|X-ray of a knee with chondrocalcinosis|
Another common cause of chondrocalcinosis is calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease (CPPD). CPPD is estimated to affect 4–7% of the adult populations of Europe and the United States. Previous studies have overestimated the prevalence by simply estimating the prevalence of chondrocalcinosis regardless of cause.
A magnesium deficiency may cause chondrocalcinosis, and there is anecdotal evidence that magnesium supplementation may reduce or alleviate symptoms. In some cases, arthritis from injury can cause chondrocalcinosis. Other causes of chondrocalcinosis include:
- Hypercalcaemia, especially when caused by hyperparathyroidism
- Wilson disease
- Gitelman syndrome
Chondrocalcinosis can be visualized on projectional radiography, CT scan, MRI, ultrasound, and nuclear medicine. CT scans and MRIs show calcific masses (usually within the ligamentum flavum or joint capsule), however radiography is more successful. At ultrasound, chondrocalcinosis may be depicted as echogenic foci with no acoustic shadow within the hyaline cartilage. As with most conditions, chondrocalcinosis can present with similarity to other diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis and gout.
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- Arend CF. Ultrasound of the Shoulder. Master Medical Books, 2013. Free chapter on acromioclavicular chondrocalcinosis is available at ShoulderUS.com