Chondrocalcinosis

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Chondrocalcinosis
Chondrocalcinosis - annotated.jpg
X-ray of a knee with chondrocalcinosis
SpecialtyRadiology

Chondrocalcinosis or cartilage calcification is calcification (accumulation of calcium salts) in hyaline and/or fibrocartilage.[1] It can be seen on radiography.

Causes[edit]

Buildup of calcium phosphate in the ankle joints has been found in about 50% of the general population, and may be associated with osteoarthritis.[2]

Another common cause of chondrocalcinosis is calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD).[3] CPPD is estimated to affect 4% to 7% of the adult populations of Europe and the United States.[4] Previous studies have overestimated the prevalence by simply estimating the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis regardless of cause.[4]

Hypomagnesemia may cause chondrocalcinosis, and magnesium supplementation may reduce or alleviate symptoms.[5] In some cases, arthritis from injury can cause chondrocalcinosis.[6] Other causes of chondrocalcinosis include:[3]

Diagnosis[edit]

Chondrocalcinosis can be visualized on projectional radiography, CT scan, MRI, US, and nuclear medicine.[1] CT scans and MRIs show calcific masses (usually within the ligamentum flavum or joint capsule), however radiography is more successful.[1] At ultrasound, chondrocalcinosis may be depicted as echogenic foci with no acoustic shadow within the hyaline cartilage.[7] As with most conditions, chondrocalcinosis can present with similarity to other diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and gout.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Rothschild, Bruce M Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease (radiology)
  2. ^ Hubert, Jan; Weiser, Lukas; Hischke, Sandra; Uhlig, Annemarie; Rolvien, Tim; Schmidt, Tobias; Butscheidt, Sebastian Karl; Püschel, Klaus; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Beil, Frank Timo; Hawellek, Thelonius (2018). "Cartilage calcification of the ankle joint is associated with osteoarthritis in the general population". BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 19 (1). doi:10.1186/s12891-018-2094-7. ISSN 1471-2474. PMC 5968601.
  3. ^ a b Matt A. Morgan; Frank Gaillard; et al. "Chondrocalcinosis". Radiopedia. Retrieved 2017-08-11.
  4. ^ a b Ann K. Rosenthal. "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition (CPPD) disease". UpToDate. This topic last updated: Jul 24, 2018.
  5. ^ de Filippi JP, Diderich PP, Wouters JM (1992). "Hypomagnesemia and chondrocalcinosis". Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 136 (20): 139–41. PMID 1732847.
  6. ^ Wright GD, Doherty M (1997). "Calcium pyrophosphate crystal deposition is not always 'wear and tear' or aging". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 56 (10): 586–8. doi:10.1136/ard.56.10.586. PMC 1752269. PMID 9389218.
  7. ^ Arend CF. Ultrasound of the Shoulder. Master Medical Books, 2013. Free chapter on acromioclavicular chondrocalcinosis is available at ShoulderUS.com