Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Settled||c. 316 BC|
21 districts, 17 counties
1259 towns, townships, and subdistricts
|• CPC Secretary||Sun Zhengcai|
|• Mayor||Huang Qifan|
|• Congress Chairman||Zhang Xuan|
|• Conference Chairman||Xu Jingye|
|• Municipality||82,403 km2 (31,816 sq mi)|
|• Urban||5,472.8 km2 (2,113.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||237 m (778 ft)|
|• Density||360/km2 (940/sq mi)|
|• Metro (2010)||17,000,000|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Postal code||4000 00 - 4099 00|
|- Total||CNY 1.427 trillion
US$ 232.22 billion (23rd)
|- Per capita||CNY 48,233
US$ 7,852 (13th)
|HDI (2010)||0.689 (17th) — medium|
|Licence plate prefixes||渝 A, B, C, F, G, H|
|City tree||Ficus lacor|
"Chongqing" in Simplified Chinese
|Hanyu Pinyin||Chóngqìng ([ʈʂʰǔŋtɕʰjə̂ŋ])
|Sichuanese Pinyin||Cong2qin4 ([tsʰoŋ˨˩tɕʰin˨˩˦])|
|Literal meaning||"Double celebration"|
Chongqing (Chinese: 重庆, [ʈʂʰǔŋ tɕʰjə̂ŋ]; formerly Chungking[a]) is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities in China. Administratively, it is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and the only such municipality in inland China.
The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the sub-provincial city administration that was part of Sichuan Province. As of 2010 census, the municipality had a population of 28,846,170. According to this census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality, although the urbanized area is estimated to have a population of only 6 or 7 million, whereas the built-up area made up of 8 out of 9 urban districts (all but Beibei not yet built-up) was home to 6,777,229 inhabitants at the 2010 census. Chongqing is the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, and comprises 21 districts, 13 counties, and 4 autonomous counties.
The official abbreviation of the city, 渝 (Yú), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997. This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River. Chongqing was also a municipality of the Republic of China (ROC) administration, serving as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
Chongqing has a significant history and culture and serves as the economic centre of the upstream Yangtze basin. It is a major manufacturing centre and transportation hub; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megacities".
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Central Chongqing
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Politics and military
- 7 Economy
- 8 Transport
- 9 Culture
- 10 Education
- 11 International relations
- 12 See also
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 Sources
- 16 External links
Tradition associates Chongqing with the State of Ba. The Ba people supposedly established Chongqing during the Spring and Autumn period after moving from their first capital Yicheng (夷城) in Hubei under pressure from Chu. This new capital was first named Jiangzhou (江州). In 316 BC, however, the state of Ba was conquered by the State of Qin.
Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Southern and Northern Dynasties to Chu Prefecture (楚州), then in 581 AD (Sui Dynasty) to Yu Prefecture (渝州), and later in 1102 during Northern Song to Gong Prefecture (恭州). The name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, and the city centre where the old town stood is also called Yuzhong (Central Yu). It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song Dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese: 双重喜庆; traditional Chinese: 雙重喜慶; pinyin: shuāngchóng xǐqìng, or chongqing in short). In his honour, Yu Prefecture was therefore renamed Chongqing subprefecture marking the occasion of his enthronement.
In 1362, (Yuan Dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebelling leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time. In 1621 (Ming Dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital. In 1644, after the fall of the Ming Dynasty to rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province. The Manchus later conquered the province, and during the Qing Dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of Qing emperor.
In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing. The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners. The French, German, US and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing in 1896-1904.
Provisional capital of the Republic of China
During the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. After Britain, the USA, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941 one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked closely with Stilwell. The Japanese Air Force heavily bombed it. Due to its mountainous environment, many people were saved from the bombing. Due to the bravery, contributions and sacrifices made by the local people during World War II, Chongqing became known as the City of Heroes. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China to Chongqing during the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949 the Nationalist KMT government fled the city.
On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the Sub-provincial city with the neighbouring Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single division became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on the 18 June 1997. On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the five National Central/Core cities, the other four are Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Tianjin. On 18 June 2010, Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which is the third State-level new areas at the time of its establishment.
Organised crime and the gang trials
In the first decade of the 21st century, the city became notorious for organised crime and corruption. Gangsters oversaw businesses involving billions of yuan and the corruption reached into the law-enforcement and justice systems. In 2009, city authorities under the auspices of municipal Communist Party secretary Bo Xilai undertook a large-scale crackdown, arresting 4,893 suspected gangsters, "outlaws" and corrupt cadres, leading to optimism that the period of gangsterism was over. However, local media later highlighted the apparent reliance by the authorities on torture to extract confessions upon which convictions were based. In December 2009, one defence lawyer was controversially arrested and sentenced to 18 months in prison for "coaching his client to make false claims of torture" and in July 2010, another lawyer released videotapes of his client describing the torture in detail. In 2014, four policemen involved in the interrogation were charged with the practice of "opposed illegal interrogation techniques", considered by observers to be torture.
Physical geography and topography
- Geographic coordinates
- latitude 28° 10' to 32° 13' N, longitude 105° 17' to 110° 11' E.
- Neighbouring provinces
- Hubei (east), Hunan (southeast), Guizhou (south), Sichuan (west), Shaanxi (north)
Chongqing is situated at the transitional area between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons. It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poets throughout Chinese history. The municipality reaches a maximum width of 470 kilometres (290 mi) from east to west, and a maximum length of 450 km (280 mi) from north to south. It borders the following provinces: Hubei in the east, Hunan in the southeast, Guizhou in the south, Sichuan in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner.
Chongqing covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Daba Mountains stand in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains in the south. The whole area slopes down from north and south towards the Yangtze River valley, with sharp rises and falls. The area is featured by mountain and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights. Typical karst landscape is common in this area, and stone forests, numerous collections of peaks, limestone caves and valleys can be found in many places. The Yangtze River runs through the whole area from west to east, covering a course of 665 km (413 mi), cutting through the Wu Mountains at three places and forming the well-known Three Gorges: the Qutang, the Wuxia and the Xiling gorges. Coming from northwest and running through "the Jialing Lesser Three Gorges" of Libi, Wentang and Guanyin, the Jialing River joins the Yangtze in Chongqing.
The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers". The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special topographical features, Chongqing has the unique scenery of mountains, rivers, forests, springs, waterfalls, gorges, and caves. Li Bai, a famous poet of the Tang Dynasty, was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram.
Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area (similar to the landscape of theAppalachian Mountains in the United States), and the Yuzhong District, Nan'an District, Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline. And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown.
All climatic data listed below comes from the central parts of the city.
- Annual average
- 18.24 °C (64.8 °F) 
- January average
- 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) 
- August average
- 28.5 °C (83.3 °F) 
- Historical Temperature range
- From −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006
- Total annual hours of sunshine
- Annual precipitation
- 1,104 millimetres (43.5 in)
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Chongqing has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), and for most of the year experiences very humid conditions. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area. Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of −2.5 °C (27 °F) was set on February 8, 1943) to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 15 August 2006 (unofficial record of 44.0 °C (111 °F) was set on August 8 and 9, 1933).
As exemplified by Youyang County below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.
|Climate data for Chongqing (Shapingba District, 1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||10.3
|Average low °C (°F)||6.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||19.5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||10.2||9.9||11.3||14.9||15.6||15.7||12.4||10.5||14.4||15.4||12.2||9.5||152.0|
|Average relative humidity (%)||83||80||76||77||78||80||76||73||80||84||84||85||79.7|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||27.3||34.1||67.4||98.0||108.5||109.7||180.1||196.0||102.4||62.5||43.1||25.8||1,054.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||8||11||18||25||26||26||42||48||28||18||13||8||24|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |
|Climate data for Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.5
|Average low °C (°F)||1.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||29.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||12.0||12.2||15.9||16.9||18.1||17.1||15.4||14.4||13.0||15.1||11.6||9.7||171.4|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77||77||79||80||81||83||82||81||81||82||79||76||79.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||42.5||37.4||47.6||83.3||102.7||101.4||155.9||171.7||112.3||88.7||68.7||64.4||1,076.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||13||12||13||22||25||24||37||42||31||25||21||20||24.3|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration|
Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year, is also known as the "Fog City" (雾都), and a thick layer of fog shrouds it for 68 days per year during the spring and autumn. "There is an old saying in China, probably two thousand years old, that 'a Szechuen dog barks at a sun,' because the sun so seldom appears,"  During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army.
According to the National Environmental Analysis released by Tsinghua University and the Asian Development Bank in January 2013, Chongqing is among one of the ten most air-polluted cities in the world. Also according to this report, seven of the ten most air-polluted cities are in China, including Taiyuan, Beijing, Urumqi, Lanzhou, Chongqing, Jinan and Shijiazhuang.
Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011), consisting of 23 districts, 11 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 square kilometres (30,900 sq mi), is rural.
|Pengshui Miao and Tujia||彭水苗族土家族自治县||Qianjiang|
|Xiushan Tujia and Miao||秀山土家族苗族自治县|
|Youyang Tujia and Miao||酉阳土家族苗族自治县|
a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.
- Yuzhong District (渝中区, or "Central Chongqing District"), the central and most densely populated district, where government and international business offices are located. It is located on the peninsula surrounded by E-ling Hill, Yangtze River and Jialing River.
- Jiangbei District (江北区), located in the north of Jialing River.
- Shapingba District (沙坪坝区), roughly located between Jialing River and Zhongliang Mountain.
- Jiulongpo District (九龙坡区), roughly located between Yangtze River and Zhongliang Mountain.
- Nan'an District (南岸区, or "Southern Bank District"), located in the south side of Yangtze River.
- Dadukou District (大渡口区)
- Banan District (巴南区, or "Southern Chongqing District"). Previously called Ba County, and changed to the current name in 1994. Its northern area merged into central Chongqing, and its capital town Yudong is a satellite city of Central Chongqing.
- Yubei District (渝北区, or "Northern Chongqing District"). Previously called Jiangbei County, and changed into the current name in 1994. Its southern area merged into Central Chongqing, and the capital town Lianglu Town is a satellite city of Central Chongqing.
- Beibei District (北碚区), a satellite city northwest of Central Chongqing.
- Bishan District (壁山区), a new satellite city west of Central Chongqing
Central Chongqing is in the eastern edge of Sichuan Basin. Yangtze River meets its major tributary stream, Jialing River, in Central Chongqing. The city is located on a big syncline valley. Two tributary ranges of Huaying Mountain (Zhongling Mountain and Tongluo Mountain) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Central Chongqing. The highest point in downtown is the top of E-ling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that keeps Yangtze River and Jialing River apart for some more kilometers. The elevation of E-ling Hill is 379 meters. The lowest point in Central Chongqing is Chaotian Gate, where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is 160 meters. The average height of Central Chongqing is 259 meters. In the near-suburban Chongqing, however, there are several high mountains. The highest one is called Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of 1709.4 meters.
With many bridges on Yangtze River and Jialing River in urban area, Central Chongqing is sometimes called the Capital of Bridge of China. The first major bridge built in urban Chongqing is the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge built in 1958. The first bridge on Yangtze River is the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.
Till 2014, within the range of Central Chongqing, there are 20 bridges on Yangtze River and 28 bridges on Jialing River. Bridges in Chongqing have various structures and shapes, making Chongqing a museum of bridges.
Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating. This tramway is 1,160 meters long, connecting the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River. The daily passenger volume is about 10,000.
|*Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.|
According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.
This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.
The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.
In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.
Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.
Politics and military
The politics of Chongqing is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in the People's Republic of China. The Mayor of Chongqing is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Chongqing. Since Chongqing is a centrally administered municipality, the mayor occupies the same level in the order of precedence as provincial governors. However, in the city's dual party-government governing system, the mayor has less power than the Chongqing Communist Party of China Municipal Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Chongqing CPC Party Chief".
Chongqing also has the distinction of having been the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese war, and, for a brief period, being the seat of administration for the Republic of China government before its departure to Taiwan. It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War hero Qiu Shaoyun.
Chongqing is headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that comprise the Chengdu Military Region responsible for the defence of China's southwestern borders with India and Myanmar, as well as security in Tibet.
Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right in March 1997 in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy). An important industrial area in western China, Chongqing is also rapidly urbanising. For instance, statistics suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 square metres (1.5 million square feet) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space. In addition, more than 1,300 people moved into the city daily, adding almost 100 million yuan (US$15 million) to the local economy.
Traditionally, due to its geographical remoteness, Chongqing and neighbouring Sichuan have been important military bases in weapons research and development. Chongqing's industries have now diversified but unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery and electronics are common.
Chongqing is China's third largest centre for motor vehicle production and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles. Leading makers of cars and motor bikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of the nine largest iron and steel centres in China and one of the three major aluminium producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company and South West Aluminium which is Asia's largest aluminium plant. Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves ≈ 4.8 billion tonnes. Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 - more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. although the mining sector has been criticised for being wasteful, heavily polluting and unsafe. Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan province before reaching Chongqing and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ). Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.
The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment. The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, will not only supply Chongqing with power once completed but also allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port. These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford, Mazda, HSBC, Standard Chartered Bank, Citibank, Deutsche Bank, ANZ Bank, Scotiabank, Wal-Mart, Metro AG and Carrefour, among other multinational corporations.
Chongqing's nominal GDP in 2011 reached 1001.1 billion yuan (US$158.9 billion) while registering an annual growth of 16.4%. However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind eastern coastal cities such as Shanghai. For instance, its per capita GDP was 22,909 yuan (US$3,301) which is below the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government support to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial centre and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.
Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.
Economic and technological development zones
The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:
- Chongqing Chemical Industrial Park
- Chongqing Economic & Technological Development Zone
- Chongqing Hi-Tech Industry Development Zone
- Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ)
- Chongqing Export Processing Zone
- Jianqiao Industrial Park (located in Dadukou District)
- Liangjiang New Area
- Liangjiang Cloud Computing Center (the largest of its kind in China)
Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China.
As of October 2014, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core. Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995.
Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing or even Shanghai. In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduce or been cancelled altogether, thus most of the river ferry traffic consists of mostly leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exists throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.
Major train stations in Chongqing:
- Chongqing Railway Station in Yuzhong, accessible via Metro Lines 1 & 3 (Lianglukou Metro Station), is the city's oldest railway station and located near the city centre. The station handles mostly long-distance trains. There are plans for a major renovation and overhaul of this station, thus many services have been transferred to Chongqing North Railway Station.
- Chongqing North Railway Station is a newly constructed station handling many long-distance services and high-speed rail services to Chengdu. It is connected to Metro Line 3.
- Chongqing West Railway Station, formerly called Shapingba Railway Station, in Shapingba, handles many local and regional train service. It is undergoing redevelopment.
Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.
Chongqing is a major rail hub nationally.
- Chengdu–Chongqing Railway to Chengdu
- Sichuan-Guizhou Railway to Guiyang
- Xiangyang–Chongqing Railway to Hubei
- Chongqing–Huaihua Railway to Hunan
- Chongqing-Suining Railway (Sichuan province) express railway
- Chongqing-Lichuan Railway to Hubei
- Chongqing–Lanzhou Railway (Gansu province) railway (under construction)
Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. Construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to neighbouring provinces. Several ring roads have also been constructed. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.
Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a large manufacturing centre for these types of vehicles.
- Chongqing-Chengdu Expressway
- Chongqing-Chengdu 2nd Expressway (under construction)
- Chongqing-Wanzhou-Yichang Highway (Wanzhou-Yichang section under construction)
- Chongqing-Guiyang Highway
- Chongqing-Changsha Expressway (Xiushan-Changsha section under construction)
- Chongqing-Dazhou-Xi'a Highway (Dazhou-Xi'an section under construction)
- Chongqing-Suining Expressway
- Chongqing-Nanchong Expressway
- China National Highway 210
- China National Highway 212
The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city-centre of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China. Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines and Hainan Airlines's new China West Air. Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has two parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Zadar, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome and Helsinki.
Currently, Jiangbei airport has two terminals: Terminal 1 (old original terminal) serving international flights; Terminal 2, larger building split into Halls A and B serving domestic flights. The first, second and third phase of the airport came into operation in January 1990, December 2004, and December 2010 respectively. The domestic terminal is capable of handling 30 million passengers while its international terminal is able to handle more than 1 million passengers annually. A third terminal that will more than double capacity of the airport is currently under construction along with a third runway.
Chongqing airport was the 10th busiest airport nationwide in 2010 measured by passenger traffic, handling 15,802,334 people. The airport was also the 11th busiest airport by cargo traffic and by traffic movements in China. During the first half of year 2011, Chongqing airport handled 8.87 million passengers, and surpassed Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport (8.48 million) to become the 9th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China.
Freight development has increased, especially in the export of high value electronics, such as laptop computers. It is envisaged that Chongqing can become the global leading exporter of these products by air, signs of this potential rise being the addition of cargo routes to Frankfurt, Sydney, Chicago, and New York City.
There are two other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport (IATA: JIQ, ICAO: ZUQJ) and Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport (IATA: WXN, ICAO: ZUWX). They are both class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to some domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming. Two more airports are being constructed soon: Wulong Xiannüshan Airport and Wushan Shennüfeng Airport.
According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with light rail (heavy monorail). By 2020 this network will consist of 6 straight lines and 1 circular line; Line 1 and Line 6 are underground subway while Lines 2 and 3 are High Capacity monorail. These improvements will add 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new train stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.
As of 2012[update], three metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a new heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown, have already opened. A new subway, Line 6, is currently in trials and is expected to open later in 2012.
By 2050, Chongqing was initially planning to have ten metro lines, totaling 513 km (319 mi), with 270 stations, although more recent reports have now indicated as many as 18 lines are planned to be in operation.
The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang. There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.
As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centres. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose. Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II general, the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II. It is where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang.
- The Baiheliang Underwater Museum, China's first underwater museum,
- The Memorial of Great Tunnel Massacre, a former air-raid shelter where a major massacre occurred during World War II.
- The Great Hall of the People in Chongqing is based on the Great Hall of the People in Beijing. This is one of the largest public assembly buildings in China which, though built in modern times, emulates traditional architectural styles. It is adjacent to the densely populated and hilly central district, with narrow streets and pedestrian only walkways,
- The large domed Three Gorges Museum presents the history, culture, and environment of the Three Gorges area and Chongqing.
- Chongqing Science and Technology Museum has an IMAX theatre.
- Luohan Si, a Ming Dynasty temple,
- Former sites for embassies of major countries during the 1940s. As the capital at that time, Chongqing had many residential and other buildings for these officials.
- Wuxi County, noted as a major tourism area of Chongqing,
- The Dazu Rock Carvings, in Dazu county, are a series of Chinese religious sculptures and carvings, dating back as far as the 7th century A.D., depicting and influenced by Buddhist, Confucian and Taoist beliefs. Listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Dazu Rock Carvings are made up of 75 protected sites containing some 50,000 statues, with over 100,000 Chinese characters forming inscriptions and epigraphs.,
- The Three Natural Bridges and Furong Cave in Wulong Karst National Geology Park, Wulong County are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of the South China Karst),
- Ciqikou is a 1000-year-old town in the Shapingba District of Chongqing. It is also known as "Little Chongqing". The town, located next to the lower reaches of the Jialing River, was at one time an important source of china-ware and used to be a busy commercial dock during the Ming and Qing Dynasties,
- Fishing Town or Fishing City, also called the “Oriental Mecca” and “the Place That Broke God's Whip”, is one of the three great ancient battlefields of China. It is noted for its resistance to the Mongol armies during the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279) and the location where the Mongol leader Möngke Khan died in 1259,
- Xueyu Cave in Fengdu County is the only example of a pure-white, jade-like karst cave in China,
- Fengdu Ghost City in Fengdu County is the Gate of the Hell in traditional Chinese literature and culture.
- Snowy Jade Cave, a cave in Fengdu County.
- Baidi Cheng, a peninsula in Yangtze River, known due to a famous poem by Li Bai.
- The Chongqing Zoo, a zoo that exhibits many rare species including the giant panda, the extremely rare South China tiger, and the African elephant. The zoo is also on the bank of the Yangtze, and the Three Gorges are visible from the zoo.
- Chongqing Grand Theatre, a performing arts centre.
- Foreigners' Street is an amusement park, including the Porcelain Palace, the world's largest toilet. Also the location of the abortive Love Land development in 2009.
- The Black Mountain Valley (Heishangu).
- The Jindao Valley.
- The Jinfo Mountain.
- Major hot-springs around the city.
- Gele Mountain and the Red Rocks, a memorial park for the 1949 Chinese revolution.
- Nanshan (Southern Mountain of Chongqing), or Tongluo Mountain academically. There are tons of places of interests in this mountain, including the Laojun Temple, the Wenfeng Pagoda, the Great Golden Eagle, the Tu Shan Temple, the Huangge Path, the former residential halls of Chiang Kai-shek, etc.
- Tu Shan (Mount. Tu), a part of Southern Mountain of Chongqing (Tongluo Mountain). It is believed to be the place where Da Yu, the founder of Xia Dynasty, met his wife Tushan Shi.
The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station. The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China. Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China. The Chongqing Daily is the largest newspaper group, controlling more than 10 newspapers and one news website.
Chongqing food is largely a hybrid of Sichuan cuisine and local specialty dishes. Chongqing's city centre has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions. Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:
- Hot pot - Chongqing's local culinary specialty. Tables in hotpot restaurants usually have a central vat, or pot, where food ordered by the customers is boiled in a spicy broth. As well as beef, pork, lotus and other vegetables, items such as pig's kidney, brain, duck's bowels and cow's stomach are often consumed.
- Jiangtuan fish - since Chongqing is located along Jialing River, visitors have a good opportunity to sample varieties of aquatic products. Among them, is a fish local to the region, Jiangtuan fish: Hypophthalmichthys nobilis although more commonly known as bighead carp. The fish is often served steamed or baked.
- Pork leg cooked with rock candy - A common household dish of the Chongqing people, the finished dish, known as red in colour and tender in taste, has been described as having strong and sweet aftertaste.
- Qianzhang (skimmed soy bean cream) - Qianzhang is the cream skimmed from soybean milk. In order to create, this several steps must be followed very carefully. First, soybeans are soaked in water, ground, strained, boiled, restrained several times and spread over gauze until delicate, snow-white cream is formed. The paste can also be hardened, cut into slivers and seasoned with sesame oil, garlic and chili oil. Another variation is to bake the cream and fry it with bacon, which is described as soft and sweet.
- Quanshui Chicken (Spring Water Chicken) - Quanshui Chicken is cooked with the natural spring water in the Southern Mountain of Chongqing.
Sports and recreation
Professional association football teams in Chongqing include:
Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese football club who currently plays in the Chinese Super LEague. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts. Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese football league system. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup, and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.
Chongqing FC was an association football club located in the city, and competed in China League One, the country's second-tier football division, before being relegated to the China League Two, and dissolving due to a resultant lack of funds.
Sport venues in Chongqing include:
- The Chongqing Olympic Sports Center is a multi-purpose stadium. It is currently used mostly for football matches, as it has a grass surface, and can hold 58,680. It was built in 2004.
- Yanghe Stadium is a multi-use stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 32,000 people, and is the home of Chongqing Lifan in the Chinese Super League. The stadium was purchased by the Lifan Group in 2001 for RMB80 million and immediately replaced Datianwan Stadium as the home of Chongqing Lifan.
- Datianwan Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium that is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium has a capacity 32,000 people, and up until 2001 was the home of Chongqing Lifan.
The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian.
The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, folk religious sects, and minorities of Muslims.
Colleges and universities
- Chongqing University (重庆大学)
- Southwest University (西南大学)
- Southwest University of Political Science and Law (西南政法大学)
- Third Military Medical University (第三军医大学)
- Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications (重庆邮电大学)
- Chongqing University of Technology (重庆理工大学)
- Chongqing Jiaotong University (重庆交通大学)
- Chongqing Medical University (重庆医科大学)
- Chongqing Normal University (重庆师范大学)
- Chongqing Technology and Business University (重庆工商大学)
- Chongqing Three Gorges University (重庆三峡学院)
- Chongqing Telecommunication Institute (重庆通讯学院)
- Chongqing University of Science and Technology (重庆科技学院)
- Sichuan Fine Arts Institute (四川美术学院)
- Sichuan International Studies University (四川外国语大学)
- University of Logistics (后勤工程学院)
- Chongqing University of Arts and Science (重庆文理学院)
- Yangtze Normal University (长江师范学院)
- Chongqing University of Education (重庆第二师范学院)
Notable high schools
- Bashu Secondary School (巴蜀中学)
- Chongqing No.1 Middle School (重庆第一中学)
- Chongqing Yucai Middle School (重庆市育才中学)
- Chongqing Nankai Secondary School (重庆南开中学)
- Foreign Languages School Attached to Sichuan International Studies University （重庆一外）
- Chongqing No.8 Middle School （重庆第八中学）
- Tongliang High School （铜梁中学）
- Verakin High School of Chongqing / Chongqing No.2 Foreign Languages School （重庆二外）
- Yew Chung International School of Chongqing (重庆耀中国际学校) 
- KL International School of Chongqing Bashu (重庆市诺林巴蜀外籍人员子女学校) 
|Canadian Consulate-General, Chongqing||05.1998||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan|
|British Consulate-General, Chongqing||03.2000||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan|
|Cambodian Consulate-General, Chongqing||12.2004||Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi|
|Japanese Consulate-General, Chongqing||01.2005||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi|
|Danish Consulate, Chongqing||07.2005||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan|
|Filipino Consulate-General, Chongqing||12.2008||Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan|
|Hungarian Consulate-General, Chongqing||02.2010||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu|
|Ethiopian Consulate-General, Chongqing||11.2011||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan|
|Italian Consulate-General, Chongqing||12.2013||Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan|
|Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing||01.2014||Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi|
Chongqing has sister city relationships with the following cities of the world.
- Major national historical and cultural sites in Chongqing
- List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population
- List of twin towns and sister cities in China
- Ch'ungk'ing, Ch'ung K'ing, Chongking, and other renderings are also found in older literature. The Beijing-based Standard Chinese pronunciation is rendered in Wade-Giles as Ch'ung-ch'ing, and in the latter 20th century this form was used officially in Taiwan and in Western academic literature.
- The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015) in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② the traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people believing and worshipping ancestral deities often organised into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (deity cults, Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, Islam, et. al.) was not reported by Wang.
- This may include:
- Greene, Scott. "Zhang Dejiang Profile". Chinadigitaltimes.net. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing's Mayor turns against Bo Xilai". Theepochtimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Doing Business in China - Survey". Ministry Of Commerce - People's Republic Of China. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- 2014年重庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Chongqing Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Chongqing Bureau of Statistics. 2015-03-16. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
- "OECD Urban Policy Reviews: China 2015". OECD. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
- 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
- "City Flower". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "City Tree". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "China's Direct-Controlled Municipalities". Geography.about.com. 1997-03-14. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "中央机构编制委员会印发《关于副省级市若干问题的意见》的通知. 中编发5号". 豆丁网. 1995-02-19. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- "重庆市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报". Netease. 2011-05-03.
- "最新中国城市人口数量排名（根据2010年第六次人口普查）". www.elivecity.cn. 2012. Retrieved 2014-05-28.
- "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them?". BBC News. 29 January 2012.
- "Chongqing's Official Abbreviation". English.cri.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "EIU Report". Eiu.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Kim Hunter Gordon, Jesse Watson (2011). Chongqing & The Three Gorges. pp. 38–40. ISBN 978-7-5022-5215-1.
- "Chongqing's History with the State of Ba". Chongqing Municipal Government. 06-12-2007. Check date values in:
- "Ming Yuzhen Information". Neohumanism.com. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- Nicola di Cosmo, Don J. Wyatt. Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries, and Human Geographies in Chinese History. Retrieved 2 July 2012.
- http://www.chinasage.info/dynastyqing.htm The last Manchu dynasty
- "UK Consulate Page". Cq.xinhuanet.com. 2004-12-30. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing Opens Itself To Foreigners". Mitchellteachers.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "French Consulate Page". Cq.xinhuanet.com. 2004-12-30. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Japanese Consulate Page". Chongqing.cn.emb-japan.go.jp. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "US Consulate Page". Us-passport-service-guide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "German Consulate Page". 2011.cqlib.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- http://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/stilwell-in-china-the-worst-command-in-the-war/ Chiang Kai-shek & Stilwell, Joseph
- "WWII Era History of Chongqing". .needham.k12.ma.us. 1944-10-23. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing becomes 5th National Central city". English.peopledaily.com.cn. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Establishment of the Liangjiang New Area". Gochina.scmp.com. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Chongqing on the mend after crackdown on criminal gangs, SCMP, 5 Oct 2009
- lawyer reveals Bo Xilai's use of torture Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1496733/four-chongqing-policemen-face-trial-alleged-torture-under-bo-xilais-crime Morning Post Gang trials
- http://bystander.homestead.com/bashan.html Bashan Poems
- "Location of Chongqing". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- http://www.china.org.cn/english/features/ProvinceView/163947.htm Chongqing's bordering provinces
- Chongqing Topography. "Mountains in Sichuan and Chongqing". Fodors.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "The Three Gorges Corp". Ctg.com.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Yangtze River". Chinese National Tourism Office, US Chinese Embassy. Retrieved 2014-03-31.
- Ryan Murphy (2010-12-28). "Trip to Chongqing". Elevendegreesnorth.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Poems of Li Bai". Poemhunter.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- http://scithesis.com/?doc/2150541 Chongqing Mountains Data
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值数据集 （1971–2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2010-08-28.
- 为什么重庆、武汉、南京有“三大火炉”之称？ (in Chinese). Guangzhou Popular Science News Net (广州科普资讯网). 2007-09-12. Retrieved 2014-11-12.
- "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved May 22, 2013.
- "Chongqing Municipality". IES Global. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- "Chongqing -- City of Hills, Fog and Spicy Food". China.com. Retrieved 2011-07-17.
- Lin, Yutang.1944. The Vigil of a Nation. The John Day Company. New York. 262 pages
- "WEATHER & EXTREME EVENTS 7 of 10 Most Air-Polluted Cities Are in China". JAN 16, 2013 (Imaginechina/Corbis). http://news.discovery.com. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- "重庆调整部分行政区划：4区(县)并为2区". News.163.com. 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Position of Five Function Districts in Chongqing". Chongqing Municipal Government. 2013-09-22. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- 五大功能区域: 都市功能核心区 [Five Functional Districts: Urban-function Core District]. CQNEWS Corporation. Retrieved 2015-05-26.
- 统计年鉴2014 [Statistical Yearbook 2014] (in Chinese). Statistics Bureau of Chongqing. 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2015-05-01.
- "China's Chongqing starts household registration reform". Xinhua News. 2010-07-02. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Residence Status of Population by Region and Sex (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Age Composition and Dependency Ratio of Population by Region (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- "Number and Size of Family Households by Region (2004)". National Bureau of Statistics of China, in allcountries.org. 2005. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
- Page, Jeremy (2012-03-15). "Chongqing Party Chief Position". Online.wsj.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing, once a wartime capitol". En.cq.gov.cn. 1997-03-14. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
-  Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- John Pike (2003-11-21). "A history of the 13th Army Group". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Chinese vice premier urges Chongqing to become economic engine for western regions - Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Australia - retrieved 2009-01-31.
- China urges reform, development of Chongqing municipality - Xinhua News Agency - retrieved 2009-01-31.
- "Market Profiles on Chinese Cities and Provinces (hktdc.com)". Tdctrade.com. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything," Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Penguin, p. 218, 2006.
- Chongqing Municipality(重慶市) - The Australia-China Chamber of Commerce and Industry of New South Wales - retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Critical Eye on Chongqing - Pillar of the West - China Business Review - retrieved 2009-01-31.
- Ford Plants Chongqing[dead link]
- MacKie, Nick (2005-05-04). "China's west seeks to impress investors". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-04-28.
- A survey in 2005 by China’s State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. The cleanup ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280 million yuan.
- "Asia Times Online: China Business News : China-Myanmar pipeline projects on track". Atimes.com. 2007-04-24. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- welcome to www.cnnz.gov.cn
- "China Business News : HP Foxcom Setup Laptop Plants in Chongqing". The China Perspective. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Chongqing Investment Zone Profiles". Allroadsleadtochina.com. 2007-05-30. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- China's Three Gorges Dam - CNN - retrieved 2009-01-31.
- [dead link]
- Seetharaman, Deepa. "Mazda in Chongqing". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "HSBC opens bank in Chongqing". Hsbc.com.cn. 2009-12-28. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Standard Chartered open a bank in Chongqing" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Citibank opens branch in Chongqing". Citigroup.com. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- https://www.deutsche-bank.de/en/content/company/headlines_3097.htm Deutsche Bank opens Chongqing branch
- "ANZ Bank opens a branch in Chongqing". Anz.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Scotiabank in China
- Yue, Terril. "Wal-Mart reopens Chongqing locations". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Multinational Grocery Stores in Chongqing[dead link][dead link]
- Tan, Kenneth (2007-11-12). "Chongqing Carrefour Stampede". Shanghaiist.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Innovative City in West China Chongqing (PDF) - Jon Sigurdson and Krystyna Palonka of Stockholm School of Economics, EIJS - retrieved on 1 February 2009.
- "The Rise Of The ‘Champs’ - New Report Maps Business Opportunity In China’s Fastest Growing Cities". Sourcewire.com. 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
- "Industrial Park". Chinaknowledge.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "CETD". Hktdc.com. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "CHTIDT". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "CNNZ". English.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Contact:. "CEPZ". Rightsite.asia. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Jianqiao Industrial Park Profile". Hktdc.com. 2011-09-19. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
- http://english.liangjiang.gov.cn/ Liangjiang New Area
- "New cloud computing center". En.cq.gov.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Chongqing Urban Bridges
- Chongqing's Cruise Industry
- "Chongqing Ports Details". Service-industries-research.hktdc.com. 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Simon Black (2011-07-12). "Chongqing: World's Largest Construction Project". Articles.businessinsider.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Bicycles rare in Chongqing Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "CJIA Stats". Theairdb.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- 2010年全国机场吞吐量排名 (in Chinese). Civil Aviation Administration of China. 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
- "Frankfurt-Chongqing Route". Thechinatimes.com. 2012-03-27. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- 颜培 (2012-04-23). "Chongqing's new cargo routes". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing's Rising Technology Exports". Ft.cq.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Chongqing Airport Profile Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Chongqing City Transport". English.cqnews.net. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Line 2 & 1". English.cqnews.net. 2009-12-15. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Planning of Chongqing Line 6". Cn.siemens.com. 2010-12-30. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Chongqing Daily (23 March 2008)
- 翟时雨 (Ruo Shiyu) (2003). "中篇第四节：四川话的分区 (The divisions of the Sichuan dialect)". 《汉语方言学》 (The Study of Chinese Languages) (in Chinese). 西南师范大学出版社 (Southwest China Normal University Press). ISBN 7-5621-2942-8.
- "苗族：特色苗语 (The Miao People: Characteristics of the Miao language)". Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- "People's Liberation Monument". Chongqingwomen.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "General Joseph Stillwell Museum". Travelchinaguide.com. 1944-05-17. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Red Rock Village Museum". Beijingfeeling.com. 2013-09-15. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing: The First Underwater Museum in China has Been Built and Opened". Chinahush. 21 May 2009. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Great Hall of the People". Placesonline.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Luohan Si". Fodors.com. 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- www.chinaeducenter.com. "Embassies List". Chinaeducenter.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Wuxi County". English.51766.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Dazu Rock Carvings". China.org.cn. 2003-09-12. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Thre Natural Bridges". Naturalarches.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Furong Cave". Gxnu.edu.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Ciqkou". Blog.seattlechinesegarden.org. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Fishing Town". Chongqingwomen.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Xueyu Cave Archived 18 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "Chongqing Zoo Profile and Pictures". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chinese radio stations". Chinaculture.org. 2003-09-24. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- Bandurski, David (2011-06-01). "Chongqing's TV revolution". Cmp.hku.hk. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing Daily's Bo Xilai Coverage". Theepochtimes.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- SinoHotelGuide.com. "Chongqing Dining Overlook" (in Dutch). Sinohotelguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing Hot Pot & Dining Guide". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Bighead Carp, or Jiangtuan Fish". Nas.er.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Jiangtuan Fish". Chinatravelcompass.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing Dining, Dining in Chongqing, Chongqing cuisine, Chongqing Food, Chongqing restaurants". Chinatourguide.com. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- "Qianzhang". Chinatourguide.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Lifan Group buys Chongqing soccer team". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "2000 Chinese FA Cup". Rsssf.com. 2007-03-08. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Chongqing Lifan F.C". Soccerway.com. 2013-01-09. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- http://sports.sohu.com/20131222/n392181262.shtml Chongqing FC folds
- http://www.thebeijinger.com/events/2014/nov/watch-beijing-ducks-home-game-against-chongqing-soaring-dragons Bejing Ducks vs. Chongqing
- http://www.cqolympic.org/ Official Site
- "Yanghe Stadium profile". Footballgroundmap.com. 2013-09-13. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- "Datianwan Stadium profile". Worldstadiums.com. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
- China General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15)
- http://www.ycis-cq.com/ Website in English
- http://chongqing.klschool.org/ Website in English
- "各国驻华领馆领区一览表 (in Simplified Chinese)". 中华人民共和国外交部. 2007-05-08.
- "荷兰意大利有望年内在渝设领事馆 (in Simplified Chinese)". 和讯财经. 2013-05-08.
- "Agreement between PRC and India". Ministry of external affairs, India. 15 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
- Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Chongqing," pp.325-362 in The Three Gorges and the Upper Yangzi. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish/Times Editions. ISBN 981-232-599-9.
- Danielson, Eric N. (2005). "Revisiting Chongqing: China's Second World War Temporary National Capital," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch, Vol.45. Hong Kong: Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong Branch.
- Huang, Jiren (1999). Lao Chongqing (Old Chongqing): Ba Shan Ye Yu (part of the "Lao Cheng Shi" series. Nanjing: Jiangsu Meishu Chubanshe (Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House).
- Kapp, Robert A. (1974). "Chungking as a Center of Warlord Power, 1926-1937," pp.143-170 in The Chinese City Between Two Worlds, ed. by Mark Elvin and G. William Skinner. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
- Kapp, Robert A. (1973). Szechwan and the Chinese Republic: Provincial Militarism and Central Power, 1911-1938. New Haven: Yale University Press.
- Liao, Qingyu (2005). Chongqing Ge Le Shan Pei Du Yizhi (The Construction of War-time Capital on the Gele Mountain, Chongqing). Chengdu: Sichuan Da Xue Chubanshe (Sichuan University Press).
- Long, Juncai (2005). Sui Yue Ya Feng de Jiyi: Chongqing Kang Zhan Yizhi (Covered Memory of Flowing Years: Site[s] of [the] Anti-Japanese War in Chongqing). Chongqing: Xi Nan Shi Fang Da Xue Chubanshe (Southwest University Press).
- McIsaac, Lee (2000). "The City as Nation: Creating a Wartime Capital in Chongqing," in Remaking the Chinese City, 1900-1950, ed. by Joseph W. Esherick. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
- Xu; Dongsheng Liu; Yuchuan (1998). Chongqing Jiu Ying (Old Photos of Chongqing). Beijing: Renmin Meishu Chubanshe People’s Fine Arts Publishing House).
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chongqing.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Capital of China
Republic of China
21 November 1937 — 5 May 1946
|Capital of China
Republic of China
14 October 1949 — 30 November 1949