Prunus virginiana

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Prunus virginiana
Prunus virginiana flowers.jpg
Prunus virginiana var. virginiana (eastern chokecherry) in bloom
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Padus[1]
Species: P. virginiana
Binomial name
Prunus virginiana
L. 1753 not DuRoi 1771
Prunus virginiana range map 1.png
Natural range

Prunus virginiana, commonly called bitter-berry,[3] chokecherry,[3] Virginia bird cherry[3] and western chokecherry[3] (also black chokecherry for P. virginiana var. demissa[3]), is a species of bird cherry (Prunus subgenus Padus) native to North America; the natural historic range of P. virginiana includes most of Canada (including Northwest Territories but excluding Yukon, Nunavut, and Labrador), most of the United States (including Alaska but excluding some states in the Southeast) and northern Mexico (Sonora, Chihuahua, Baja California, Durango, Zacatecas, Coahuila and Nuevo León).[4][5][6]


Chokecherry is a suckering shrub or small tree growing to 4.9 m (16 ft 1 in) tall. The leaves are oval, 3.2–10.2 cm (1 144 132 in) long, with a coarsely serrated margin. The flowers are produced in racemes 38.1–76.2 cm (15–30 in) long in late spring (well after leaf emergence). They produce a strong heady aroma which some people find to be unpleasantly smelly, while others perceive them to have an aphrodisiac like effect. The fruits are about 1 cm (38 in) in diameter, range in color from bright red to black, and possess a very astringent taste, being both somewhat sour and somewhat bitter. The very ripe "berries" (actually drupes) are dark in color and less astringent and sweeter than when red and unripe.[6]


Chokecherries are very high in antioxidant pigment compounds, such as anthocyanins. They share this property with chokeberries, further contributing to confusion.[6]

  • Prunus virginiana var. virginiana (the eastern chokecherry)
  • Prunus virginiana var. demissa (Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray) Torr. (the western chokecherry)
  • Prunus virginiana var. melanocarpa (A.Nelson) Sarg.
Chokecherry – habit

The wild chokecherry is often considered a pest, as it is a host for the tent caterpillar, a threat to other fruit plants. However, there are more appreciated cultivars of the chokecherry, such as 'Goertz', which has a nonastringent, and therefore palatable, fruit. Research at the University of Saskatchewan seeks to find and create new cultivars to increase production and processing.

Leaf of Saskatchewan plant

The chokecherry is closely related to the black cherry (Prunus serotina) of eastern North America; it is most readily distinguished from that by its smaller size (black cherry trees can reach 100 feet tall), smaller leaves, and sometimes red ripe fruit. The chokecherry leaf has a finely serrated margin and is dark green above with a paler underside, while the black cherry leaf has numerous blunt edges along its margin and is dark green and smooth.[6][8]

The name chokecherry is also used for the related Manchurian cherry or Amur chokecherry (Prunus maackii).

Food use[edit]

For many Native American tribes of the Northern Rockies, Northern Plains, and boreal forest region of Canada and the United States, chokecherries were the most important fruit in their diets and were added to pemmican, a staple. The bark of chokecherry root was once made into an asperous-textured concoction used to ward off or treat colds, fever and stomach maladies by Native Americans.[9] The inner bark of the chokecherry, as well as red osier dogwood, or alder, was also used by natives in their smoking mixtures, known as kinnikinnick, to improve the taste of the bearberry leaf.[10] The chokecherry fruit can be used to make jam or syrup, but the bitter nature of the fruit requires sugar to sweeten the preserves.[11][12]

Chokecherry is toxic to horses, moose, cattle, goats, deer, and other animals with segmented stomachs (rumens), especially after the leaves have wilted (such as after a frost or after branches have been broken) because wilting releases cyanide and makes the plant sweet. About 10–20 lbs of foliage can be fatal. Symptoms of a horse that has been poisoned include heavy breathing, agitation, and weakness. The leaves of the chokecherry serve as food for caterpillars of various Lepidoptera.[11] See List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus.

In 2007, Governor John Hoeven signed a bill naming the chokecherry the official fruit of the state of North Dakota, in part because its remains have been found at more archeological sites in the Dakotas than anywhere else.[11][13]

Chokecherry is also used to craft wine in the western United States mainly in the Dakotas and Utah as well as in Manitoba, Canada.[11]

Autumn foliage

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Rehder, A. 1940, reprinted 1977. Manual of cultivated trees and shrubs hardy in North America exclusive of the subtropical and warmer temperate regions. Macmillan publishing Co., Inc, New York.
  2. ^ a b "Prunus virginiana". Richard Pankhurst et al. Royal Botanic Gardens Edinburgh. Retrieved January 27, 2014 – via The Plant List. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "Prunus virginiana". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved February 28, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Prunus virginiana". State-level distribution map from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013. 
  5. ^ SEINet, Southwestern Biodiversity, Arizona chapter photos, partial distribution map
  6. ^ a b c d Rohrer, Joseph R. "Prunus virginiana". In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. Flora of North America North of Mexico (FNA). 9. New York and Oxford – via, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. 
  7. ^ Farrar, J.L. 1995. Trees in Canada. Canadian Forest Service and Fitzhenry and Whiteside Limited, Markham.
  8. ^ Edible Wild Plants A North American Field Guide, Thomas S. Elias, Peter A. Dykeman, Sterling Publishing Company Inc., New York, NY, 1990. ISBN 0-8069-7488-5
  9. ^ pg. 81, Trees of Michigan and the Upper Great Lakes 6th edition, Norman F. Smith, Thunder Bay Press, 2002
  10. ^ Staff (2009) "Bearberry" Discovering Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation
  11. ^ a b c d Michigan State University Extension Information Management Program Archived 2001-11-10 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
  12. ^ Gibbons, Euell. 1962. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. David McKay, New York
  13. ^ Kindscher, K. 1987. Edible Wild Plants of the Prairie: An Ethnobotanical Guide

External links[edit]