Chocangaca language

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Region Bhutan
Native speakers
20,000 (1993)[1]
Tibetan alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-3 cgk
Glottolog choc1275[2]

The Chocangaca language or Chocangacakha (Dzongkha: ཁྱོད་ཅ་ང་ཅ་ཁ་ Wylie: Khyod ca nga ca kha "'You' and 'I' language";[3] also called "Kursmad-kha", "Maphekha", "rTsamangpa'i kha", and "Tsagkaglingpa'i kha") or Tsamang is a Southern Tibetic language spoken by about 20,000 people in the Kurichu Valley of Lhuntse and Mongar Districts in eastern Bhutan.[1][4]

Chocangakha and Dzongkha[edit]

Chocangacakha is a "sister language" to Dzongkha.

Curiously, the most closely related language to Dzongkha in the kingdom is spoken in the east of the country along the Kurichu and represents an ancient 'Ngalong Einwanderung in the east. [...] Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha is more conservative in its pronunciation of many words than Dzongkha [....] Most verbal suffixes are cognate to their Dzongkha counterparts, but Cho-ca-nga-ca-kha has adopted the Bumthang infinitival ending -mala[.][3]

Under pressure to assimilate into the mainstream Dzongkha-speaking Ngalop culture, this proximity has resulted in significant loss of its particularly distinctive Kurichu linguistic substrate.[1][5]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c van Driem, George L. (1993). "Language Policy in Bhutan" (PDF). London: SOAS. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Chocangacakha". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Driem, George van (1998). Dzongkha = rdoṅ-kha. Leiden: Research School, CNWS. p. 13. ISBN 978-9057890024. 
  4. ^ "Chocangacakha". Ethnologue Online. Dallas: SIL International. 2006. Retrieved 2011-01-18. 
  5. ^ van Driem, George (2007). Matthias Brenzinger, ed. Language diversity endangered. Trends in linguistics: Studies and monographs, Mouton Reader 181. Walter de Gruyter. p. 312. ISBN 3-11-017050-7.