Cholera vaccine

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Cholera vaccine
Vaccine description
TargetVibrio cholerae
Vaccine typeInactivated
Clinical data
Trade namesDukoral, Vaxchora, others
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A cholera vaccine is a vaccine that is effective at preventing cholera.[10] The currently recommended cholera vaccines are administered orally to elicit a protective local mucosal immune response in the gut, which was poorly achieved with the injectable vaccines that were used until the 1970s. The first effective oral cholera vaccine was Dukoral, developed in Sweden in the 1980s. For the first six months after vaccination it provides about 85 percent protection, which decreases to approximately 60 percent during the first two years.[10][11][12] When enough of the population is immunized, it may protect those who have not been immunized thereby increasing the total protective impact to more than 90 percent (known as herd immunity).[10]

The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends the use of three oral cholera vaccines – Dukoral, Shanchol and Euvichol-Plus – in combination with other measures among those at high risk for cholera.[10] Two vaccine doses with a 1-6 week interval are typically recommended.[10] The duration of protection is at least two years in adults and six months in children aged 1–5 years.[10] A live, attenuated single dose oral vaccine is available for those traveling to an area where cholera is common but is not WHO approved for public health use.[13][14][15]

The available types of oral vaccine are generally safe.[10] Mild abdominal pain or diarrhea may occur.[10] They are safe in pregnancy and in those with poor immune function.[10] They are licensed for use in more than 60 countries.[10] In countries where the disease is common, the vaccine appears to be cost effective.[10]

The first cholera vaccines were developed in the late 19th century.[16] They were the first widely used vaccine that was made in a laboratory but were largely abandoned in the 1970s due to their then documented reactogenicity and poor efficacy .[16]

Oral cholera vaccines were first introduced in the 1990s.[10] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[17][18]

Medical use[edit]

In the late twentieth century, oral cholera vaccines started to be used on a massive scale, with millions of vaccinations taking place, as a tool to control cholera outbreaks in addition to the traditional interventions of improving safe water supplies, sanitation, handwashing, and other means of improving hygiene.[19] The Dukoral vaccine, which combines formalin- and heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae O1 and a recombinant cholera toxin B subunit, was licensed in 1991 and has been used widely, mainly for travellers.[10] The Shanchol bivalent vaccine, which combines the O1 and O139 serogroups, was originally developed in Vietnam under the name mORCVAX in 1997 and given in 20 million doses in Vietnam´s public health programme during the following decade through targeted mass vaccination of school-aged children in cholera endemic regions.[10]

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends both preventive and reactive use of the vaccine, making the following key statements:[20]

WHO recommends that current available cholera vaccines be used as complements to traditional control and preventive measures in areas where the disease is endemic and should be considered in areas at risk for outbreaks. Vaccination should not disrupt the provision of other high priority health interventions to control or prevent cholera outbreaks.... Reactive vaccination might be considered in view of limiting the extent of large prolonged outbreaks, provided the local infrastructure allows it, and an in-depth analysis of past cholera data and identification of a defined target area have been performed.

Although the vaccine specific protection observed, 60–70 percent, has been described as "moderate", herd immunity can multiply the effectiveness of vaccination. Dukoral has been licensed for children two years of age and older, Shanchol and Euvichol-Plus for children one year of age and older. The administration of the vaccine to adults confers additional indirect protection (herd immunity) also to children.

The WHO as of 2013 established a revolving stockpile, initially of only two million oral cholera vaccine doses.[21] With donations from mainly the GAVI Alliance the stockpile has progressively expanded to now more than 40 million doses per year.[22][23] It consists mainly of the Euvichol-Plus oral cholera vaccine being produced in South Korea. In total more than 150 million doses from the stockpile have been given in mass campaigns against both epidemic and endemic cholera in more than 25 cholera afflicted countries. A set goal of WHO´s Global Task Force for Cholera Control (GTFCC) is, by using oral cholera vaccine and other available tools, by 2030 to have reduced cholera deaths by more than 90% and stopped transmission globally.  

Oral[edit]

Dukoral: vial of inactivated vaccine with packet of sodium bicarbonate buffer

The oral vaccines are generally of two forms: inactivated and attenuated.[citation needed]

The first developed effective oral cholera vaccine, Dukoral, is a monovalent inactivated vaccine containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 plus additional recombinant cholera toxin B subunit. Bacterial strains of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes and of El Tor and Classical biotypes are included in the vaccine. Dukoral is taken orally with bicarbonate buffer, which protects the antigens from the gastric acid. The vaccine acts by inducing antibodies against both the bacterial components and CTB. The antibacterial intestinal antibodies prevent the bacteria from attaching to the intestinal wall, thereby impeding colonisation of V. cholerae O1. The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, thereby preventing the toxin-mediated diarrhoeal symptoms.[24]

The two later inactivated oral cholera vaccines recommended by WHO, Shanchol and Euvichol-Plus, have an identical composition, containing killed whole cells of V. cholerae O1 (the same components as in Dukoral) plus formalin-killed V. cholerae O139 bacteria.[citation needed]

A live, attenuated oral vaccine (CVD 103-HgR or Vaxchora), derived from a serogroup O1 classical Inaba strain, was approved for use in travellers by the US FDA in 2016.[13][25][14]

Injectable[edit]

Although rarely in use, the injected cholera vaccines can be effective for people living where cholera is common. While being ineffective in young children, in such areas they can offer some degree of protection in adults and older children for up to six months.[11]

Side effects[edit]

Both of the available types of oral vaccine are generally safe.[10] Mild abdominal pain or diarrhea may occur.[10] They are safe in pregnancy and in those with poor immune function.[10] They are licensed for use in more than 60 countries.[10] In countries where the disease is common, the vaccine appears to be cost effective.[10]

History of development[edit]

Cholera vaccinations by a Guinean nurse using a jet injector in Ziguinchor, Senegal, 1973

The first cholera vaccines were developed in the late 19th century. There were several pioneers in the development of the vaccine:

  • The first known attempt at a cholera vaccine was made by Louis Pasteur and it was aimed at preventing cholera in chickens.[26] This was the first widely used vaccine that was made in a laboratory.[16] Later use showed this early cholera vaccine to be ineffective.[27]
  • In 1884, Spanish physician Jaume Ferran i Clua developed a live vaccine he had isolated from cholera patients in Marseilles, and used it that on over 30,000 individuals in Valencia during that year's epidemic. However, his vaccine and inoculation was rather controversial and was rejected by his peers and several investigation commissions,[28] but it ended up demonstrating its effectiveness and being recognized for it.[29]
  • In 1892, Waldemar Haffkine developed an effective vaccine with less severe side effects, later testing it on more than 40,000 people in the Calcutta area from 1893 to 1896.[30] His vaccine was accepted by the medical community, and is credited as the first effective human cholera vaccine.[28][31][32][33]
  • Finally, in 1896, Wilhelm Kolle introduced a heat-killed vaccine that was significantly easier to prepare than Haffkine's, using it on a large scale in Japan in 1902.[34]

Oral cholera vaccines were first introduced in the 1990s.[10]

Society and culture[edit]

Legal status[edit]

In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Vaxchora,[15][14][25] a single-dose oral vaccine to prevent cholera for travelers. As of June 2016, Vaxchora was the only FDA-approved vaccine for the prevention of cholera.[25]

Economics[edit]

The cost to immunize against cholera is between US$0.10 and US$4.00 per vaccination.[35]

The Vaxchora vaccine can cost more than US$250.[36]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Vaxchora APMDS". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). 18 September 2023. Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  2. ^ "Summary for ARTG Entry:94483 Dukoral oral inactivated cholera vaccine liquid vial and buffer granules sachet". Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  3. ^ "Dukoral Product information". Health Canada. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  4. ^ "Dukoral suspension and effervescent granules for oral suspension, Cholera vaccine (inactivated, oral) – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)". (emc). 7 December 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  5. ^ "Vaxchora – cholera vaccine, live, oral kit". DailyMed. 24 October 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  6. ^ "Vaxchora – cholera vaccine, live, oral kit". DailyMed. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  7. ^ "Eukoral EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 17 September 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  8. ^ "Vaxchora EPAR". European Medicines Agency (EMA). 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
  9. ^ "Vaxchora Product information". Union Register of medicinal products. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper – August 2017". Weekly Epidemiological Record. 92 (34): 477–498. August 2017. hdl:10665/258764. PMID 28845659.
  11. ^ a b Graves PM, Deeks JJ, Demicheli V, Jefferson T (August 2010). "Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2019 (8): CD000974. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000974.pub2. PMC 6532721. PMID 20687062.
  12. ^ Sinclair D, Abba K, Zaman K, Qadri F, Graves PM (March 2011). "Oral vaccines for preventing cholera". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2011 (3): CD008603. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008603.pub2. PMC 6532691. PMID 21412922.
  13. ^ a b "Vaxchora (Cholera vaccine, Live, Oral)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 15 March 2017.
  14. ^ a b c "Vaxchora approval letter" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 10 June 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2017. Retrieved 30 July 2020. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  15. ^ a b "Vaxchora". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 1 September 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
  16. ^ a b c Stanberry LR (2009). Vaccines for biodefense and emerging and neglected diseases (1st ed.). Amsterdam: Academic. p. 870. ISBN 978-0-08-091902-7. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  17. ^ Organization WH (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  18. ^ Organization WH (2021). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 22nd list (2021). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/345533. WHO/MHP/HPS/EML/2021.02.
  19. ^ Harris JB, LaRocque RC, Qadri F, Ryan ET, Calderwood SB (June 2012). "Cholera". Lancet. 379 (9835): 2466–2476. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60436-x. PMC 3761070. PMID 22748592.
  20. ^ Oral cholera vaccines in mass immunization campaigns: guidance for planning and use (PDF). World Health Organization. 2010. ISBN 978-92-4-150043-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 September 2014.
  21. ^ "Oral cholera vaccine stockpile". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  22. ^ "WHO Doubles Global Supply of Cholera Vaccine". NBC News. 8 January 2016. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2016.
  23. ^ "GAVI Board Approves Support to Expand Oral Cholera Vaccine Stockpile". The Task Force on Global Health. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  24. ^ "Dukoral Canadian Product Monograph Part III: Consumer Information" (PDF). Dukoral. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2013.
  25. ^ a b c "FDA approves vaccine to prevent cholera for travelers" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 10 June 2016. Archived from the original on 18 December 2016. Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  26. ^ Barranco C (28 September 2020). "The first live attenuated vaccines". Nature Research.
  27. ^ Dorsey TA, Harshfield GS (May 1959). "Studies on Control of Fowl Cholera". Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletins (1939–2011).
  28. ^ a b Bornside GH (December 1982). "Waldemar Haffkine's cholera vaccines and the Ferran-Haffkine priority dispute". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. 37 (4): 399–422. doi:10.1093/jhmas/XXXVII.4.399. PMID 6759570.
  29. ^ Lopez AL, Gonzales ML, Aldaba JG, Nair GB (September 2014). "Killed oral cholera vaccines: history, development and implementation challenges". Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines and Immunotherapy. 2 (5): 123–148. doi:10.1177/2051013614537819. PMC 4144262. PMID 25177492.
  30. ^ Hanhart J (2017). Un illustre inconnu. Une biographie du docteur Waldemar Mordekhaï Haffkine [An illustrious stranger. A biography of Doctor Waldemar Mordechaï Haffkine] (in French). Paris: Lichma. ISBN 978-2-912553-84-3.
  31. ^ Bornside GH (1981). "Jaime Ferran and preventive inoculation against cholera". Bulletin of the History of Medicine. 55 (4): 516–532. JSTOR 44441415. PMID 7039738.
  32. ^ Hawgood BJ (February 2007). "Waldemar Mordecai Haffkine, CIE (1860–1930): prophylactic vaccination against cholera and bubonic plague in British India". Journal of Medical Biography. 15 (1): 9–19. doi:10.1258/j.jmb.2007.05-59. PMID 17356724. S2CID 42075270.
  33. ^ "Waldemar Haffkine: The vaccine pioneer the world forgot". BBC News. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  34. ^ Artenstein AW (2009). Vaccines: A Biography (1 ed.). New York City: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 89–92. ISBN 978-0-08-091902-7. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017.
  35. ^ Martin S, Lopez AL, Bellos A, Deen J, Ali M, Alberti K, et al. (December 2014). "Post-licensure deployment of oral cholera vaccines: a systematic review". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 92 (12): 881–93. doi:10.2471/blt.14.139949. PMC 4264394. PMID 25552772.
  36. ^ "New Cholera Vaccine for Adult Travelers". Medscape. 17 April 2017. Archived from the original on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 20 August 2017. This vaccine can cost more than $250, and travelers may have to pay out of pocket if their insurance does not cover travel vaccines

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