Chlorophyta

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Chlorophyta
EB1911 Algae - Fig. 2.-Chlorophyceae.png
Chlorophytes (A–F, H–L and O)
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Diaphoretickes
(unranked): Archaeplastida
(unranked): Viridiplantae
Division: Chlorophyta
Reichenbach, 1828, emend. Pascher, 1914, emend. Lewis & McCourt, 2004[1][2][3]
Classes[4]
Synonyms
  • Chlorophycophyta Papenfuss 1946
  • Chlorophycota
  • Chlorophytina
  • Chlorophyllophyceae
  • Isokontae
  • Stephanokontae[5]
Green algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan

Chlorophyta or Prasinophyta is a taxon of green algae informally called chlorophytes.[6] The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae) and thus includes about 7,000 species[7][8] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. In newer classifications, it refers to the sister of the streptophytes/charophytes. The clade Streptophyta consists of the Charophyta in which the Embryophyta emerged.[9][10] In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species.[4] Like the land plants (bryophytes and tracheophytes), green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch[7] in their plastids.

The Chlorophyta contains both unicellular and multicellular species. Some members of the group form symbiotic relationships with protozoa, sponges, and cnidarians. Others form symbiotic relationships with fungi to form lichens, but the majority of species are free-living. Some conduct sexual reproduction, which is oogamous or isogamous. All members of the clade have motile flagellated swimming cells.[11] While most species live in freshwater habitats and a large number in marine habitats, other species are adapted to a wide range of land environments. For example, Chlamydomonas nivalis, which causes Watermelon snow, lives on summer alpine snowfields. Others, such as Trentepohlia species, live attached to rocks or woody parts of trees. Monostroma kuroshiense, an edible green alga cultivated worldwide and most expensive among green algae, belongs to this group.

Ecology[edit]

Species of Chlorophyta (treated as what is now considered one of the two main clades of Viridiplantae) are common inhabitants of marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments.[12][13] Several species have adapted to specialised and extreme environments, such as deserts, arctic environments, hypersaline habitats, marine deep waters and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. [14][15][16] Some groups, such as the Trentepohliales are exclusively found on land.[17] Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a diverse range of eukaryotes, including fungi (to form lichens), ciliates, forams, cnidarians and molluscs. [13] Some species of Chlorophyta are heterotrophic, either free-living or parasitic.[18][19] Two common species of the heterotrophic green alga Prototheca are pathogenic and can cause the disease protothecosis in humans and animals.[20]

Classifications[edit]

"Siphoneae" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904

Characteristics used for the classification of Chlorophyta are: type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides[21] and more recently genetic data.

Phylogeny[edit]

A newer proposed classification follows Leliaert et al. 2011[16] and modified with Silar 2016,[22] Leliaert 2016[23] and Lopes dos Santos et al. 2017[24] for the green algae clades and Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015[25] for the land plants clade. Sánchez-Baracaldo et al. is followed for the basal clades.[26][27][28]

Plantae/

Mesostigmatophyceae

Spirotaenia

Chlorokybophyceae

Chlorophyta/
Palmophyllophyceae

Prasinococcales ("prasinophyte clade VI")

Palmophyllales

(Prasinophyceae s.s.)

Pyramimonadophyceae ("prasinophyte clade I")

Mamiellophyceae ("prasinophyte clade II")

Nephroselmidophyceae ("prasinophyte clade III")

?Pycnococcaceae ("prasinophyte clade V")

Picocystophyceae ("prasinophyte clade VII C")

Chloropicophyceae ("prasinophyte clade VII A/B")

Tetraphytina

Pedinophyceae

Chlorophytina

Chlorodendrophyceae ("prasinophyte clade IV")

Trebouxiophyceae

Ulvophyceae

Chlorophyceae

Prasinophyta
Streptophyta/

Klebsormidiophyta

Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyta (stoneworts)

?Chaetosphaeridiales

Coleochaetophyta

Zygnematophyta

Mesotaeniaceae

Embryophyte (Land plants)

Charophyta
Green Algae

Leliaert et al. 2012[edit]

Simplified phylogeny of the Chlorophyta, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.[13] Note that many algae previously classified in Chlorophyta are placed here in Streptophyta.

Pombert et al. 2005[edit]

A possible classification when Chlorophyta refers to one of the two clades of the Viridiplantae is shown below.[29]

Lewis & McCourt 2004[edit]

Hoek, Mann and Jahns 1995[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta, treated as all green algae, according to Hoek, Mann and Jahns 1995.[7]

In a note added in proof, an alternative classification is presented for the algae of the class Chlorophyceae:

Bold and Wynne 1985[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta according to Bold and Wynne 1985.[31]

Mattox & Stewart 1984[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Mattox & Stewart 1984:[30]

Fott 1971[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Fott 1971.[7]:483

Round 1971[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta and related algae according to Round 1971.[32]

Smith 1938[edit]

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Smith 1938:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reichenbach HG (1828). Conspectus Regni Vegetabilis. p. 23.
  2. ^ Pascher A (1914). "Über Flagellaten und Algen". Berichte der deutsche botanischen Gesellschaft. 32: 136–160.
  3. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AG, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR, et al. (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873.
  4. ^ a b Guiry MD, Guiry GM (2011). "AlgaeBase : Chlorophyta". World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
  5. ^ Papenfuss GF (1955). "The Classification of the Algae". A century of progress in the natural sciences, 1853-1953. California Academy of Sciences.
  6. ^ Rockwell NC, Martin SS, Li FW, Mathews S, Lagarias JC (May 2017). "The phycocyanobilin chromophore of streptophyte algal phytochromes is synthesized by HY2". The New Phytologist. 214 (3): 1145–1157. doi:10.1111/nph.14422. PMC 5388591. PMID 28106912.
  7. ^ a b c d van den Hoek C, Mann DG, Jahns HM (1995). Algae An Introduction to Phycology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30419-9.
  8. ^ "Major Algae Phyla - Table - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
  9. ^ Lewis LA, McCourt RM (October 2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–56. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308.
  10. ^ Becker B, Marin B (May 2009). "Streptophyte algae and the origin of embryophytes". Annals of Botany. 103 (7): 999–1004. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp044. PMC 2707909. PMID 19273476.
  11. ^ Kapraun DF (April 2007). "Nuclear DNA content estimates in green algal lineages: chlorophyta and streptophyta". Annals of Botany. 99 (4): 677–701. doi:10.1093/aob/mcl294. PMC 2802934. PMID 17272304.
  12. ^ Graham LE, Graham JM, Wilcox LW (2009) Algae. 2nd Edition. Benjamin Cummings (Pearson), San Francisco, CA
  13. ^ a b c Leliaert F, Smith DR, Moreau H, Herron MD, Verbruggen H, Delwiche CF, De Clerck O (2012). "Phylogeny and molecular evolution of the green algae" (PDF). Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 31: 1–46. doi:10.1080/07352689.2011.615705.
  14. ^ Lewis LA, Lewis PO (December 2005). "Unearthing the molecular phylodiversity of desert soil green algae (Chlorophyta)". Systematic Biology. 54 (6): 936–47. doi:10.1080/10635150500354852. PMID 16338765.
  15. ^ De Wever A, Leliaert F, Verleyen E, Vanormelingen P, Van der Gucht K, Hodgson DA, Sabbe K, Vyverman W (October 2009). "Hidden levels of phylodiversity in Antarctic green algae: further evidence for the existence of glacial refugia". Proceedings. Biological Sciences. 276 (1673): 3591–9. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0994. PMC 2817313. PMID 19625320.
  16. ^ a b Leliaert F, Verbruggen H, Zechman FW (September 2011). "Into the deep: new discoveries at the base of the green plant phylogeny". BioEssays. 33 (9): 683–92. doi:10.1002/bies.201100035. PMID 21744372.
  17. ^ López-Bautista JM, Rindi F, Guiry MD (July 2006). "Molecular systematics of the subaerial green algal order Trentepohliales: an assessment based on morphological and molecular data". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (Pt 7): 1709–15. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.63990-0. PMID 16825655.
  18. ^ Joubert JJ, Rijkenberg FH (1971). "Parasitic green algae". Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 9: 45–64. doi:10.1146/annurev.py.09.090171.000401.
  19. ^ Nedelcu AM (December 2001). "Complex patterns of plastid 16S rRNA gene evolution in nonphotosynthetic green algae". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 53 (6): 670–9. Bibcode:2001JMolE..53..670N. doi:10.1007/s002390010254. PMID 11677627.
  20. ^ Tartar A, Boucias DG, Adams BJ, Becnel JJ (January 2002). "Phylogenetic analysis identifies the invertebrate pathogen Helicosporidium sp. as a green alga (Chlorophyta)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 52 (Pt 1): 273–9. doi:10.1099/00207713-52-1-273. PMID 11837312.
  21. ^ Lobban CS, Wynne MJ (1981). "The Biology of Seaweeds". Botanical Monograph Series 17. University of California Press: 88.
  22. ^ Silar, Philippe (2016), "Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes", HAL archives-ouvertes: 1–462
  23. ^ Leliaert F, Tronholm A, Lemieux C, Turmel M, DePriest MS, Bhattacharya D, Karol KG, Fredericq S, Zechman FW, Lopez-Bautista JM (May 2016). "Chloroplast phylogenomic analyses reveal the deepest-branching lineage of the Chlorophyta, Palmophyllophyceae class. nov". Scientific Reports. 6 (1): 25367. Bibcode:2016NatSR...625367L. doi:10.1038/srep25367. PMID 27157793.
  24. ^ Lopes Dos Santos A, Pollina T, Gourvil P, Corre E, Marie D, Garrido JL, Rodríguez F, Noël MH, Vaulot D, Eikrem W (October 2017). "Chloropicophyceae, a new class of picophytoplanktonic prasinophytes". Scientific Reports. 7 (1): 14019. Bibcode:2017NatSR...714019L. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12412-5. PMID 29070840.
  25. ^ Novikoff A, Barabasz-Krasny B (2015). "Modern plant systematics". Liga-Pres: 685. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4745.6164. ISBN 978-966-397-276-3.
  26. ^ Sánchez-Baracaldo P, Raven JA, Pisani D, Knoll AH (September 2017). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. PMID 28808007.
  27. ^ Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS, Wong GK, Ruhfel BR, Soltis DE (March 2018). "Plastid phylogenomic analysis of green plants: A billion years of evolutionary history". American Journal of Botany. 105 (3): 291–301. doi:10.1002/ajb2.1048. PMID 29603143.
  28. ^ Rockwell NC, Martin SS, Li FW, Mathews S, Lagarias JC (May 2017). "The phycocyanobilin chromophore of streptophyte algal phytochromes is synthesized by HY2". The New Phytologist. 214 (3): 1145–1157. doi:10.1111/nph.14422. PMC 5388591. PMID 28106912.
  29. ^ Pombert JF, Otis C, Lemieux C, Turmel M (September 2005). "The chloroplast genome sequence of the green alga Pseudendoclonium akinetum (Ulvophyceae) reveals unusual structural features and new insights into the branching order of chlorophyte lineages". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (9): 1903–18. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi182. PMID 15930151.
  30. ^ a b c d e Mattox KR, Stewart KD, et al. (The Systematics Association) (1984). "Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology.". In Irvine DE, John DM. The systematics of Green Algae. 27. London: Academic Press. pp. 29–72.
  31. ^ Bold HC, Wynne MJ (1985). Introduction to the algae : structure and reproduction (2nd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-477746-7.
  32. ^ Round FE (1971). "The taxonomy of the Chlorophyta, 2". Brit. Phycol. J. 6 (2): 235–264. doi:10.1080/00071617100650261.

Further reading[edit]

  • Burrows EM (1991). Seaweeds of the British Isles. 2 (Chlorophyta). London: Natural History Museum. ISBN 0-565-00981-8.
  • Lewis LA, McCourt RM (October 2004). "Green algae and the origin of land plants". American Journal of Botany. 91 (10): 1535–56. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1535. PMID 21652308.
  • Pickett-Heaps JD (1975). Green Algae. Structure, Reproduction and Evolution in Selected Genera. Stamford, CT: Sinauer Assoc. p. 606.