Choco pie

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Choco pie
Chocolate Pie.jpg
TypeSnack cake
Place of originUnited States
Invented1917
Korean name
Hangul초코파이
Revised Romanizationchokopai
McCune–Reischauerch'ok'op'ai
IPAKorean pronunciation: [tɕʰo.kʰo.pʰa.i]

A choco pie (초코파이) is a snack cake consisting of two small round layers of cake with marshmallow filling and a chocolate covering. The term originated in America but is now also used in parts of Japan, South Korea and many other countries as either a brand name or a generic term. Names for similar confections in other places include chocolate marshmallow pie,[1] Wagon Wheels, angel pie,[2] and moon pie.

History[edit]

Variations of the original go back to as far as 1917 in the southern United States. In 1929, Chattanooga Bakery created the Moon Pie with marshmallow filling and Graham crackers for local miners in Chattanooga, Tennessee.[3]

In Japan, the confectionery became popular after American soldiers introduced it after the Second World War. In 1958 the Morinage confectionary company introduced the "Angel pie", a chocolate covered marshmallow and cake sandwich (also called a "half life cake").[4]

In 1973, a member of the R&D team of the Korean firm Tongyang Confectionery visited a hotel in Georgia, US, and was inspired by the chocolate-coated sweets available in the hotel's restaurant, He returned to South Korea and began experimenting with a chocolate biscuit cake, creating the “choco pie” as it is known to Koreans.[5] The name "Choco Pie" became popular when Tongyang first released the Orion Choco Pie, and was well received by Korean children as well as the elderly because of its affordable price and white marshmallow filling. Tongyang Confectionery later renamed the company Orion Confectionery thanks to the success of the Orion Choco Pie brand.

In 1979 Lotte Confectionery began to sell a similar confection. When Lotte Confectionery put the Lotte Choco Pie on the market, it chose to spell the prefix 'Cho' slightly differently in Hangul from how Tongyang was spelling it. Haitai and Crown Confectionery also began selling their own versions of choco pies. Lotte also began selling as Choco Pie in Japan in 1983.

In 1999, after many years of sales of different "Choco Pie" products, Tongyang (Orion) filed a lawsuit against Lotte for their use of the term "Choco Pie", claiming the name was their intellectual property. The court ruled, however, that Tongyang was responsible for having allowed its brand name to become, over time, a generic trademark and that the term "choco pie" was to be considered a common noun due to its generic descriptive sense in reference to confections of similar composition.[6]

In 2016, Orion released a banana-flavored Choco Pie to celebrate its 60th anniversary. It is the first variation of the original product in 42 years since the company launched the Choco Pie with marshmallow cream in 1974.[7]

In 2017, Orion launched its premium choco pie Brand, "Choco Pie House." [8]

Export[edit]

Strawberry Choco Pie was sold as a limited edition Choco Pie

Starting in the 2000s, Orion began using the Choco Pie to gain a foothold in foreign markets, and now controls a two-thirds share of the Chinese snack market, with a third of Orion's revenue coming from outside Korea in 2006.[9] Around 12.1 billion Choco Pies have been sold all over the world.[10]

Orion has a share in four major markets – South Korea, Russia, Vietnam and China. In 2016, Choco Pie, which sold 600 million packs in Russia, is called the 'National Pie'.[11] The snack has also been particularly successful in Pakistan, India, Vietnam and Taiwan.

North Korea[edit]

Exports of choco pies to North Korea have been very popular, with North Korean workers at the Kaesong Industrial Complex in North Korea receiving choco pies in lieu of cash bonuses, which were seen as too capitalistic.[12][13] Prior to the closing of the complex during the 2013 Korean crisis, workers received choco pies, which had become a favorite snack at Kaesong and also a symbol of capitalism,[14] in addition to their wages.[15] However, the workers at Kaesong would often resell their pies on the black market. In 2010, The Chosun Ilbo reported that choco pies could fetch as much as US$9.50 on the North Korean black market.[16] Between 2008 and 2014, the Lotte corporation estimated that it sent 1.2 million boxes of Choco Pie to North Korea.[17]

In the wake of tensions surrounding its nuclear tests, the North Korean government temporarily shut down the Kaesung complex in 2013.[18] This cut the supply of choco pies and drove the price in North Korea even higher.[19] When the complex resumed operations after a five-month halt, employers were forbidden from paying choco pie bonuses, and advised to instead give bonuses of "sausages, noodles, coffee and chocolate".[20][21] North Korea also responded to the choco pie speculation by producing its own variant of the snack.[22]

In 2014 South Korean activists used helium balloons to launch 10,000 choco pies over the border to North Korea.[23][24] Artist Jin Joo Chae made the controversy a subject of her prints and sculptures the same year, printing, with chocolate, real and imagined Choco Pie slogans onto North Korean newspapers, and simulating a black market for the snack in the gallery.[25]

In 2017 a severely injured North Korean defector who crossed the DMZ to South Korea was given a lifetime supply of choco pies by their manufacturer.[26][27]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Chocolate Marshmallow Pies". McKee Foods website. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  2. ^ Orchid64 (July 16, 2010). "Angel Pie (Mini)". Japanese Snack Reviews. Retrieved November 20, 2015.
  3. ^ Dale Volberg Reed; John Shelton Reed; John T. Edge (2008). Cornbread Nation 4: The Best of Southern Food Writing. University of Georgia Press. pp. 153–. ISBN 978-0-8203-3089-1.
  4. ^ "エンゼルパイ – 森永製菓株式会社". www.morinaga.co.jp.
  5. ^ 남형도기자 (31 March 2009). 오리온 초코파이 (in Korean). The Financial News. Retrieved 5 May 2011.
  6. ^ "Choco Pie" is a "Common Noun". Chosun Ilbo. 5 August 1999. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  7. ^ Bahk Eun-ji (7 March 2016). "Chocolate pie with banana taste hits market". The Korea Times. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Choco Pie Now Available in Various Flavors Including Red Velvet". www.koreadailyus.com. The Korea Daily.
  9. ^ Kelly, Tim (27 February 2006). "Cookie Monster". Forbes.com LLC. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  10. ^ "(Korean)" (in Korean). Orion Confectionery. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
  11. ^ "오리온 "러시아서 초코파이 한해 10억 개로 확대 생산"". 중앙일보 (in Korean). 2017-12-07. Retrieved 2018-04-07.
  12. ^ Branigan, Tania (1 May 2013). "Choco Pies offer North Koreans a taste of the other side". the Guardian.
  13. ^ "North Korea bans popular Choco Pie snack from South Korea to 'avoid ideological unrest': reports". 4 July 2014.
  14. ^ Donald Kirk (21 May 2009). "Pyongyang chokes on sweet capitalism". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
  15. ^ McCoy, Terrence (1 July 2014). "North Korea has reportedly banned Choco Pies" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  16. ^ "Choco Pie Rules Black Market in N.Korea". Chosun Ilbo. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 15 January 2010.
  17. ^ Herald, The Korea (30 May 2018). "Food groups pin hopes on improvement in inter-Korean ties".
  18. ^ Park, Ju-min. "South Korea suspends operations at joint factory park with North".
  19. ^ "NK Choco Pie Price Falls on KIC News". www.dailynk.com (in Korean). Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  20. ^ "North Korea bans workers from receiving 'Choco Pies' as black market".
  21. ^ Murphy, Brian; Lee, Michelle Ye Hee (17 June 2018). "The Choco Pie dividend: South Korean firms are drooling at the prospect of business in the North" – via www.washingtonpost.com.
  22. ^ Ryall, Julian (11 June 2015). "North Korea launches Choco Pie counter-strike" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  23. ^ France-Presse, Agence (30 July 2014). "South Korean activists launch 'Choco Pie' balloons". the Guardian.
  24. ^ "Choco Pie-filled balloons launched at North Korea".
  25. ^ Erdos, Elleree. "Jin Joo Chae: The Choco Pie-ization of North Korea," Art in Print, Vol. 4 No. 1 (May–June 2014).
  26. ^ "When he woke up from surgery, the 25-year-old North Korea defector said he wanted to eat a Choco Pie". 16 December 2017.
  27. ^ "North Korea defector gets lifetime supply of Choco Pies". 20 December 2017.

External links[edit]