Choco broad-nosed bat

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Choco broad-nosed bat
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Phyllostomidae
Genus: Platyrrhinus
Species:
P. chocoensis
Binomial name
Platyrrhinus chocoensis
Alberico & Velasco, 1991
Platyrrhinus chocoensis map.svg
Synonyms

Vampyrops chocoensis

The Choco broad-nosed bat (Platyrrhinus chocoensis) is a species of bat in the family Phyllostomidae. It is native to Colombia, Panama, and Ecuador, where it is found in the Choco region lowlands.[1][2] It is threatened by habitat loss.[1] In 2013, Bat Conservation International listed this species as one of the 35 species of its worldwide priority list of conservation.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

This species was first encountered in 1984 in Colombia. Its species name chocoensis is derived from the region where it was found, the Chocó Department.[4] A morphological study suggested that it may be the most basal (earliest offshoot) of its genus,[5] however, another study using DNA suggested that the Platyrrhinus of the Chocó region diverged from Platyrrhinus of the Amazonian Craton, and that the white-lined broad-nosed bat was more basal.[6]

Description[edit]

Their forearms are 47–51 mm (1.9–2.0 in) long. They have a single whisker on their upper lip,[7] and seven whiskers surrounding their nose-leaf.[8] They have dark facial stripes. Their ears have well-defined folds.[8] They have narrow dorsal stripes. Individual dorsal hairs are tricolored, with the base, mid, and tip of the hair different colors; ventral hairs are bicolored. The third metacarpal is shorter than the fifth metacarpal.They weigh approximately 30 g (1.1 oz), making them "medium-sized" for their genus.[8]

Biology and ecology[edit]

They are frugivorous,[1] but are also known as pollinators.[9] They are likely polyestrous, as pregnant females have been encountered throughout the year.[10]

Distribution[edit]

This species has been documented in two sites in the lowland of southern Panama. It has been found in over twenty sites in both Colombia and Ecuador. They live in the Pacific-facing side of Colombia and western Ecuador. They are found in lower elevation habitat, from 1–1,000 m (3.3–3,300 ft) above sea level.[1]

Conservation[edit]

In 2008, this species was listed as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, based on a projected decline of 50%. However, the decline appears more moderate now, and it is listed as vulnerable due to a projected decline of 30%. Its range includes protected areas, such as Utría National Natural Park and Los Katíos National Park, both in Colombia. Areas where the bat occur are being converted to agricultural use, particularly cocoa farming,[9] which threatens the species. Illegal mining in Colombia is also responsible for its habitat destruction.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Ramirez-Chaves, H. & Suárez-Castro, A. 2015. Platyrrhinus chocoensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2015: e.T17568A21987035. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-4.RLTS.T17568A21987035.en. Downloaded on 13 May 2017.
  2. ^ Simmons, Nancy B. (2005), "Chiroptera", in Wilson, Don E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M. (eds.), Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 312–529, ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0, retrieved 13 September 2009
  3. ^ "Annual Report 2013-2014" (PDF). batcon.org. Bat Conservation International. August 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 7, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  4. ^ Alberico, M. S., & Velasco, E. (1991). Description of a new broad-nosed bat from Colombia. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 42, 237-239.
  5. ^ Velazco, P. M. (2005). Morphological phylogeny of the bat genus Platyrrhinus Saussure, 1860 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) with the description of four new species. Fieldiana Zoology, 1-53.
  6. ^ Velazco, P. M., & Patterson, B. D. (2008). Phylogenetics and biogeography of the broad-nosed bats, genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 49(3), 749-759.
  7. ^ Velazco, P.M., A.L. Gardner and B.D. Patterson. 2010. Systematic of the Platyrrhinus helleri complex (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), with description of two new species. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 159: 785–812.
  8. ^ a b c Velazco Garcia, P. M. (2009). Historical diversification in the neotropics: Evolution and variation of the bat genus platyrrhinus (Order No. 3381066). pp 16-28. Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global; SciTech Premium Collection.
  9. ^ a b Regan, E. C., Santini, L., Ingwall‐King, L., Hoffmann, M., Rondinini, C., Symes, A., ... & Butchart, S. H. (2015). Global trends in the status of bird and mammal pollinators. Conservation Letters, 8(6), 397-403
  10. ^ Gardner, A.L. 2008. Mammals of South America: Volume I. Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, and bats. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.