Choanozoa

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Choanozoa
Sphaeroeca-colony.jpg
Sphaeroeca, a colony of choanoflagellates (approx. 230 individuals)
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Opisthokonta
(unranked): Choanozoa
Classes and unplaced genera

Choanozoa (Greek: χόανος (choanos) "funnel" and ζῶον (zōon) "animal") is the name of a phylum of eukaryotes that belongs to the line of opisthokonts. The Animals appear to have emerged in the Choanozoa, as sister clade of the Choanoflagellates. Also the Zoosporia (Fungi and Opisthosporidia) appear to have emerged in the Choanozoa, as a sister clade of the Cristidiscoidea. With these included, Choanozoa becomes synonymous with Opisthokonta.[1][2][3]

Most appear closer to the animals than to the fungi, and they are of great interest to biologists studying animal origins.

Choanozoa have been described as possessing a posterior cilium, having lost the anterior cilium.[4][5]

Cladogram[edit]

Opisthokonta = Choanozoa
Holomycota
Zoosporia

True fungi

Opisthosporidia

Aphelida

Cryptomycota

Microsporidia

Metchnikovellea

Microsporea

Cristidiscoidea

Nucleariida

Fonticulida

Holozoa/

Ichthyosporea

Pluriformea

Corallochytrium

Syssomonas

Filozoa

Filasterea

Apoikozoa

Choanoflagellatea

Animalia

Choanozoa s.s.

The great kingdoms and their close relatives.[6]

Classification[edit]

The Choanozoa consist of at least 7 groups: (1) the Mesomycetozoea (Ichthyosporea), a group of parasites infecting fish and other animals, (2) a group described in the early 21st century including Ministeria and Capsaspora, which has been named Filasterea after the thread-like tentacles which both genera share, and (3) the choanoflagellates including Monosiga and Proterospongia.[1][7] The position of Corallochytrium is unclear.[1] Also the more distant Cristidiscoidea is traditionally included.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge MA, Espelund M, et al. (2008). Aramayo R, ed. "Multigene phylogeny of choanozoa and the origin of animals". PLoS ONE. 3 (5): e2098. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002098. PMC 2346548. PMID 18461162.
  2. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Chao, Ema; Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Berney, Cédric; Snell, Elizabeth A.; Lewis, Rhodri (2015-02-01). "Multigene phylogeny resolves deep branching of Amoebozoa". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 83: 293–304. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.011.
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2017-09-05). "Kingdom Chromista and its eight phyla: a new synthesis emphasising periplastid protein targeting, cytoskeletal and periplastid evolution, and ancient divergences". Protoplasma. 255: 1–61. doi:10.1007/s00709-017-1147-3. ISSN 0033-183X.
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas (2017-02-05). "Origin of animal multicellularity: precursors, causes, consequences—the choanoflagellate/sponge transition, neurogenesis and the Cambrian explosion". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 372 (1713): 20150476. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0476. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 5182410. PMID 27994119.
  5. ^ Cavalier‐Smith, T. (2009). "Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations". The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology. 56 (1): 26–33. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00373.x. PMID 19340985.
  6. ^ Phylogeny based on:
  7. ^ "Eukaryotes".