H.; Delwiche, C.F. & De Clerck, O. (2012). "Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705. 
  13. ^ Lewis, Louise; Lewis, Paul (2005). "Unearthing the Molecular Phylodiversity of Desert Soil Green Algae (Chlorophyta)". Systematic Biology. 54 (6): 936–947. doi:10.1080/10635150500354852. ISSN 1063-5157. PMID 16338765. 
  14. ^ De Wever, A.; Leliaert, F.; Verleyen, E.; Vanormelingen, P.; Van der Gucht, K.; Hodgson, D. A.; Sabbe, K.; Vyverman, W. (2009). "Hidden levels of phylodiversity in Antarctic green algae: further evidence for the existence of glacial refugia". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1673): 3591–3599. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0994. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 2817313Freely accessible. PMID 19625320. 
  15. ^ a b Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; Zechman, Frederick W. (2011). "Into the deep: New discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–692. doi:10.1002/bies.201100035. ISSN 0265-9247. PMID 21744372. 
  16. ^ Lopez-Bautista, J. M. (2006). "Molecular systematics of the subaerial green algal order Trentepohliales: an assessment based on morphological and molecular data". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 56 (7): 1709–1715. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63990-0. ISSN 1466-5026. PMID 16825655. 
  17. ^ Joubert, J. J.; F. H. J. Rijkenberg (1971). "Parasitic green algae". Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 9: 45–64. doi:10.1146/ 
  18. ^ Nedelcu, Aurora M. (2001). "Complex Patterns of Plastid 16S rRNA Gene Evolution in Nonphotosynthetic Green Algae". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 53 (6): 670–679. Bibcode:2001JMolE..53..670N. doi:10.1007/s002390010254. ISSN 0022-2844. PMID 11677627. 
  19. ^ Tartar A, Boucias DG, Adams BJ, Becnel JJ (2002). "Phylogenetic analysis identifies the invertebrate pathogen Helicosporidium sp as a green alga (Chlorophyta)". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 52 (Pt 1): 273–9. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-1-273. PMID 11837312. 
  20. ^ Lobban, Christopher S.; Wynne, Michael James, eds. (1981). The Biology of Seaweeds. Botanical Monograph Series 17. University of California Press, p. 88.
  21. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016), "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes", HAL archives-ouvertes: 1–462 
  22. ^ Leliaert, Frederik; Tronholm, Ana; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique; DePriest, Michael S.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Karol, Kenneth G.; Fredericq, Suzanne; Zechman, Frederick W. (2016-05-09). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov". Scientific Reports. 6 (1). Bibcode:2016NatSR...625367L. doi:10.1038/srep25367. ISSN 2045-2322. 
  23. ^ Lopes dos Santos, Adriana; Pollina, Thibaut; Gourvil, Priscillia; Corre, Erwan; Marie, Dominique S.; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez, Francisco; Noël, Mary-Hélène; Vaulot, Daniel; Eikrem, Wenche (2017). "Chloropicophyceae, a new class of picophytoplanktonic prasinophytes". Scientific Reports. 7. Bibcode:2017NatSR...714019L. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12412-5. 
  24. ^ Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni (2015). "Modern plant systematics". Liga-Pres: 685. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4745.6164. ISBN 978-966-397-276-3. 
  25. ^ Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Raven, John A.; Pisani, Davide; Knoll, Andrew H. (2017-09-12). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. 
  26. ^ Gitzendanner, Matthew A.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Wong, Gane K.-S.; Ruhfel, Brad R.; Soltis, Douglas E. (2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. ISSN 0002-9122. 
  27. ^ Pombert, Jean-Francxois; et al. (2005). "The Chloroplast Genome Sequence of the Green Alga Pseudendoclonium akinetum (Ulvophyceae) Reveals Unusual Structural Features and New Insights into the Branching Order of Chlorophyte Lineages" (PDF). Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (9): 1903–1918. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi182. PMID 15930151. 
  28. ^ Bold, H.C. & Wynne, M.J. (1985). Introduction to the algae : structure and reproduction (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-477746-7 
  29. ^ Mattox, K.R. & Stewart, K.D. 1984. Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. Pp. 29‐72, In Irvine, D.E.G. & John, D.M. (eds.), The systematics of Green Algae. The Systematics Association, Special Vol. 27, Academic Press, London.
  30. ^ Hoek, C. et al. (1995), p. 483.
  31. ^ Round, F.E. (1971). "The taxonomy of the Chlorophyta, 2". Brit. Phycol. J. 6 (2): 235–264. doi:10.1080/00071617100650261. 

Further reading[edit]