Chokha

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Part of a series on
Georgians
ქართველები
Nation
Georgia
Ancient Kartvelian people
Subgroups
Culture
Languages
Religion
Symbols
History of Georgia

The Chokha (Georgian: ჩოხა, ტალავარი, chokha, t'alavari; Abkhaz: акәымжәы, akʷymzhʷy; Adyghe: цые, tsiya; Persian: چوغا, Czugha; Armenian: չոխա, chokha; Azerbaijani: çuxa;[1] Chechen: чокхиб, chokhib; Kabardian: цей, tsei; Lezgian: чуха, chukha; Ossetian: цухъхъа, cuqqa; Russian: черкеска, cherkeska) is a woollen coat with a high neck that is part of the traditional male dress of the peoples of the Caucasus.[2]

Georgian man in chokha.

History and Revival of Chokha[edit]

Georgian King Luarsab II of Kartli in Chokha.
Georgian King Solomon I of Imereti in Chokha.

The chokha has been in wide use among Georgians[3] from the 9th century until the 1920s.[4] It is still used in Georgia as a symbol of national pride, and is frequently worn by Georgian men at weddings and official functions.[5] Worn by Georgians for more than a thousand years, the high-necked wool coat was rarely seen during Soviet rule, but now, for many, it symbolizes the country's proud past and resistance to its occupation.[6]

Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili has ordered high-ranking Georgian officials working abroad to present themselves in national costumes, including the chokha, at official meetings.[7]

Types of Chokha[edit]

The British hard rock musician Ian Gillan and his wife Bron, dressed in Georgian national costumes, in Tbilisi during Gillan's 1990 visit to the Soviet Union.
Georgian youth in the Chokha.

There are four types of Chokha: the Kartl-Kakheti chokha (Kartli and Kakheti are eastern Georgian provinces), the Khevsur Chokha (mainly in Mtskheta-mtianeti province of Georgia), the Adjarian chokha (mainly found in western Georgian provinces such as Adjara and Guria, previously also in Lazona), and the General Caucasian chokha.

Caucasian Chokha originated in Caucasus[8] in the mountainous areas of Georgia, although the word "Chokha" isn't of Georgian language but Persian origin. Originally, in Georgia, the garment was referred to as Talavari, but later on, after the Persian invasions, Persians started to call Georgian national dress Chokha (meaning "outfit made of fabric"). Russians called it "Cherkeska" (meaning Circassian dress), and the Cossacks adopted it as their national costume. In Circassian language, the Chokha is known as "Shwakh-Tsia"" which means "covers the horseman" or simply "Tsia" which means "from fabric" and "Fasha" which means "Fits you".

In Georgia, the Black chokha was reserved for the "Order of Chokhosani" who represented an elite composed of great generals, war heroes and famous poets. Chokha is sewn of thick fabric and flares out at the bottom. In some parts of the Caucasus there are also female chokhas.

In the late 19th century and early 20th century there were three types of chokhas: the Khevsur chokha, the Kartl-Kakheti chokha and general Caucasian chokha.

Khevsuruli Chokha[edit]

Khevsureti chokhas.

The Khevsur chokha was worn in the Khevsureti province of Georgia in the Greater Caucasus mountains. The Khevsur chokha is considered to be the closest to the medieval version of chokha. It is mostly short with trapezoid shapes. The front side of the chokha has rich decorations and slits on the sides, which extend to the waist. The Khevsur chokha has rich decorations made up of crosses and icons.

Kartl-Kakheti Chokha[edit]

Georgian cavalry wearing Kartl-Kakheti Chokha.

The Kartl-Kakheti chokha is longer than the Khevsur chokha and has triangle-like shapes on the chest exposing the inner cloth called arkhalukhi. It tends to have bandoliers on both sides of the chest, spaces filled with bullet-like decorations called Masri. The bottom sides usually had slits on the sides and people wore them without belts. The Kartli-Kakheti chokha has long sleeves and is usually black, dark red or blue.

General Caucasian Chokha[edit]

The general Caucasian chokha shares similarities with the Kartl-Kakheti version. In most cases different decorations are used to fill the bullet spaces. In the Russian language, chokha is called cherkeska and this type of chokha has black leather belts decorated with silver pieces. It was usually a longer version of the Kartl-kakheti Chokha.[3]

The general Caucasian chokha is usually made of black, grey, white, blue, red or brown fabric. Among Azeris, it is considered part of the traditional outfit for the performers of mugham, an Azeri folk music genre. A person's age defined the colour of the chokha he would wear.

Generally, the chokha outfit includes a khanjali (the sword), the akhalukhi (a shirt worn underneath the chokha), the masrebi (the bullets), and the kabalakhi (a hood, separate from the robe) or nabdis kudi (a tall fur hat).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Новости". Azclub.ru. Archived from the original on 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  2. ^ "Close-Up: Why Georgia's national costume is back in vogue". BBC.com. Retrieved 2016-08-01. 
  3. ^ a b Ruso Strelkova (August 31, 2007). To Wear or not to Wear (a Chokha)? That is the Question Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine.. Georgia Today Issue #372, 31.08.07-06.09.07.
  4. ^ Abashidze, Irakli. Ed. Georgian Encyclopedia. Vol. IX. Tbilisi, Georgia: 1985.
  5. ^ "Georgia: Love Your Country, Love Your Chokha". EurasiaNet.org. 2011-02-20. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  6. ^ "BBC News - Close-Up: Why Georgia's national costume is back in vogue". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-07-10. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  7. ^ "Chokha". georgiandaily.com. 2008-04-25. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  8. ^ Abashidze, Irakli. Ed. Georgian Encyclopedia. Vol. IX. Tbilisi, Georgia: 1985