|• Revised Romanization||Cheongjin-si|
Downtown Chongjin in September 2011, as seen from the city's monument of Kim Il-sung.
City of Iron
Map of North Hamgyong showing the location of Chongjin
|Administrative divisions||7 kuyok|
|• Total||269 km2 (104 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+9 (Pyongyang Time)|
Chŏngjin (Korean pronunciation: [tsʰʌŋ.dʑin]; Korean: 청진시; MR: Ch'ŏngjin-si) is the capital of North Korea's North Hamgyong Province (함경북도) and the country's third largest city. It is sometimes called the City of Iron.
This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. (February 2021)
Chongjin was a small fishing village prior to the Japanese annexation of Korea; its date of establishment is unknown. The Chinese characters for its name mean 'clear river crossing'. During the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905, Japanese forces landed at Chongjin and established a supply base due to its proximity to the front lines in Manchuria. The Japanese remained after the end of the war, and in 1908, declared the city an open trading port both for the transport of Korean resources and as a stopping point for resources from China. The city was known during this period as “Seishin”, after the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese characters for its name. The Imperial Japanese Army’s 19th Division was headquartered in Ranam from 1918, where the Japanese built a new planned city based on a rectangular street grid. In 1930, Nippon Steel built a large steel mill, the Seishin Iron and Steel Works, in the town. Ranam was annexed to Chongjin in 1940, which was elevated to city status. The city was overrun after a brief resistance by the Soviet Union on 13 August 1945, only two days before the end of World War II. Under the rule of North Korea, Chongjin remained an important military and industrial centre. It was directly administered by the central government from 1960-1967 and from 1977-1988.
During the North Korean famine of the 1990s, Chongjin was one of the worst affected locations in the country; death rates may have been as high as 20 %. Conditions there remain poor in terms of food availability. This problem has caused several instances of civil unrest in Chongjin, a rarity in North Korea. On 4 March 2008, a crowd of women merchants protested in response to tightened market controls. Rising grain prices and government attempts to prohibit "peddling in the market" have been cited as causes for the protests. As a result of the protest, the Chongjin local government "posted a proclamation allowing peddling in the market." On 24 August 2008, a clash occurred between foot patrol agents and female merchants, which escalated into a "massive protest rally". It was reported that the Chongjin local government-issued verbal instructions relaxing the enforcement activity until the time of the next grain ration.
From 1948 to 1960, 1967 to 1977, and 1987 to present, Ch'ŏngjin was governed as a part of North Hamgyong Province. From 1960 until 1967, and again from 1977 to 1987, Chongjin was administered as a directly governed city.
Ch'ŏngjin is divided into 7 wards (구역, kuyŏk, Korean pronunciation: [kujʌk]).
- Ch'ŏngam-guyŏk (청암구역, [tɕʰʌŋam ɡujʌk])[dubious ]
- P'ohang-guyŏk (포항구역, [pʰohaŋ ɡujʌk])
- Puyun-guyŏk (부윤구역, [pujun ɡujʌk])
- Ranam-guyŏk (라남구역, [ɾanam ɡujʌk])
- Sinam-guyŏk (신암구역, [ɕʰinam ɡujʌk])
- Songp'yŏng-guyŏk (송평구역, [sʰoŋpʰjʌŋ ɡujʌk])
- Sunam-guyŏk (수남구역, [sʰunam ɡujʌk])
Chongjin is located in the northeast of North Korea, in North Hamgyong Province, near the East Korea Bay (Kyŏngsŏng Bay) in the Sea of Japan. The Susong River (수성천) runs through the city; contained in the city are the Sodu Stream (서두수) and Mount Komal (고말산).
|Climate data for Chongjin (1981–2010)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−9.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||4.3||3.5||3.6||4.5||9.3||11.0||13.1||10.0||6.4||3.6||4.1||4.9||78.3|
|Average snowy days||8.2||5.9||4.2||1.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.2||3.1||7.6||30.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||62.0||63.4||64.6||67.0||75.0||83.1||87.5||84.3||75.9||66.4||62.9||62.0||71.2|
|Source: Korea Meteorological Administration|
Chongjin is one of the DPRK's important steel and fiber industry centers. It has a shipyard, a locomotive plant, and a rubber factory. Near the port area are the Chongjin Steel Co., Chemical Textile Co., May 10 Coal Mine Machinery Factory, and Kimchaek Iron & Steel (which was called Nippon Steel during the Japanese occupation); however industrial activities in the city have been severely handicapped due to a lack of resources. Despite this, however, Chongjin is estimated to have a 24 percent share of the DPRK's foreign trade and is home to a resident Chinese consul who serves Chinese merchants and businesspersons operating in the northeast of the country. Chongjin also contains Sunam Market, an example of market economics in North Korea.
Because of the heavy concentration of industries in the area, Chongjin is also the DPRK's air pollution black spot. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent shortage of oil to generate electricity, many factories have been shuttered. One of the first senior U.N. officials permitted to visit the area, Tun Myat, observed in 1997 when the North Korea economic crisis reached its peak, "Chongjin was like a forest of scrap metal, with huge plants that seem to go on for miles and miles that have been turned into rust buckets. I've been all over the world, and I've never seen anything quite like this."
Chongjin Bus Factory, established in 1981, supplies a large number of buses and trolleybuses to Chongjin. It also builds the trams used within Chongjin, including one articulated tram. In recent years, the factory has built more trolleybuses that visually resemble the Chollima-321 of the Trolleybuses in Pyongyang.
- Chosun Clothing Factory – makes Vinalon cloth into uniforms
- North Hangyong Provincial Broadcasting Company
- Majon Deer Company – makes medicine from deer antlers
- Second Metal Construction Company
- Onpho Hot Springs – the alkaline waters are reserved for party officials and guarded by the military
- Soenggiryong mines – kaolin mine
The area has little arable land, so the famine in the 1990s hit the residents of Chongjin particularly hard. During the late 1990s, the city's residents experienced some of the highest death rates from famine, which might have been as high as 20 percent of the population. By 1995, the local frog population was wiped out due to overhunting.
- In Chongjin political prison camp (Kwan-li-so No. 25), a large prison complex in Susong-dong (northern part of Chongjin), more than 3,000 political prisoners are forced to manufacture bicycles and other consumer goods.
- Chongori reeducation camp (Kyo-hwa-so No. 12) is located halfway between Chongjin and Hoeryong.
- The Nongpo Detention Center, which was built during the Japanese occupation, is still in use but under new management.
Chongjin's port has established itself as a critical component of busy international shipping trade with neighbouring parts of Northeast and Southeast Asia. Of DPRK's eight international shipping ports, Chongjin is thought to be the second most economically important (after Nampho port on the west coast) and serves as a base of trade to Russia and Japan. Chongjin also boasts a seamen's club which serves to cater for foreign crews as well as a meeting base for North Koreans and foreigners engaged in the shipping trade.
The People's Republic of China and Russia have set up their consulates in Chongjin. It is unique for a North Korean city to have a foreign consulate. Chongjin is the administrative centre of the North Hamgyong Province.
Orang Airport located in Orang County 40 kilometres from Chongjin is equipped with a 2,500 m (8,200 ft) runway on military and civilian dual purpose air station (CHO). North Korea planned to upgrade an old airport near Hamhung as late as 2003, so that it would have a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) runway, and would act as the nation's second international airport. However, it is still not completed.
Chongjin Tram is the only city in North Korea other than Pyongyang to operate a tram system. These trains are all locally manufactured. It consists of one line built in two phases, phase 1, 6 km (3.7 mi), and phase 2, 7 km (4.3 mi). It has a turning loop in Pongchon and Namchongjin, with the depot located in Sabong.
A trolleybus system also operates with 3 lines.
The main road through the city, called Road No. 1, is a six lane highway.
Universities and colleges
There are several state-run higher educational facilities located here, such as:
- Chongjin University of Technology
- Chongjin Mine University
- Chongjin University of Education No. 1 (Oh Jungheup University)
- University of Education No. 2
- Hambuk University It used to be called Hambuk Agricultural University formerly until 1993.
- Chongjin University of Medicine
- Chongjin College of Light Industry
- Chongjin College of Metal Engineering
- Chongjin College of Automation Engineering
Schools for gifted and talented students include:
- Chongjin No.1 Senior Middle School: One of science high schools for gifted students in North Korea.
- Chongjin School of Foreign Languages
- Chongjin School of Arts
There is an aquatic product research center. Famous scenic sites include hot springs and Mt. Chilbo. Chongjin's most famous product is processed squid. The city is home to the football team, the Ch'ŏngjin Chandongcha.
Other cultural locations
- North Hamgyong Province Theater
- Chonmasan Hotel for foreign visitors to stay at, built to convey the power of the government over the individual; in 1997, a French aid worker from Action contre la Faim was allowed to stay there but was not let out of the hotel to observe the famine conditions.
- Pohanng Square has a 25-foot bronze statue and the Revolutionary History Museum
- Inmin Daehakseup Dang (Grand People's Study House)
Chongjin has two sister cities:
Notable people from Chongjin
- An Song-il, North Korean Soccer player
- Jang Song-thaek, North Korean politician and uncle of Kim Jong-un, current leader of North Korea
- Kim Swoo-geun, South Korean architect
- Kim Yik-yung, South Korean ceramic artist
- Pak Chang-sik, North Korean politician
- Ri Ul-sol, North Korean Marshal and politician
- Shin Sang-ok, South Korean film producer and director
North Hamgyong Provincial Office during the Japanese colonial era.
- Demick, Barbara (2010). Nothing to Envy: Real Lives in North Korea (UK ed.). London: Granta Publications. ISBN 978-1-84708-141-4.
- "Woolverton Inn - Ceremony - North Korea's Geography & Major cities - A Map viewing major cities and the capital of North Korea. Highlighting important geographical locations and points of interest. One in particular being the 38th parallel". www.communitywalk.com.
- Good Friends, “North Korea Today,” No. 113 (Mar. 14, 2008)
- 행정구역 개편 일지. The Chosun Ilbo (in Korean). 2006-04-05. Archived from the original on 2006-11-02. Retrieved 2006-11-02.
- "Chongjin". Encyclopaeida Britannica. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
- "30 years report of Meteorological Observations in North Korea" (in Korean). Korea Meteorological Administration. pp. 232–281. Archived from the original on 21 December 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
- Smith, Hazel (2009).North Korean Shipping:A Potential for WMD Proliferation?, Asia Pacific Issues. No. 87. Retrieved on 2010-12-28.
- Kim, Jieun (June 9, 2017). "North Korea Party Officials Monopolize Local Market Stands". Radio Free Asia.
The source referred to thriving Sunam Market in North Hamgyong’s capital Chongjin—North Korea’s third-largest city—where profits from running a stand can generate profits “as high as those earned by foreign currency-generating organizations.”
- Demick, Barbara. "Deprivation Spurs Change in N. Korea". The Seoul Times. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
- "북한지역정보넷". www.cybernk.net. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
- "Chongjin, Tramway — Roster". transphoto.org. Retrieved 2021-02-02.
- "Rodong Sinmun".
- Demick, Barbara (2010). Nothing to Envy: Real Lives in North Korea (UK ed.). London: Granta Publications. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-84708-141-4.
- "KINU White paper on human rights in North Korea 2009 (Chapter G. Human Rights Violations Inside Political Concentration Camps (Kwanliso), page 125)" (PDF).
- Asia Trade Hub, http://www.asiatradehub.com/n.korea/ports.asp Archived 2016-03-29 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Photo: Chongjin — Maps". transphoto.org. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
- "Chongjin". transphoto.org. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
- "Chongjin（D.P.R.K.）". Changchun Municipal People's Government. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- "Chongjin（D.P.R.K.）". People's Government of Jilin. 12 April 2011. Archived from the original on 23 October 2017. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chongjin.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chongjin.|
Largest cities or towns in North Korea
|Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.||Rank||Name||Administrative division||Pop.|
|1||Pyongyang||Pyongyang Capital City||3,255,288||11||Sunchon||South Pyongan||297,317|
|2||Hamhung||South Hamgyong||768,551||12||Pyongsong||South Pyongan||284,386|
|3||Chongjin||North Hamgyong||667,929||13||Haeju||South Hwanghae||273,300|
|4||Nampo||South Pyongan Province||366,815||14||Kanggye||Chagang||251,971|
|6||Sinuiju||North Pyongan||359,341||16||Tokchon||South Pyongan||237,133|
|7||Tanchon||South Hamgyong||345,875||17||Kimchaek||North Hamgyong||207,299|
|8||Kaechon||South Pyongan||319,554||18||Rason||Rason Special Economic Zone||196,954|
|9||Kaesong||North Hwanghae||308,440||19||Kusong||North Pyongan||196,515|